Publications by authors named "Tarek Mohamed"

106 Publications

The effect of femtosecond laser irradiation on the growth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus: An in vitro study.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2021 Aug 4;221:112240. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Laser Institute for Research and Applications LIRA, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt. Electronic address:

We investigated the effect of femtosecond laser irradiation on the growth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus. In order to improve laser-based antimicrobial therapy and develop a clinically viable modality, various laser parameters such as laser light wavelength, laser power, exposure time, and energy density were studied. The INSPIRE HF100 laser system (Spectra Physics) provided the femtosecond laser light, which was pumped by a mode-locked femtosecond Ti: sapphire laser MAI TAI HP (Spectra Physics). The survival of the bacterial cells was monitored after irradiation by determination of growth rate using optical density, which is a rapid, simple, and reliable method. The growth rate of laser-exposed cultures was compared to control cultures. Fifteen minutes of exposure to femtosecond laser radiation with a wavelength of 390 nm and 400 nm at an average power of 50 mW was enough to significantly reduce bacterial viability, with a lag in the growth phase of 5 h longer than the control culture (P < 0.0001 by ANOVA and Tukey test).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2021.112240DOI Listing
August 2021

Evaluation of MicroRNA92, MicroRNA638 in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia of Egyptian Children.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2021 May 1;22(5):1567-1572. Epub 2021 May 1.

Biochemistry Division, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

Objective: miRNA considers a small non-coding RNA molecule that has tumor suppressor or oncogenic functions and regulates gene expression. miRNA may be involved in the pathogenesis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).  miRNA was evaluated in patients with ALL to correlate their importance in the clinical prediction and the response to chemotherapy.

Subject And Methods: The study population included 30 healthy control and 71 children with ALL is divided into 4 groups: healthy, newly diagnosed, remitted, and relapsed groups. We quantify miRNA 92a, miRNA 638 expression using real-time PCR in childhood ALL.

Results: plasma miRNA 92a and miRNA 638 expressions were elevated in ALL cases at the time of diagnosis (2.51 and 2.19 folds), and relapsed (2.1 and 1.61 folds) than that of patients with remitted ALL. There was a positive correlation between miRNA 92a and miRNA 638 patients with ALL. Also, total leukocyte and blast correlated with miRNA 92a and miRNA 638 unlike hemoglobin, and platelets didn't correlate with miRNA 92a and miRNA 638. The sensitivity of miRNA 92a and miRNA 638 were 41.5% and 54.7% respectively while the specificity was 100 % of miRNA 92a and miRNA 638.

Conclusion: miRNA 92a and miRNA 638 are recommended to be used as potential predictive and follow-up markers in children with ALL remitted and relapsed cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.5.1567DOI Listing
May 2021

Tioconazole and Chloroquine Act Synergistically to Combat Doxorubicin-Induced Toxicity via Inactivation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling Mediated ROS-Dependent Apoptosis and Autophagic Flux Inhibition in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Mar 11;14(3). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Biochemistry Division, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527, Egypt.

Cancer is a complex devastating disease with enormous treatment challenges, including chemo- and radiotherapeutic resistance. Combination therapy demonstrated a promising strategy to target hard-to-treat cancers and sensitize cancer cells to conventional anti-cancer drugs such as doxorubicin. This study aimed to establish molecular profiling and therapeutic efficacy assessment of chloroquine and/or tioconazole (TIC) combination with doxorubicin (DOX) as anew combination model in MCF-7 breast cancer. The drugs are tested against apoptotic/autophagic pathways and related redox status. Molecular docking revealed that chloroquine (CQ) and TIC could be potential PI3K and ATG4B pathway inhibitors. Combination therapy significantly inhibited cancer cell viability, PI3K/AkT/mTOR pathway, and tumor-supporting autophagic flux, however, induced apoptotic pathways and altered nuclear genotoxic feature. Our data revealed that the combination cocktail therapy markedly inhibited tumor proliferation marker (KI-67) and cell growth, along with the accumulation of autophagosomes and elevation of LC3-II and p62 levels indicated autophagic flux blockage and increased apoptosis. Additionally, CQ and/or TIC combination therapy with DOX exerts its activity on the redox balance of cancer cells mediated ROS-dependent apoptosis induction achieved by GPX3 suppression. Besides, Autophagy inhibition causes moderately upregulation in ATGs 5,7 redundant proteins strengthened combinations induced apoptosis, whereas inhibition of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway with Beclin-1 upregulation leading to cytodestructive autophagy with overcome drug resistance effectively in curing cancer. Notably, the tumor growth inhibition and various antioxidant effects were observed in vivo. These results suggest CQ and/or TIC combination with DOX could act as effective cocktail therapy targeting autophagy and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and hence, sensitizes cancer cells to doxorubicin treatment and combat its toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph14030254DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7998405PMC
March 2021

Beneficial consequences of probiotic on mitochondrial hippocampus in Alzheimer's disease.

J Complement Integr Med 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Biochemistry Division, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

Background: Alzheimer's (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, causing dementia and brain cells death.

