Publications by authors named "Tariq Ahmad"

278 Publications

Patient-led Remote IntraCapillary pharmacoKinetic Sampling (fingerPRICKS) for therapeutic drug monitoring in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

J Crohns Colitis 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Exeter Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Pharmacogenetics Group, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.

Background & Aims: Because of COVID-19 public health restrictions, telemedicine has replaced conventional outpatient follow up for most patients with chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disorders treated with biologic drugs. Innovative solutions to facilitate remote therapeutic drug monitoring are therefore required. Low-volume intracapillary blood sampling can be undertaken by patients at home and samples returned by post to central laboratories. We sought to report the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on requests for therapeutic drug monitoring and the equivalence, acceptability and effectiveness of low volume Patient-led Remote IntraCapillary pharmacoKinetic Sampling (fingerPRICKS) compared to conventional venepuncture.

Methods: We undertook a cross-sectional blood sampling methods comparison study and compared sample types using linear regression models. Drug and antidrug antibody levels were measured using standard ELISAs. Acceptability was assessed using a purpose-designed questionnaire.

Results: Therapeutic drug monitoring requests for adalimumab (96.5 [70.5 - 106] per week to 52 [33.5 - 57.0], p < 0.001) but not infliximab (184.5 [161.2 - 214.2] to 161 [135 - 197.5], p = 0.34) reduced during the first UK stay-at-home lockdown compared with the preceding six months.Fingerprick sampling was equivalent to conventional venepuncture for adalimumab, infliximab, vedolizumab, and ustekinumab drug, and anti-adalimumab and -infliximab antibody levels. The median (IQR) volume of serum obtained using intracapillary sampling was 195µL (130-210). More than 87% (90/103) patients agreed that intracapillary testing was easy and 69% (71/103) preferred it to conventional venepuncture.In routine care, 75.3% (58/77) patients returned two blood samples within 14 days to permit remote assessment of biologic therapeutic drug monitoring.

Conclusions: Therapeutic drug monitoring can be undertaken using patient-led remote intracapillary blood sampling and has the potential to be a key adjunct to telemedicine in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjab128DOI Listing
July 2021

Prognostic biomarkers to identify patients likely to develop severe Crohn's disease: a systematic review.

Health Technol Assess 2021 Jul;25(45):1-66

Centre for Medical Imaging, University College London, London, UK.

Background: Identification of biomarkers that predict severe Crohn's disease is an urgent unmet research need, but existing research is piecemeal and haphazard.

Objective: To identify biomarkers that are potentially able to predict the development of subsequent severe Crohn's disease.

Design: This was a prognostic systematic review with meta-analysis reserved for those potential predictors with sufficient existing research (defined as five or more primary studies).

Data Sources: PubMed and EMBASE searched from inception to 1 January 2016, updated to 1 January 2018.

Review Methods: Eligible studies were studies that compared biomarkers in patients who did or did not subsequently develop severe Crohn's disease. We excluded biomarkers that had insufficient research evidence. A clinician and two statisticians independently extracted data relating to predictors, severe disease definitions, event numbers and outcomes, including odds/hazard ratios. We assessed risk of bias. We searched for associations with subsequent severe disease rather than precise estimates of strength. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed separately for odds ratios.

Results: In total, 29,950 abstracts yielded just 71 individual studies, reporting 56 non-overlapping cohorts. Five clinical biomarkers (Montreal behaviour, age, disease duration, disease location and smoking), two serological biomarkers (anti- antibodies and anti-flagellin antibodies) and one genetic biomarker (nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain-containing protein 2) displayed statistically significant prognostic potential. Overall, the strongest association with subsequent severe disease was identified for Montreal B2 and B3 categories (odds ratio 4.09 and 6.25, respectively).

Limitations: Definitions of severe disease varied widely, and some studies confounded diagnosis and prognosis. Risk of bias was rated as 'high' in 92% of studies overall. Some biomarkers that are used regularly in daily practice, for example C-reactive protein, were studied too infrequently for meta-analysis.

Conclusions: Research for individual biomarkers to predict severe Crohn's disease is scant, heterogeneous and at a high risk of bias. Despite a large amount of potential research, we encountered relatively few biomarkers with data sufficient for meta-analysis, identifying only eight biomarkers with potential predictive capability.

Future Work: We will use existing data sets to develop and then validate a predictive model based on the potential predictors identified by this systematic review. Contingent on the outcome of that research, a prospective external validation may prove clinically desirable.

Study Registration: This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42016029363.

Funding: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in ; Vol. 25, No. 45. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3310/hta25450DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8287380PMC
July 2021

The Impact of Depression on Outcomes in Patients with Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction Treated in the GUIDE-IT Trial.

J Card Fail 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Section of Cardiovascular Medicine; Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT;. Electronic address:

Background: It remains unclear why depression is associated with adverse outcomes in heart failure (HF) patients. We examine the relationship between depression and clinical outcomes among patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) managed with guideline directed medical therapy (GDMT).

Methods: Using the GUIDE-IT trial, 894 patients with HFrEF were stratified according to a history of depression, and Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to examine the association with outcomes.