Objectives: This study aimed to assess the ameliorating effect of  probiotic against AD induced in rats by d-galactose and AlCl injection via evaluating mitochondrial parameter changes in hippocampus.

Methods: This study was carried out on rats were classified into five groups; G1 (control group), G2 (probiotic group), G3 (AD group), G4 (co-treated group) and G5 (post-treated group). By the end of the experiment, some different neurotransmitters, oxidative stress biomarkers, zinc, blood glucose, NaKATPase subunit alpha 1 (ATP1A1), and gene expression of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured.

Results: Significant changes in neurotransmitters, antioxidants levels and decreased ATP1A1 activity and gene expression of MMP in the hippocampus in G3 were detected if compared to control. Best improvement in G5 than G4 group was observed. These results were confirmed by histological and immunohistochemical studies in hippocampus.

Conclusions: Acidophilus probiotic was able to alleviate learning and memory associated injuries in AD by reducing mitochondrial dysfunction induced by d-galactose and AlCl. This may be associated with its antioxidant properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2020-0156DOI Listing
March 2021

Doxorubicin, L-arginine, or their combination as a prophylactic agent against hepatic carcinoma in mice.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 15;28(28):37661-37671. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the ten most commonly diagnosed cancers. Doxorubicin is an antibiotic used in cancer treatment protocols that has several side effects. L-Arginine is a non-essential amino acid that is used as immune system activation and antitumor drugs. Therefore, the current study was designed to compare using doxorubicin, L-arginine, or their combination as a prophylactic agent against hepatic carcinoma induced by hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) injection in mice. The mice were divided into five groups: normal mice and mice that received HepG2, doxorubicin and HepG2, L-arginine and HepG2, and doxorubicin, L-Arginine, and HepG2, respectively. Liver function test as, aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT), and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), caspase 3, interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrotic factor (TNF), lipid peroxidation (NDA), and some antioxidant parameters were determined. A significant increase in AST and ALT, α-fetoprotein, TNF-α, and cytokines IL6 and MDA and a significant decrease in the serum caspase and liver catalase were determined in HepG2-injected mice. Moreover, some large hyperchromatic heptocytes were observed and the percentage of the positive area/field of HepPar-1, the most specific HCC marker, was 9.56%. Interestingly, mice that received doxorubicin, L-arginine, or their combination showed an improvement in some of the previous parameters. The improvement was more prominent with L-arginine administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13177-1DOI Listing
July 2021

Withdrawal Notice: Role of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesized by Fenugreek Seeds Extract as Anticancer Agent: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2021 01 25. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Biochemistry Division, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, 31527. Egypt.

The article has been withdrawn on the recommendation of the Editor-in-Chief of the journal Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry due to some inconsistencies in the content of the article. Bentham Science apologizes to the readers of the journal for any inconvenience this may have caused. The Bentham Editorial Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://benthamscience.com/editorial-policiesmain.php

Bentham Science Disclaimer: It is a condition of publication that manuscripts submitted to this journal have not been published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere. Furthermore, any data, illustration, structure or table that has been published elsewhere must be reported, and copyright permission for reproduction must be obtained. Plagiarism is strictly forbidden, and by submitting the article for publication the authors agree that the publishers have the legal right to take appropriate action against the authors, if plagiarism or fabricated information is discovered. By submitting a manuscript, the authors agree that the copyright of their article is transferred to the publishers if and when the article is accepted for publication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871520621666210126093028DOI Listing
January 2021

Functional Assembly of Cytochrome b-2 (Cecytb-2) into Phospholipid Bilayer Nanodisc with Enhanced Iron Reductase Activity.

Biomolecules 2021 01 13;11(1). Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, Nada-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 657-8501, Japan.

Among seven homologs of cytochrome in a model organism , Cecytb-2 was confirmed to be expressed in digestive organs and was considered as a homolog of human Dcytb functioning as a ferric reductase. Cecytb-2 protein was expressed in cells, purified, and reconstituted into a phospholipid bilayer nanodisc. The reconstituted Cecytb-2 in nanodisc environments was extremely stable and more reducible with ascorbate than in a detergent-micelle state. We confirmed the ferric reductase activity of Cecytb-2 by analyzing the oxidation of ferrous heme upon addition of ferric substrate under anaerobic conditions, where clear and saturable dependencies on the substrate concentrations following the Michaelis-Menten equation were observed. Further, we confirmed that the ferric substrate was converted to a ferrous state by using a nitroso-PSAP assay. Importantly, we observed that the ferric reductase activity of Cecytb-2 became enhanced in the phospholipid bilayer nanodisc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11010096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7828500PMC
January 2021

Antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of phlorotannins extracted from the brown seaweed Cystoseira compressa in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 11;28(18):22886-22901. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Biochemistry Division, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

Diabetes mellitus is considered a set of diseases that lead to high glucose level due to the absolute or relative absence of insulin. The study investigated the antioxidant activity and antidiabetic effect of phlorotannins extracted from brown seaweed Cystoseira compressa. Phlorotannins were extracted from C. compressa. It was confirmed by 2,4 dimethoxy benzaldehyde assay (DMBA), ultraviolet spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The free radical scavenging activity of phlorotannins was estimated by total antioxidant capacity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, and 2,2 azino-bis3-ethylbenthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid assays. Four groups of albino rats used in this study include control normal, control phlorotannins extract, diabetic by intraperitoneally administering of streptozotocin, and diabetic treatment with 60 mg/kg of phlorotannin extract after 4 weeks of diabetes induction. The main compound identified by UPLC-MS/MS in C. compressa extract belonged to the fuhalol. C. compressa extract showed high antioxidant properties. Phlorotannins significantly decreased serum glucose, liver malondialdehyde, and α-amylase, glucosidase activities. However, total antioxidant capacity, serum insulin, hepatic glutathione, and AMPKα2 expression in skeletal muscle were improved compared to the diabetic group. The histopathological examination showed that phlorotannins markedly reduced damage in β cells of pancreases. Phlorotannins from C. compressa have efficient antioxidant activity and the antidiabetic effect that may be utilized in human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12347-5DOI Listing
May 2021

Effect of a phase 2 cardiac rehabilitation program on obese and non-obese patients with stable coronary artery disease.

Egypt Heart J 2021 Jan 7;73(1). Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Cardiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Abbassia Square, Abbasia, Cairo, 11566, Egypt.

Background: Obesity is associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality effects. Cardiac rehabilitation programs cause a significant reduction in cardiovascular mortality and a reduction in all cardiovascular risk factors. Up to 80% of patients referred to cardiac rehabilitation programs are either overweight or obese. This study aimed to compare the effects of a phase 2 cardiac rehabilitation program on obese and non-obese patients with stable coronary artery disease following total revascularization by coronary angioplasty.

Results: This was a prospective study including 120 patients with stable coronary artery disease. Patients were enrolled in a 12-week phase 2 cardiac rehabilitation program. Patients were classified into two groups based on their body mass index (BMI): those with a BMI < 30 kg/m were considered non-obese (n = 58) while those with a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m were considered obese (n = 62). At baseline, BMI and blood pressure (BP) were recorded; fasting blood sugar, triglyceride levels, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were assessed; and echocardiography was used to measure left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). These were re-assessed after completion of the program. At baseline, there were more females in the obese group 20 (32.25%) vs 6 (10.13%) (p = 0.04), more hypertensives (p = 0.023), and less smokers 32 (51%) vs 46 (79%) (p = 0.025). Obese patients achieved fewer metabolic equivalent of tasks (METs) 7.97 ± 2.4 vs 9.74 ± 2.47 (p = 0.007) and had higher LDL-C levels 121.63 ± 36.52 mg/dl vs 95.73 ± 31.51 mg/dl (p = 0.005). At the end of the program, obese patients showed more reduction in BMI - 1.78 ± 1.46 kg/m vs - 0. 60 ± 0.70 kg/m (p < 0.001) and systolic and diastolic BP (p = 0.016 and 0.038, respectively). LDL-C level was more reduced in the obese group - 25.76 ± 14.19 mg/dl vs - 17.37 ± 13.28 mg/dl (p = 0.022). Non-obese patients had more increase in LVEF (p = 0.024). There was no difference between obese and non-obese patients in the magnitude of increase in METs achieved (p = 0.21).

Conclusion: Cardiac rehabilitation programs lead to an improvement in cardiovascular disease risk factors with more reduction in BMI, BP, and LDL-C levels in obese patients compared to non-obese ones. LVEF was more increased in non-obese individuals. Exercise capacity in the form of METs achieved was equally improved in both groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s43044-020-00119-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7790927PMC
January 2021

The Inter-Relation between Leptin Receptor (Q223R) Gene Polymorphism and the Risk of Egyptian Patients with HCC.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2020 Dec 1;21(12):3557-3565. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Chemistry, Division of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

Background: The relationship of leptin (LEP) and polymorphism of leptin receptor (LEPR) were studied in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and compared with those with liver cirrhosis to find out the extent of the risk of LEPR on patients with HCC.

Methods: Serum LEP level and LEPR Q223R gene polymorphism were determined in 300 patients with liver disease categorized equally into five groups' healthy volunteers, patients with hepatitis C (HCV), patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH),  liver cirrhosis and HCC. LEPR gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) then digested by the MSP1 restriction enzyme.

Results: The isolated 212 bp of LEPR was sequenced. The serum LEP level was reduced in patients with cirrhotic and HCC. Serum LEP level had negatively correlated with both tumor grade and size in HCC patients. The data obtained from restriction fragment length polymorphism‑PCR and sequencing revealed the existence of a novel synonymous Q223R single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in exon 223 of LEPR gene (1137101). LEPR Gln223Arg, GG and GA genotypes were found in all studied groups. LEPR Gln223Arg, AA genotype was found in NASH, HCC, and control. LEPR Gln223Arg GA genotype is associated with some patients with HCC.

Conclusion: GA genotype of LEPR Gln223Arg may be regarded as a probable genetic risk factor for Egyptian patients with HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2020.21.12.3557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8046304PMC
December 2020

Management of recurrent aphthous ulcers exploiting polymer-based Muco-adhesive sponges and evaluation.