Results: 140 patients (16%) of the overall cohort had depression. They tended to be female (29% vs. 46%; P<0.001) and white (67% vs. 53%, P=0.002). There were no differences in GDMT rates at baseline or at 90 days; nor were there differences in target doses of these therapies achieved at 90 days (NS, all). NT-proBNP levels at all time points were similar between cohorts (P>0.05, all). After adjustment, depression was associated with all-cause hospitalizations [HR 1.42 (CI: 1.11-1.81), P<0.01)], cardiovascular death [HR 1.69 (CI: 1.07-2.68, P=0.025)], and all-cause mortality [HR 1.54 (CI: 1.03-2.32, P=0.039)].

Conclusion: Depression impacts clinical outcomes in HF regardless of GDMT intensity and NT-proBNP levels. This underscores the need for a focus on mental health in parallel to achievement of optimal GDMT in these patients.

Trial Registration: NCT01685840, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01685840.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2021.06.008DOI Listing
June 2021

SARS-CoV-2 vaccination for patients with inflammatory bowel disease - Authors' reply.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 07;6(7):523-524

Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction, Imperial College London, London, UK; Department of Gastroenterology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(21)00194-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8192089PMC
July 2021

Comparison of Transcatheter and Open Mitral Valve Repair Among Patients With Mitral Regurgitation.

Mayo Clin Proc 2021 06;96(6):1522-1529

Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT; Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, New Haven, CT. Electronic address:

In 2013, the Food and Drug Administration approved the first transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVr) device for degenerative mitral regurgitation for patients at prohibitive surgical risk. To better understand contemporary utilization trends and outcomes, we reviewed hospitalizations, identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes, in which the patient underwent TMVr or mitral valve repair (MVr) with a diagnosis of mitral regurgitation, without stenosis, from the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample from 2014 to 2017. We included 10,020 hospitalizations in which the patient underwent TMVr and 5845 in which the patient underwent MVr and assessed trends in demographic characteristics, patient comorbidities, total hospital charges, and outcomes. Transcatheter mitral valve repair experienced exponential growth, increasing from 150 to 5115 over the study period (P<.001 for trend), whereas MVr grew to a lesser degree. The median length of stay for TMVr decreased from 4 to 2 days; mortality declined from 3.3% to 1.6% (P<.001 for both). Both TMVr and MVr rates of discharge home increased over the study period. Total charges for TMVr increased from $149,582 to $178,109, whereas those for MVr increased to a lesser degree, from $149,426 to $157,146 (P<.001 for both). Discharge disposition, length of stay, and in-hospital mortality all exhibited favorable trends for both procedures. Caution must be exercised in direct comparisons between procedures as they target somewhat different populations. With expanded indications for TMVr, we anticipate further increases in procedural volume, although the effect on MVr remains unclear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2021.01.029DOI Listing
June 2021

National Trends in the Burden of Atrial Fibrillation During Hospital Admissions for Heart Failure.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Jun 20;10(11):e019412. Epub 2021 May 20.

Section of Cardiovascular Medicine Yale School of Medicine New Haven CT.

Background Heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF) frequently coexist and may be associated with worse HF outcomes, but there is limited contemporary evidence describing their combined prevalence. We examined current trends in AF among hospitalizations for HF with preserved (HFpEF) ejection fraction or HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) in the United States, including outcomes and costs. Methods and Results Using the National Inpatient Sample, we identified 10 392 189 hospitalizations for HF between 2008 and 2017, including 4 250 698 with comorbid AF (40.9%). HF hospitalizations with AF involved patients who were older (average age, 76.9 versus 68.8 years) and more likely White individuals (77.8% versus 59.1%; <0.001 for both). HF with preserved ejection fraction hospitalizations had more comorbid AF than HF with reduced ejection fraction (44.9% versus 40.8%). Over time, the proportion of comorbid AF increased from 35.4% in 2008 to 45.4% in 2017, and patients were younger, more commonly men, and Black or Hispanic individuals. Comorbid hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and vascular disease all increased over time. HF hospitalizations with AF had higher in-hospital mortality than those without AF (3.6% versus 2.6%); mortality decreased over time for all HF (from 3.6% to 3.4%) but increased for HF with reduced ejection fraction (from 3.0% to 3.7%; <0.001 for all). Median hospital charges were higher for HF admissions with AF and increased 40% over time (from $22 204 to $31 145; <0.001). Conclusions AF is increasingly common among hospitalizations for HF and is associated with higher costs and in-hospital mortality. Over time, patients with HF and AF were younger, less likely to be White individuals, and had more comorbidities; in-hospital mortality decreased. Future research will need to address unique aspects of changing patient demographics and rising costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.019412DOI Listing
June 2021

Effects of Atrial Fibrillation on Heart Failure Outcomes and NT-proBNP Levels in the GUIDE-IT Trial.

Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes 2021 Apr 8;5(2):447-455. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT.

Objective: To evaluate effects of atrial fibrillation (AF) on cardiac biomarkers and outcomes in a trial population of patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction treated with optimal guideline-directed medical therapy.

Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of 894 patients in the Guiding Evidence-Based Therapy Using Biomarker-Intensified Treatment in Heart Failure (GUIDE-IT) trial (January 2013-July 2016). Patients were stratified by AF status and compared with regard to guideline-directed medical therapy use, longitudinal levels of N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and outcomes including HF hospitalization and mortality.

Results: After adjustment, AF was associated with a significant increase in the risk of HF hospitalization or cardiovascular death (hazard ratio, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.61; =0.04) and HF hospitalization (hazard ratio, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.68; =.03) but with no difference in mortality during a median 15 months of follow-up. There were no significant differences in medication treatment between those with and those without AF. At 90 days, a higher proportion of patients with AF (89.4% vs 81.5%; =.002) had an NT-proBNP level above 1000 pg/mL (to convert NT-proBNP values to pmol/L, multiply by 0.1182), and AF patients had higher NT-proBNP levels at all time points through 2 years of follow-up.

Conclusion: Among patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction, prevalent AF was associated with higher NT-proBNP concentrations through 2 years of follow-up and higher risk for HF hospitalization despite no substantial differences in medical therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocpiqo.2021.02.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8105522PMC
April 2021

REVeAL-HF: Design and Rationale of a Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial Embedded Within Routine Clinical Practice.

JACC Heart Fail 2021 Jun 12;9(6):409-419. Epub 2021 May 12.

Clinical and Translational Research Accelerator, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA; Section of Nephrology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Heart failure (HF) is one of the most common causes of hospitalization in the United States and carries a significant risk of morbidity and mortality. Use of evidence-based interventions may improve outcomes, but their use is encumbered in part by limitations in accurate prognostication. The REVeAL-HF (Risk EValuation And its Impact on ClinicAL Decision Making and Outcomes in Heart Failure) trial is the first to definitively evaluate the impact of knowledge about prognosis on clinical decision making and patient outcomes. The REVeAL-HF trial is a pragmatic, completely electronic, randomized controlled trial that has completed enrollment of 3,124 adults hospitalized for HF, defined as having an N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level of >500 pg/ml and receiving intravenous diuretic agents within 24 h of admission. Patients randomized to the intervention had their risk of 1-year mortality generated with information in the electronic health record and presented to their providers, who had the option to give feedback on their impression of this risk assessment. The authors are examining the impact of this information on clinical decision-making (use of HF pharmacotherapies, referral to electrophysiology, palliative care referral, and referral for advanced therapies like heart transplantation or mechanical circulatory support) and patient outcomes (length of stay, post-discharge 30-day rehospitalizations, and 1-year mortality). The REVeAL-HF trial will definitively examine whether knowledge about prognosis in HF has an impact on clinical decision making and patient outcomes. It will also examine the relationship between calculated, perceived, and real risk of mortality in this patient population. (Risk EValuation And Its Impact on ClinicAL Decision Making and Outcomes in Heart Failure [REVeAL-HF]; NCT03845660).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchf.2021.03.006DOI Listing
June 2021

Intercountry Differences in Guideline-Directed Medical Therapy and Outcomes Among Patients With Heart Failure.

JACC Heart Fail 2021 Jul 12;9(7):497-505. Epub 2021 May 12.

Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA; Center for Outcomes Research & Evaluation, Yale University and Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine patterns of care and clinical outcomes among patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) in the United States and Canada.

Background: In the GUIDE-IT (Guiding Evidence Based Therapy Using Biomarker Intensified Treatment) trial, the use of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide-guided titration of guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) was compared with usual care alone for patients with HFrEF in the United States and Canada. It remains unknown whether the country of enrollment had an impact on outcomes or GDMT use.

Methods: A total of 894 patients at 45 sites across the United States and Canada with HFrEF (ejection fraction ≤40%) were enrolled in the trial. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates stratified by country of enrollment were developed for the trial outcomes, and log-rank testing was compared between the groups. GDMT use and titration were also compared.

Results: U.S. patients were more likely to be younger, to be Black, to have higher body mass index, and to have histories of defibrillator placement or sleep apnea. Use of β-blockers was significantly higher in Canada at baseline (99.3% vs. 94.0%; p = 0.01) and 6 months (99.0% vs. 94.1%; p = 0.04), and use of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists was higher in Canada at 6 months (68.3% vs. 55.1%; p = 0.01). Canadian patients were less likely to experience the primary study endpoint (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.45 to 0.93; p = 0.01) due to decreased rates of HF hospitalization (HR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.38 to 0.86; p = 0.003). The differences in outcomes were driven by increased heart failure hospitalization among U.S. Black patients.

Conclusions: In GUIDE-IT, patients with HFrEF in Canada were significantly less likely to be hospitalized for heart failure. Differences in GDMT use, along with differences in sociodemographics and care delivery structures, may contribute to these differences, highlighting the importance of increasing diversity in clinical trials. (Guiding Evidence Based Therapy Using Biomarker Intensified Treatment [GUIDE-IT]; NCT01685840).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchf.2021.02.011DOI Listing
July 2021

Outcomes in patients with anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy undergoing left ventricular assist devices implantation.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Aims: Improved cancer survivorship has led to a higher number of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy patients with end-stage heart failure. We hypothesize that outcomes following continuous-flow LVAD (CF-LVAD) implantation in those with anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy are comparable with other aetiologies of cardiomyopathy.