Drug Deliv 2021 Dec;28(1):87-99

Department of Pharmacology and Biochemistry, The British University in Egypt (BUE), Cairo, Egypt.

Recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU) is a well-known painful, inflammatory disease with uncertain etiology for which local symptomatic therapy is only available. The aim of this study was to formulate and characterize muco-adhesive sponges containing a mixture of tenoxicam and miconazole nitrate to manage pain, inflammation and avoid candida infection that may accompany RAU due to poor oral hygiene. Two polymers at different concentrations were used to prepare sponges applying simple freeze-drying. Medicated chitosan (2%) sponges (mC2) showed acceptable physical appearance, surface pH (6.3 ± 0.042), porosity (25.7% ± 1.8), swelling index (5.7 ± 0.11), and muco-adhesion time (115 min.±0.813 and 155 min.±1.537, respectively), muco-adhesion force (0.09 N ± 0.002) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. For concurrent clear-cut determination of tenoxicam and miconazole nitrate from mC2, a new UPLC method was developed and validated. mC2 sponges exhibited superior drug release profiles where ∼100% of tenoxicam released within 5 min for fast pain relief with a more prolonged miconazole nitrate release. Furthermore, animal study revealed that mC2 caused a significant decrease in the acetic acid-induced ulcer size in rats after 6 days of treatment ( < .0001) compared to negative and positive controls. Additionally, histopathological examination showed faster healing with complete restoration of the normal oral histology in rats. The present study concludes that chitosan sponge loaded with a combination of tenoxicam and miconazole nitrate could improve healing of RAU cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10717544.2020.1858999DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7758044PMC
December 2021

Alzheimer's disease improved through the activity of mitochondrial chain complexes and their gene expression in rats by boswellic acid.

Metab Brain Dis 2021 02 7;36(2):255-264. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Biochemistry Division, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

The foremost neurodegenerative disease is Alzheimer's (AD), which is characterized as a gradual decrease in memory, cognitive function, and also personal changes occurred. This study aims to assess the role of boswellic bioactive component in control Alzheimer's disease through enhancing mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes in the rat model. Rats were divided into five equal groups: the control group (G1), boswellic acid control group (G2), AD disease group (G3), boswellic acid -pre-treated group (G4) and boswellic acid-treated group (G5). At the end of the experiment, blood glucose level, tau protein, different neurochemicals parameters (dopamine, acetylcholine), L-malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities was determined. Also, GLUT2 and mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes were evaluated. As a result, an increase in hippocampus glucose, tau protein expression, MDA and GLUT2 in the AD group (G3) compared to control groups (G1 and G2) has been recorded. These parameters were declined after pre (G4) and treated (G5) by boswellic acid. The neurochemicals, antioxidants parameters, four mitochondrial chain complexes activities and their gene expression in the hippocampus of the AD group were decreased compared to the control groups (G1 and G2). In contrast, pre and treated groups by boswellic acid (G4 and G5, respectively) have shown an increase in antioxidants parameters, and the activities of four mitochondrial complexes, with the best improvement in the pre-treated group (G4), then treated group (G5). In conclusion; the boswellic acid improved the antioxidant and mitochondrial complexes in Alzheimer's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11011-020-00639-7DOI Listing
February 2021

Raman, Infrared and NMR Spectroscopy: Advances in Structural, Conformational and Environmental Analysis.

Authors:
Tarek A Mohamed

Comb Chem High Throughput Screen 2020 ;23(7):566-567

Department of Chemistry Faculty of Science, Al Azhar University Nar City 11884, Cairo, Egypt.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138620732307200713120351DOI Listing
June 2021

Osthole extracted from a citrus fruit that affects apoptosis on A549 cell line by histone deacetylasese inhibition (HDACs).

Biotechnol Rep (Amst) 2020 Dec 22;28:e00531. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Biochemistry Division, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

This study aims to investigate the interactions between osthole extracted from Egyptian citrus fruits as HDACs inhibitor by theoretical study and practically. Besides, osthole was assed as anti-cancer activity. In this study, osthole was extracted from the Egyptian citrus fruit and was characterized. The role of osthole as in vitro inhibitor of HDACs was estimated and evaluated the antitumor activity against human lung cancer cells (A549), Caspase-9 activity was detected. The results obtained from GC-MS indicate that the grapefruit showed the highest osthole concentration compared to the other citrus fruits. Moreover, the grapefruit osthole competitively inhibits HDACs. The inhibition constant value, (Ki=3.36 mM), indicates that osthole exerts an inhibitory effect upon HDACs activity. In vitro study of osthole could inhibit the growth of A549 cells that depend on time and concentration. It also induces apoptosis and causes an increase of caspase-9 by osthole. In conclusion, grapefruit osthole could induce the apoptosis in A549 lung cancer cells by inhibiting the histone deacetylase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.btre.2020.e00531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7522091PMC
December 2020

The bactericidal efficacy of femtosecond laser-based therapy on the most common infectious bacterial pathogens in chronic wounds: an in vitro study.

Lasers Med Sci 2021 Apr 28;36(3):641-647. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Laser Institute for Research and Applications LIRA, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, 62511, Egypt.

We investigated the influence of femtosecond laser irradiation on the growth of the two most common infectious bacterial pathogens in wounds; Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an attempt to validate optimum parameters for a laser-based bactericidal modality to be used clinically. Bacterial cultures were exposed to femtosecond laser irradiation at different wavelengths, exposure times, and laser powers. The source of femtosecond laser was INSPIRE HF100 laser system, Spectra-Physics, which is pumped by a mode-locked femtosecond Ti: sapphire laser MAI TAI HP, Spectra-Physics. After irradiation, bacterial cells' survival was monitored by observing the clear zones of inhibition in cultured agar plates. Results for all strains indicated that the exposure to femtosecond laser irradiation with a wavelength ranging from ultraviolet (λ > 350 nm) to blue laser light (λ < 480 nm), for a period above 20 min and with a power density of ≈ 0.063 W/cm, was enough to inhibit both bacterial pathogens with the results maintained for 1 week following irradiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10103-020-03104-0DOI Listing
April 2021

Induction of Apoptosis by Nano-Synthesized Complexes of H2L and its Cu(II) Complex in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2021 ;21(9):1151-1159

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527, Egypt.

Background: Chemotherapy is currently the most utilized treatment for cancer. Therapeutic potential of metal complexes in cancer therapy has attracted a lot of interest. The mechanisms of action of most organometallic complexes are poorly understood.

Objective: This study was designed to explore the mechanisms governing the anti-proliferative effect of the free ligand N1,N6-bis((2-hydroxynaphthalin-1-yl)methinyl)) adipohydrazone (H2L) and its complexes of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II).

Methods: Cells were exposed to H2L or its metal complexes where cell viability determined by MTT assay. Cell cycle was analysed by flow cytometry. In addition, qRT-PCR was used to monitor the expression of Bax and Bcl-2. Moreover, molecular docking was carried out to find the potentiality of Cu(II) complex as an inhibitor of Adenosine Deaminase (ADA). ADA, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and reduced Glutathione (GSH) levels were measured in the most affected cancer cell line.

Results: The obtained results demonstrated that H2L and its Cu(II) complex exhibited a strong cytotoxic activity compared to other complexes against HepG2 cells (IC=4.14±0.036μM/ml and 3.2±0.02μM/ml), respectively. Both H2L and its Cu(II) complex induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells. Additionally, they induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells via upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2. Interestingly, the activity of ADA was decreased by 2.8 fold in HepG2 cells treated with Cu(II) complex compared to untreated cells. An increase of SOD activity and GSH level in HepG2 cells compared to control was observed.

Conclusion: The results concluded that Cu(II) complex of H2L induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Further studies are needed to confirm its anti-cancer effect in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871520620666200204103756DOI Listing
January 2021

Synthesis, Conformational Analysis, Infrared, Raman and UV-Visible Spectra of Novel Schiff Bases compiled with DFT Calculations.

Comb Chem High Throughput Screen 2020 ;23(7):568-586

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City 11884, Cairo, Egypt.

Objective: Two novel Schiff bases named, 2-((2-Hydroxybenzylidene)amino)-4,5,6,7- tetrahydrobenzo[b] thiophene-3-carbonitrile (BESB1) and 2-((Furan-2-ylmethylene)amino)-4,5,6, 7-tetrahydro-benzo[b]thiophene-3-carbonitrile (BESB2) were synthesized.

Methods: The structures were characterized based on CHN elemental analysis, mid-infrared (400- 4000 cm-1), Raman (100-4000 cm-1), 1H NMR, mass and UV-Vis spectroscopic measurements. In addition, quantum mechanical calculations using DFT-B3LYP method at 6-31G(d) basis set were carried out for both Schiff bases. Initially, we have carried out complete geometry optimizations followed by frequency calculations for the proposed conformational isomers; BESB1 (A-E) and BESB2 (F-J) based on the orientations of both CN and OH groups against the azomethine lonepair (NLP) in addition to the 3D assumption.

Results: The computational outcomes favor conformer A for BESB1 in which the C≡N and OH moieties are cis towards the NLP while conformer G is preferred for BESB2 (the C≡N/furan-O are cis/trans towards the NLP) which was found consistent with the results of relaxed potential energy surface scan. Aided by normal coordinate analysis of the Cartesian coordinate displacements, we have suggested reliable vibrational assignments for all observed IR and Raman bands. Moreover, the electronic absorption spectra for the favored conformers were predicted in DMSO solution using TD-B3LYP/6-31G(d) calculations. Similarly, the 1H NMR chemical shifts were also estimated using GIAO approach implementing PCM including solvent effects (DMSO-d6).

Conclusion: Proper interpretations of the observed electronic transition, chemical shifts, IR and Raman bands were presented in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1386207323666200127161207DOI Listing
June 2021

Structure/property relationship of polyvinyl alcohol/dimethoxydimethylsilane composite membrane: Experimental and theoretical studies.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2020 Mar 23;228:117810. Epub 2019 Nov 23.