Methods And Results: Using the Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (INTERMACS) from 2008 to 2017, we identified patients with anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy who received a CF-LVAD and compared them with those with idiopathic dilated (IDM) and ischaemic cardiomyopathies (ICM). Mortality was studied using the Cox proportional hazards model. Other adverse events were evaluated using competing risk models. Overall, 248 anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy patients underwent CF-LVAD implantation, with a median survival of 48 months, an improvement compared with those before 2012 [adjusted hazards ratio (aHR): 0.53; confidence interval (CI): 0.33-0.86]. At 12 months, 85.1% of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy, 86.0% of IDM, and 80.2% of ICM patients were alive (anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy vs. IDM: aHR: 1.12; CI: 0.88-1.43 and anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy vs. ICM: aHR: 0.98; CI: 0.76-1.28). Anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy patients had a higher major bleeding risk compared with IDM patients (aHR: 1.23; CI: 1.01-1.50), and a lower risk of stroke and prolonged respiratory support compared to ICM patients (aHR: 0.31 and 0.67 respectively; both P < 0.05). There was no difference in the risk of major infection, acute kidney injury, and venous thromboembolism.

Conclusions: After receiving a CF-LVAD, survival in patients with anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy is similar to those with ICM or IDM. Further research into differential secondary endpoints-related disparities is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13362DOI Listing
May 2021

Differences in NT-proBNP Response and Prognosis in Men and Women With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 May 6;10(10):e019712. Epub 2021 May 6.

Duke University Medical Center Durham NC.

Background NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) is a prognostic biomarker in heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction. However, it is unclear whether there is a sex difference in NT-proBNP response and whether the therapeutic goal of NT-proBNP ≤1000 pg/mL has equivalent prognostic value in men and women with HF with reduced ejection fraction. Methods and Results In a secondary analysis of the GUIDE-IT (Guiding Evidence Based Therapy Using Biomarker Intensified Treatment) trial we analyzed trends in NT-proBNP and goal attainment by sex. Differences in clinical characteristics, HF treatment, and time to all-cause death or HF hospitalization were compared. Landmark analysis at 3 months determined the prognostic value of early NT-proBNP goal achievement in men and women. Of the 286 (32%) women and 608 (68%) men in the GUIDE-IT trial, women were more likely to have a nonischemic cause and shorter duration of HF. Guideline-directed medical therapy was less intense over time in women. The absolute NT-proBNP values were consistently lower in women; however, the change in NT-proBNP and clinical outcomes were similar. After adjustment, women achieving the NT-proBNP goal had an 82% reduction in death or HF hospitalization compared with a 59% reduction in men. Conclusions Men and women with HF with reduced ejection fraction had a similar NT-proBNP response despite less intensive HF treatment among women. However, compared with men, the early NT-proBNP goal of ≤1000 pg/mL had greater prognostic value in women. Future efforts should be aimed at intensifying guideline-directed medical therapy in women, which may result in greater NT-proBNP reductions and improved outcomes in women with HF with reduced ejection fraction. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01685840.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.019712DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200692PMC
May 2021

"Water running in my chest": Delayed spontaneous rupture of an aortocoronary saphenous vein graft aneurysm.

Clin Case Rep 2021 Apr 4;9(4):2317-2322. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Cardiology, Lankenau Medical Center Wynnewood PA USA.

Saphenous vein graft aneurysm is an uncommon condition and knowledge about its natural history, and a multi-specialty heart team approach is of utmost importance for better clinical outcomes. This case highlights importance of percutaneous intervention as a viable therapeutic option in the case of saphenous vein graft aneurysms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.4024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8077387PMC
April 2021

Clinical phenogroups are more effective than left ventricular ejection fraction categories in stratifying heart failure outcomes.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

ICES, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Aims: Heart failure (HF) guidelines place patients into 3 discrete groups according to left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF): reduced (<40%), mid-range (40-49%), and preserved LVEF (≥50%). We assessed whether clinical phenogroups offer better prognostication than LVEF.

Methods And Results: This was a sub-study of the Patient-Centered Care Transitions in HF trial. We analysed baseline characteristics of hospitalized patients in whom LVEF was recorded. We used unsupervised machine learning to identify clinical phenogroups and, thereafter, determined associations between phenogroups and outcomes. Primary outcome was the composite of all-cause death or rehospitalization at 6 and 12 months. Secondary outcome was the composite cardiovascular death or HF rehospitalization at 6 and 12 months. Cluster analysis of 1693 patients revealed six discrete phenogroups, each characterized by a predominant comorbidity: coronary heart disease, valvular heart disease, atrial fibrillation (AF), sleep apnoea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or few comorbidities. Phenogroups were LVEF independent, with each phenogroup encompassing a wide range of LVEFs. For the primary composite outcome at 6 months, the hazard ratios (HRs) for phenogroups ranged from 1.25 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.58 for AF] to 2.04 (95% CI 1.62-2.57 for COPD) (log-rank P < 0.001); and at 12 months, the HRs for phenogroups ranged from 1.15 (95% CI 0.94-1.41 for AF) to 1.87 (95% 1.52-3.20 for COPD) (P < 0.002). LVEF-based classifications did not separate patients into different risk categories for the primary outcomes at 6 months (P = 0.69) and 12 months (P = 0.30). Phenogroups also stratified risk of the secondary composite outcome at 6 and 12 months more effectively than LVEF.