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Port-Said University, Port Said, Egypt.

A novel mixed matrix composite has been prepared using solution-casting method at different volume concentrations of polyvinyl alcohol; PVA (50, 67, 75 and 80%) and fixed amount of dimethoxydimethylsilane in air atmosphere. The hydrolyzed dimethyldisilanol acts as in-situ cross linker through a wet-out condensation between the hydroxyl moieties of Si and PVA. Such process improves the mechanical properties of composite membranes as compared to pristine PVA which has been determined as function of varied membrane components to evaluate the structure/property relationships. Furthermore, DFT (B3LYP)/6-31G(d) geometry and frequency computations were carried out for the suggested dimeric PVA structures via 1,3-diol linkage followed by condensation and hydrogen bonding interaction. Vibrational interpretations of composite membranes were proposed based on the computed wavenumbers, Cartesian coordinates displacements for the suggested hydrolyzed products involving the dominant PVA/Si/Si/Si functional groups compared with those given in literatures. FTIR and EDX provide clear evidences for incorporating silicon to 3D network. Meanwhile, the infrared de-convoluted spectral interpretations ensure 17-30% cross-linked SiOC within the network of composite membranes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2019.117810DOI Listing
March 2020

A Validated Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Nadifloxacin, Mometasone Furoate and Miconazole Nitrate in Their Combined Dosage Form and Spiked Human Plasma Samples.

J Chromatogr Sci 2020 Jan;57(10):867-873

Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr-El Aini Street, Cairo 11562, Egypt.

Nadifloxacin, mometasone furoate and miconazole nitrate are formulated together as a topical antifungal dosage form. In this work, a reversed-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method coupled with a diode array detector (RP-UPLC-DAD) was developed and validated to determine nadifloxacin, mometasone furoate and miconazole nitrate simultaneously in their bulk powder, in pharmaceutical preparation and in spiked human plasma samples. Separation was achieved on an ACQUITY UPLC C18 column of 2.2 μm particle size (2.1 × 100 mm) via isocratic elution using a mobile phase consisting of methanol, acetonitrile and water with ratio (50:20:30; v/v/v) and 0.1 g ammonium acetate, then pH was adjusted to (7.00) using acetic acid, flow rate 0.6 mL/min, temperature 30°C and UV detection at 220 nm. The method is linear in a range from 5 to 400 μg/mL for both nadifloxacin and miconazole nitrate and from 20 to 500 μg/mL for mometasone furoate. The method was validated according to the ICH guidelines then applied successfully to determine the mentioned drugs in their pharmaceutical preparation and spiked human plasma samples. For plasma samples, the results showed that the method can determine nadifloxacin, mometasone furoate and miconazole nitrate in human plasma samples with high accuracy and precision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/bmz082DOI Listing
January 2020

Association between a novel G94A single nucleotide polymorphism in gene and type 2 diabetes mellitus among Egyptian patients.

J Res Med Sci 2019 24;24:62. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry Division, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

Background: Na/K ATPase enzyme is essential for nerve cell membrane integrity, and reduction in its activity, probably due to gene polymorphisms, is related to diabetic neuropathy progression. Therefore, the goal of the existent study is to evaluate the Na/K ATPase activity in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) Egyptian patients with or without neuropathy, search for polymorphism(s) in the highly polymorphic region of gene, exon 2, and study its (their) associations with T2DM with and without neuropathy.

Materials And Methods: A total number of 150 individuals were subclassified into healthy controls ( = 30), T2DM without complications ( = 60), and T2DM with neuropathy ( = 60).

Results: The biochemical results exhibited a significant reduction in fasting C-Peptide and activity of Na/K ATPase in T2DM patients with neuropathy followed by T2DM without complication in comparison with healthy controls. exon2 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) then digested by the PstI restriction enzyme, and the obtained data from restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR and sequencing revealed the existence of a novel synonymous G94A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at nucleotide 27 in exon 2 of gene (rs1060366). Diabetic groups had only allele A, while the control group had G allele. Interestingly, individuals carrying AA genotype had a significantly lower Na/K ATPase, C-peptide, and higher glycosylated hemoglobin (HBA1c %) than those having GG genotype, suggesting a possible association for this SNP, and this developed phenomenon of not only T2DM but also diabetic neuropathy.

Conclusion: Thus, allele A of G94A SNP (rs1060366) could be a risk allele for diabetes susceptibility among Egyptian patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jrms.JRMS_975_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6669993PMC
July 2019

Propolis Potentiates Methotrexate Anticancer Mechanism and Reduces its Toxic Effects.

Nutr Cancer 2020 18;72(3):460-480. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry Division, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

Egyptian propolis is a powerful antioxidant and free radical scavenger produced by bees. The current study was designed to characterize Egyptian propolis, investigate its anticancer effect in vitro and its protective role against methotrexate (MTX) toxicity in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) experimental model. Our results revealed a high content of total phenolics, flavonoids and dihydroflavonols in propolis ethanolic extract (PEE). PEE prompted cytotoxic effects in cancer cell lines and antitumor effects against EAC mice model by reducing tumor volume, count of viable tumor cells with a significant elevation in the life span as well as the mean survival time of mice. The hepatic and renal biochemical and toxicity parameters of EAC-bearing mice treated with MTX were improved by PEE. Also, it elevates the expression of Bax, caspase-3 and cytochrome-C and reduces the Bcl expression in EAC cells. Moreover, PEE with MTX induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. Interestingly, the combination of PEE with MTX showed potent apoptosis as shown by DNA fragmentation gel, comet assay and dihydrofolate reductase level (DHFR). These findings demonstrate that Egyptian propolis extract had high chemical diversity and different antioxidant effects. Also, it optimizes the antitumor potential of MTX and declined its toxic effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2019.1640884DOI Listing
December 2020

Trans-scleral posterior capsulorhexis in combined lens extraction and silicone oil removal.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2020 Jan 14;30(1):224-228. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Ophthalmology Department, Assiut University Hospital, Assiut, Egypt.

Aim: The aim of this study was to study the safety and efficacy of posterior capsulorhexis in vitrectomized eyes undergoing combined phacoemulsification or irrigation/aspiration and silicone oil removal.

Methods: This prospective non-randomized interventional study involved 115 silicone-filled eyes of 115 previously vitrectomized patients. All patients underwent combined phacoemulsification or underwent irrigation/aspiration and silicone oil removal, followed by foldable intraocular lens implantation combined with primary posterior trans-scleral capsulorhexis. A 23-gauge trans-scleral vitrectomy probe was used to form the posterior capsulorhexis (vitrectorhexis). Patients were followed for 6 months.

Results: Intraocular lenses maintained good centration in the capsular bag during and after trans-scleral posterior capsulorhexis. No complications were observed in the postoperative period regarding lens centration or size of the posterior capsulorhexis. No included eyes needed YAG laser posterior capsulotomy and no recurrent retinal detachment was reported during follow-up.

Conclusion: Performing primary trans-scleral capsulorhexis in patients undergoing combined phacoemulsification, or irrigation/aspiration and silicone oil removal, enabled achievement of an early postoperative clear visual axis and prevented the onset of dense postoperative posterior capsular opacification in previously silicone-filled eyes. This technique is reproducible and may facilitate additional intra-operative procedures and uncomplicated postoperative follow-up of retinal detachment patients without requiring YAG laser capsulotomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1120672119836002DOI Listing
January 2020

Association of MHC IIA polymorphisms with disease resistance in Aeromonas hydrophila-challenged Nile tilapia.

Dev Comp Immunol 2019 07 7;96:126-134. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Chemistry (Biochemistry Branch), Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt.

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes show high polymorphisms in vertebrates depending on animal immunity status. Herein, MHC class IIA gene in Aeromonas hydrophila-challenged Nile tilapia was screened for presence of polymorphisms using sequencing. Twelve nucleotides deletion polymorphism was determined with a PCR product size of 267 bp in the resistant fish and 255 bp in the control and susceptible/diseased fish. Additionally, a non-synonymous right frameshift c.712 T > G (P. 238 * > G) SNP was detected at the stop codon (*). SNP-susceptibility association analysis revealed that fish carrying GG genotype and allele G were high susceptible (risk) for A. hydrophila, and had lower immune response as indicated by significant reduction in non-specific immune parameters (total protein, globulin, IgM, phagocytic activity, phagocytic index, and lysosome activity) and mRNA level of MHC IIA, interleukin 1 beta (IL1β), tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNFα), and toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) in the spleen and head kidney. Thus, G allele could be considered as a risk (recessive or mutant) allele for c. 712 T > G (P. 238 * > G) SNP and so selection of Nile tilapia with protective allele (T) for this SNP could improve the disease resistant of the fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2019.03.002DOI Listing
July 2019

A Validated Reverse Phase-Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for the Determination of Gemifloxacin Mesylate in Bulk and its Pharmaceutical Preparation.

Turk J Pharm Sci 2019 Mar 31;16(1):8-13. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

The British University in Egypt, Faculty of Pharmacy, The Center for Drug Research and Development, Cairo, Egypt.

Objectives: Gemifloxacin Mesylate is a fourth generation fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent. A simple, accurate, and precise reversed phase (RP)-ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method was developed and validated for short time analysis of Gemifloxacin Mesylate in its bulk and pharmaceutical preparation.

Materials And Methods: The optimum separation was achieved at 0.5±0.03 min using an Acclaim RSLC 120 C18 column 2.2 μm (2.1×100 mm) at 30°C by isocratic mobile phase at pH 3.0 composed of acetonitrile:phosphate buffer (25 mM) in a ratio of 75:25 (v/v). The column effluents were monitored at 276 nm using a photodiode array detector at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The method was validated according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines.

Results: The linearity of the calibration curve ranged from 0.5 μg/mL to 10 μg/mL and the square of the regression coefficient (r) was 0.9991. The % relative standard deviation (RSD) of inter-day precision ranged from 0.081% to 1.233%, while for intra-day it ranged from 0.364% to 1.018%. The method was accurate with % recovery ranging from 93.71% to 100.29% and % RSD ranging from 1.054 to 2.722. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification were 0.066 and 0.2 μg/mL, respectively.