Conclusion: Among patients hospitalized for HF, clinical phenotypes generated by unsupervised machine learning provided greater prognostic information for a composite of clinical endpoints at 6 and 12 months compared with LVEF-based categories.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02112227.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13344DOI Listing
May 2021

Infliximab is associated with attenuated immunogenicity to BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with IBD.

Gut 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Gastroenterology, Royal Devon and Exeter NHS Foundation Trust, Exeter, UK

Objective: Delayed second dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccination trades maximal effectiveness for a lower level of immunity across more of the population. We investigated whether patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated with infliximab have attenuated serological responses to a single dose of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.

Design: Antibody responses and seroconversion rates in infliximab-treated patients (n=865) were compared with a cohort treated with vedolizumab (n=428), a gut-selective anti-integrin α4β7 monoclonal antibody. Our primary outcome was anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) antibody concentrations, measured using the Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) antibody assay 3-10 weeks after vaccination, in patients without evidence of prior infection. Secondary outcomes were seroconversion rates (defined by a cut-off of 15 U/mL), and antibody responses following past infection or a second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine.

Results: Geometric mean (SD) anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody concentrations were lower in patients treated with infliximab than vedolizumab, following BNT162b2 (6.0 U/mL (5.9) vs 28.8 U/mL (5.4) p<0.0001) and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (4.7 U/mL (4.9)) vs 13.8 U/mL (5.9) p<0.0001) vaccines. In our multivariable models, antibody concentrations were lower in infliximab-treated compared with vedolizumab-treated patients who received the BNT162b2 (fold change (FC) 0.29 (95% CI 0.21 to 0.40), p<0.0001) and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (FC 0.39 (95% CI 0.30 to 0.51), p<0.0001) vaccines. In both models, age ≥60 years, immunomodulator use, Crohn's disease and smoking were associated with lower, while non-white ethnicity was associated with higher, anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody concentrations. Seroconversion rates after a single dose of either vaccine were higher in patients with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection and after two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine.

Conclusion: Infliximab is associated with attenuated immunogenicity to a single dose of the BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Vaccination after SARS-CoV-2 infection, or a second dose of vaccine, led to seroconversion in most patients. Delayed second dosing should be avoided in patients treated with infliximab.

Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN45176516.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2021-324789DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8076631PMC
April 2021

A Practical Guide for Cardiologists to the Pharmacological Treatment of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease.

Eur Cardiol 2021 Feb 30;16:e11. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Section of Endocrinology, Yale University School of Medicine New Haven, CT, US.

Patients with type 2 diabetes are at increased cardiovascular risk. Until recently, reductions in HbA and the use of specific glucose-lowering agents have not had a clear, reproducible benefit in reducing the incidence of cardiovascular disease. However, over the past 5 years, members of two categories of diabetes medications, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, have been associated with improved rates of major adverse cardiovascular events when used in high-risk type 2 diabetes patients. Importantly, these effects are not necessarily linked to these agents' effects on HbA. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors have also been associated with reductions in heart failure hospitalization, a benefit that appears to extend to individuals without diabetes with established heart failure. Cardiovascular specialists should become familiar with these emerging data and be prepared to implement corresponding strategies in their practice to improve the cardiovascular outcomes of their patients. Recent clinical trial data and the changing landscape of corresponding professional guidelines are reviewed. Practical recommendations for safe prescribing of these anti-diabetes drugs are provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15420/ecr.2020.01.R1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8054345PMC
February 2021

Electronic health record risk score provides earlier prognostication of clinical outcomes in patients admitted to the cardiac intensive care unit.

Am Heart J 2021 Aug 20;238:85-88. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT; Yale National Clinicians Scholar Program, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. Electronic address:

In this observational study, we compared the prognostic ability of an electronic health record (EHR)-derived risk score, the Rothman Index (RI), automatically derived on admission, to the first 24-hour Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score for outcome prediction in the modern cardiac intensive care unit (CICU). We found that while the 24-hour SOFA score provided modestly superior discrimination for both in-hospital and CICU mortality, the RI upon CICU admission had better calibration for both outcomes. Given the ubiquitous nature of EHR utilization in the United States, the RI may become an important tool to rapidly risk stratify CICU patients within the ICU and improve resource allocation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2021.04.004DOI Listing
August 2021

Trends in 30- and 90-Day Readmission Rates for Heart Failure.

Circ Heart Fail 2021 Apr 19;14(4):e008335. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi, Jackson (J.B., M.S.K.).

Background: The impact of hospital readmission reduction program (HRRP) on heart failure (HF) outcomes has been debated. Limited data exist regarding trends of HF readmission rates beyond 30 days from all-payer sources. The aim of this study was to investigate temporal trends of 30- and 90-day HF readmissions rates from 2010 to 2017 in patients from all-payer sources.

Methods: The National Readmission Database was utilized to identify HF hospitalizations between 2010 and 2017. In the primary analysis, a linear trend in 30-day and 90-day readmissions from 2010 to 2017 was assessed. While in the secondary analysis, a change in aggregated 30- and 90-day all-cause and HF-specific readmissions pre-HRRP penalty phase (2010-2012) and post-HRRP penalties (2013-2017) was compared. Subgroup analyses were performed based on (1) Medicare versus non-Medicare insurance, (2) low versus high HF volume, and (3) HF with reduced versus preserved ejection fraction (heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction). Multiple logistic and adjusted linear regression analyses were performed for annual trends.

Results: A total of 6 669 313 index HF hospitalizations for 30-day, and 5 077 949 index HF hospitalizations for 90-day readmission, were included. Of these, 1 213 402 (18.2%) encounters had a readmission within 30 days, and 1 585 445 (31.2%) encounters had a readmission within 90 days. Between 2010 and 2017, both 30 and 90 days adjusted HF-specific and all-cause readmissions increased (8.1% to 8.7%, trend 0.04, and 18.3% to 19.9%, trend <0.001 for 30-day and 14.8% to 16.0% and 30.9% to 34.6% for 90-day, trend <0.001 for both, respectively). Readmission rates were higher during the post-HRRP penalty period compared with pre-HRRP penalty phase (all-cause readmission 30 days: 18.6% versus 17.5%, <0.001, all-cause readmission 90 days: 32.0% versus 29.9%, <0.001) across all subgroups except among the low-volume hospitals.

Conclusions: The rates of adjusted HF-specific and all-cause 30- and 90-day readmissions have increased from 2010 to 2017. Readmissions rates were higher during the HRRP phase across all subgroups except the low-volume hospitals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.121.008335DOI Listing
April 2021

Left Ventricular Assist Devices Versus Heart Transplantation for End Stage Heart Failure is a Misleading Equivalency.

JACC Heart Fail 2021 Apr;9(4):290-292

Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchf.2021.02.004DOI Listing
April 2021

Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses are attenuated in patients with IBD treated with infliximab.

Gut 2021 05 22;70(5):865-875. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Division of Digestive Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Objective: Antitumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) drugs impair protective immunity following pneumococcal, influenza and viral hepatitis vaccination and increase the risk of serious respiratory infections. We sought to determine whether infliximab-treated patients with IBD have attenuated serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 infections.

Design: Antibody responses in participants treated with infliximab were compared with a reference cohort treated with vedolizumab, a gut-selective anti-integrin α4β7 monoclonal antibody that is not associated with impaired vaccine responses or increased susceptibility to systemic infections. 6935 patients were recruited from 92 UK hospitals between 22 September and 23 December 2020.

Results: Rates of symptomatic and proven SARS-CoV-2 infection were similar between groups. Seroprevalence was lower in infliximab-treated than vedolizumab-treated patients (3.4% (161/4685) vs 6.0% (134/2250), p<0.0001). Multivariable logistic regression analyses confirmed that infliximab (vs vedolizumab; OR 0.66 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.87), p=0.0027) and immunomodulator use (OR 0.70 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.92), p=0.012) were independently associated with lower seropositivity. In patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, seroconversion was observed in fewer infliximab-treated than vedolizumab-treated patients (48% (39/81) vs 83% (30/36), p=0.00044) and the magnitude of anti-SARS-CoV-2 reactivity was lower (median 0.8 cut-off index (0.2-5.6) vs 37.0 (15.2-76.1), p<0.0001).

Conclusions: Infliximab is associated with attenuated serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 that were further blunted by immunomodulators used as concomitant therapy. Impaired serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection might have important implications for global public health policy and individual anti-TNF-treated patients. Serological testing and virus surveillance should be considered to detect suboptimal vaccine responses, persistent infection and viral evolution to inform public health policy.

Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN45176516.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2021-324388DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7992387PMC
May 2021

Changes in Use of Left Ventricular Assist Devices as Bridge to Transplantation With New Heart Allocation Policy.

JACC Heart Fail 2021 Jun 10;9(6):420-429. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Objectives: The goal of this study was to describe outcomes of patients with bridge to heart transplantation (BTT) after changes were made to the donor heart allocation system.

Background: Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have been used as a BTT. On October 18, 2018, the donor heart allocation system in the United States was updated.

Methods: This study identified adults in the United Network for Organ Sharing database with durable, continuous-flow LVAD at listing or implanted while listed between April 2017 and April 2020. Baseline recipient and donor characteristics, waitlist survival, and post-transplantation outcomes were compared pre- and post-allocation system change.

Results: A total of 1,794 patients met inclusion criteria: 983 in the pre-change period and 814 afterward. The number of patients listed with LVAD decreased nationally over time from 102 in April 2017 to 12 in April 2020 (p < 0.001). The proportion of patients with LVAD at time of transplant decreased from 47% to 14%. Before the change, the majority were Status 1A (75.8%) at transplantation; afterward, most were Status 2/3 (67.8%). Transplantation rates were not different (85.4% vs. 83.6%; p = 0.225), but waitlist time decreased in the post period (82 vs. 65 days; p = 0.004). Donors were more likely to be high risk (39.0% vs. 32.2%; p = 0.005), and both ischemic times and distance traveled increased (3.4 h vs. 3.1 h; p < 0.001; 199 miles vs. 82 miles; p < 0.001). Waitlist survival did not change, but post-transplantation survival was worse in patients with BTT post-change (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: The number of patients with BTT on the transplant list decreased steadily and dramatically after the allocation system change. Although time to transplant decreased, there was an increase in post-transplant mortality. These data suggest that the risks and benefits of LVAD implantation as a BTT have changed under the new allocation system and that the appropriate indication for this treatment strategy warrants a re-evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchf.2021.01.010DOI Listing
June 2021

Impact of the new heart allocation policy on patients with restrictive, hypertrophic, or congenital cardiomyopathies.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(3):e0247789. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America.

Background: Patients with restrictive or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (RCM/HCM) and congenital heart disease (CHD) do not derive clinical benefit from inotropes and mechanical circulatory support. Concerns were expressed that the new heart allocation system implemented in October 2018 would disadvantage these patients. This paper aimed to examine the impact of the new adult heart allocation system on transplantation and outcomes among patients with RCM/HCM/CHD.

Methods: We identified adult patients with RCM/HCM/CHD in the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database who were listed for or received a cardiac transplant from April 2017-June 2020. The cohort was separated into those listed before and after allocation system changes. Demographics and recipient characteristics, donor characteristics, waitlist survival, and post-transplantation outcomes were analyzed.

Results: The number of patients listed for RCM/HCM/CHD increased after the allocation system change from 429 to 517. Prior to the change, the majority RCM/HCM/CHD patients were Status 1A at time of transplantation; afterwards, most were Status 2. Wait times decreased significantly for all: RCM (41 days vs 27 days; P<0.05), HCM (55 days vs 38 days; P<0.05), CHD (81 days vs 49 days; P<0.05). Distance traveled increased for all: RCM (76 mi. vs 261 mi, P<0.001), HCM (88 mi. vs 231 mi. P<0.001), CHD (114 mi vs 199 mi, P<0.05). Rates of transplantation were higher for RCM and CHD (P<0.01), whereas post-transplant survival remained unchanged.

Conclusions: The new allocation system has had a positive impact on time to transplantation of patients with RCM, HCM, and CHD without negatively influencing survival.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0247789PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7924739PMC
March 2021

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition).

Autophagy 2021 Jan 8;17(1):1-382. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

University of Crete, School of Medicine, Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology and Microbial Pathogenesis, Voutes, Heraklion, Crete, Greece; Foundation for Research and Technology, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB), Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996087PMC
January 2021

Setting the Stage for a Multimarker-Based Heart Failure Prevention Trial?

JACC Heart Fail 2021 Mar;9(3):224-225

Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchf.2021.01.001DOI Listing
March 2021

Association between Respiratory Failure and Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Acute Heart Failure: Analysis of 5 Pooled Clinical Trials.

J Card Fail 2021 May 5;27(5):602-606. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

Background: Despite a temporal increase in respiratory failure in patients hospitalized with acute heart failure (HF), clinical trials have largely not reported the incidence or associated clinical outcomes for patients requiring mechanical ventilation.

Methods And Results: After pooling 5 acute HF clinical trials, we used multivariable logistic regression adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, examinations, and laboratory findings to assess associations between mechanical ventilation and clinical outcomes. Among the 8296 patients, 210 (2.5%) required mechanical ventilation. Age, sex, smoking history, baseline ejection fraction, HF etiology, and the proportion of patients randomized to treatment or placebo in the original clinical trial were similar between groups (all, P > 0.05). Baseline diabetes mellitus was more common in the mechanical ventilation group (P = 0.02), but other comorbidities, including chronic lung disease, were otherwise similar (all P > 0.05). HF rehospitalization at 30 days (12.7% vs 6.6%, P < 0.001) and all-cause 60-day mortality (33.3% vs 6.1%, P < 0.001) was higher among patients requiring mechanical ventilation. After multivariable adjustment, mechanical ventilation use was associated with an increased 30-day HF rehospitalization (odds ratio 2.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-3.21, P = 0.002), 30-day mortality (odds ratio 10.40; 95% confidence interval, 7.22-14.98, P < 0.001), and 60-day mortality (odds ratio 7.68; 95% confidence interval, 5.50-10.74, P < 0.001). The influence of mechanical ventilation did not differ by HF etiology or baseline ejection fraction (both, interaction P > 0.20).

Conclusions: Respiratory failure during an index hospitalization for acute HF was associated with increased rehospitalization and all-cause mortality. The development of respiratory failure during an acute HF admission identifies a particularly vulnerable population, which should be identified for closer monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2021.01.018DOI Listing
May 2021

Relation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors to Mortality and Cardiovascular Events in Hospitalized Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (from the Yale COVID-19 Cardiovascular Registry).

Am J Cardiol 2021 05 1;146:99-106. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Cardiology, Yale New Haven Hospital, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. Electronic address:

Individuals with established cardiovascular disease or a high burden of cardiovascular risk factors may be particularly vulnerable to develop complications from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted a prospective cohort study at a tertiary care center to identify risk factors for in-hospital mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, new acute decompensated heart failure, venous thromboembolism, ventricular or atrial arrhythmia, pericardial effusion, or aborted cardiac arrest) among consecutively hospitalized adults with COVID-19, using multivariable binary logistic regression analysis. The study population comprised 586 COVID-19 positive patients. Median age was 67 (IQR: 55 to 80) years, 47.4% were female, and 36.7% had cardiovascular disease. Considering risk factors, 60.2% had hypertension, 39.8% diabetes, and 38.6% hyperlipidemia. Eighty-two individuals (14.0%) died in-hospital, and 135 (23.0%) experienced MACE. In a model adjusted for demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, and laboratory findings, age (odds ratio [OR], 1.28 per 5 years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13 to 1.45), previous ventricular arrhythmia (OR, 18.97; 95% CI, 3.68 to 97.88), use of P2Y-inhibitors (OR, 7.91; 95% CI, 1.64 to 38.17), higher C-reactive protein (OR, 1.81: 95% CI, 1.18 to 2.78), lower albumin (OR, 0.64: 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.86), and higher troponin T (OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.39 to 2.46) were associated with mortality (p <0.05). After adjustment for demographics, presentation, and laboratory findings, predictors of MACE were higher respiratory rates, altered mental status, and laboratory abnormalities, including higher troponin T (p <0.05). In conclusion, poor prognostic markers among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 included older age, pre-existing cardiovascular disease, respiratory failure, altered mental status, and higher troponin T concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2021.01.029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7849530PMC
May 2021

Effect of Inotropes on Patient-Reported Health Status in End-Stage Heart Failure: A Review of Published Clinical Trials.

Circ Heart Fail 2021 02 3;14(2):e007759. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Section of Cardiovascular Medicine (J.-R.D.C., R.R., N.R.D., T.A.), Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.

Background: A growing population of patients with end-stage heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction has limited treatment options to improve their quality and quantity of life. Although positive inotropes have failed to show survival benefit, these agents may enhance patient-reported health status, that is, symptoms, functional status, and health-related quality of life. We sought to review the available clinical trial data on positive inotrope use in patients with end-stage HF and to summarize evidence supporting the use of these agents to improve health status of patients with end-stage HF.

Methods: A literature review of randomized controlled trials examining the use of positive inotropy in HF with reduced ejection fraction was conducted. We searched MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and Web of Science between January 1980 to December 2018 for randomized controlled trials that used as their main outcome measures the effects of inotrope therapy on (1) morbidity/mortality, (2) symptoms, (3) functional status, or (4) health-related quality of life. Inotropes of interest included adrenergic agents, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, calcium sensitizers, myosin activators, and SERCA2a (sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase) modulators.

Results: Twenty-two out of 26 inotrope randomized controlled trials measured the effect of inotropes on at least one patient-reported health status domain. Among the 22 studies with patient-related health status outcomes, 11 (50%) gauged symptom response, 15 (68%) reported functional capacity changes, and 12 (54%) reported health-related quality of life measures. Fourteen (64%) of these trials noted positive outcomes in at least one health status domain measured; 11 (79%) of these positive studies used agents that worked through phosphodiesterase inhibition.

Conclusions: There has been a lack of standardization surrounding measurement of patient-centered outcomes in studies of inotropes for end-stage HF with reduced ejection fraction. The degree to which positive inotropes can improve patient-reported health status and the adverse risk they pose remains unknown.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.120.007759DOI Listing
February 2021

SARS-CoV-2 vaccination for patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a British Society of Gastroenterology Inflammatory Bowel Disease section and IBD Clinical Research Group position statement.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 03 26;6(3):218-224. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction, Imperial College London, London, UK; Department of Gastroenterology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK. Electronic address:

SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global health crisis and mass vaccination programmes provide the best opportunity for controlling transmission and protecting populations. Despite the impressive clinical trial results of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech), ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford/AstraZeneca), and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccines, important unanswered questions remain, especially in patients with pre-existing conditions. In this position statement endorsed by the British Society of Gastroenterology Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) section and IBD Clinical Research Group, we consider SARS-CoV-2 vaccination strategy in patients with IBD. The risks of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are anticipated to be very low, and we strongly support SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with IBD. Based on data from previous studies with other vaccines, there are conceptual concerns that protective immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination may be diminished in some patients with IBD, such as those taking anti-TNF drugs. However, the benefits of vaccination, even in patients treated with anti-TNF drugs, are likely to outweigh these theoretical concerns. Key areas for further research are discussed, including vaccine hesitancy and its effect in the IBD community, the effect of immunosuppression on vaccine efficacy, and the search for predictive biomarkers of vaccine success.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(21)00024-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7834976PMC
March 2021
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