Conclusion: The validated method proved its ability for the assay of Gemifloxacin Mesylate in its bulk and dosage form in a short time (less than 1 min). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first RP-UPLC method for the determination of Gemifloxacin Mesylate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4274/tjps.04934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227989PMC
March 2019

Repurposing nitrocatechols: 5-Nitro-α-cyanocarboxamide derivatives of caffeic acid and caffeic acid phenethyl ester effectively inhibit aggregation of tau-derived hexapeptide AcPHF6.

Eur J Med Chem 2019 Apr 4;167:146-152. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

CIQUP/Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169-007, Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

Polyphenols like caffeic acid and its phenethyl ester have been associated with potent anti-aggregating activity. Accordingly, we screened a library of polyphenols and synthetic derivatives thereof for their capacity to inhibit tau-aggregation using a thioflavin T-based fluorescence method. Our results show that the nitrocatechol scaffold is required for a significant anti-aggregating activity, which is enhanced by introducing bulky substituents at the side chain. A remarkable increase in activity was observed for α-cyanocarboxamide derivatives 26-27. Molecular docking studies showed that the amide bond provides superior conformational stability in the steric zipper assembly of tau, which drives the increase in activity. We also found that derivatives 24-27 were potent chelators of copper(II) - a property of pharmacological significance in abnormal protein aggregation. These small molecules can provide promising leads to develop new drugs for tauopathies and AD. These findings open a new window on the repurposing of nitrocatechols beyond their established role as catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2019.02.006DOI Listing
April 2019

Activation of mas restores hyperoxia-induced loss of lung epithelial barrier function through inhibition of apoptosis.

J Lung Pulm Respir Res 2019 18;6(3):58-62. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

Department of Physiology, Michigan State University, USA.

Background: Neonatal therapy with a high concentration of oxygen (hyperoxia) is a known cause of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). BPD is characterized by increased pulmonary permeability and diffuse infiltration of various inflammatory cells. Disruption of the epithelial barrier may lead to altered pulmonary permeability and airways fluid accumulation. Mas receptor is a component of the renin angiotensin system and is the receptor for the protective endogenous peptide angiotensin 1-7. The activation of the Mas receptor was previously shown to have protective pulmonary responses. However, the effect of Mas receptor activation on epithelial barrier integrity has not been tested.

Objective: To determine the effects of hyperoxia with or without Mas receptor activation on epithelial cell barrier integrity.

Design/methods: Human epithelial cell line A549 was cultured on transwell polycarbonate porous membrane to confluence and treated with 95% oxygen (hyperoxia) for 72 hours with or without the Mas receptor agonist (AVE0991), or the apoptotic inhibitors Z-VAD-FMK or aurintricarboxylic acid. The cells were then challenged with Rhodamine labeled bovine serum albumin (Rh-BSA) on one side of the membrane. Fluorescent quantitation of Rh-BSA (albumin flux) was performed on the media in the other side of the membrane 3 hours later and was compared with 21% oxygen (Normoxia) control group. A549 cells were also cultured with or without AVE0991 in hyperoxia or normoxia and used for nuclear fragmentation apoptosis assay using propidium iodide staining.

Results: Hyperoxia induced an increase in albumin flux that was significantly prevented by AVE0991 treatment and by the apoptosis inhibitors. AVE0991 also significantly decreased the hyperoxia-induced nuclear fragmentation.

Conclusion: These results suggest that hyperoxia causes a disruption in the epithelial barrier integrity, and that this disruption is inhibited by the Mas receptor agonist AVE0991 through inhibition of epithelial apoptosis. These results reveal a novel potential drug for BPD and pulmonary edema treatment.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7338093PMC
July 2019

The renin angiotensin system in liver and lung: impact and therapeutic potential in organ fibrosis.

J Lung Pulm Respir Res 2018 27;5(1). Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Department of Physiology, Michigan State University, USA.

Liver and lung fibrosis are two main organ diseases that are of particular importance in both Egypt and the US. Hepatitis C Virus "HCV" infection and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are fibrotic diseases of the liver and lung respectively. The liver and lung are reported in literature to share many immune/inflammatory responses to damage through the lung-liver axis. Most importantly, HCV was shown to enhance the development of IPF and is considered one of the risk factors for IPF. The renin angiotensin system (RAS) plays a critical role in the fibrogenesis and inflammation damage of many organs including liver and lung. The relatively recently identified component of RAS, angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2), has shown a promising therapeutic potential in models of liver and pulmonary fibrosis. This article reviews the role of RAS in organ fibrosis with focus on role of ACE-2 in fibrotic diseases of the liver and the lung.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6114139PMC
February 2018

Interactions of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors with β-Amyloid.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2019 01 11;10(1):226-234. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

School of Pharmacy, Health Sciences Campus , University of Waterloo , Waterloo , Ontario N2L 3G1 , Canada.

Treating Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major challenge at the moment with no new drugs available to cure this devastating neurodegenerative disorder. In this regard, drug repurposing, which aims to determine novel therapeutic usage for drugs already approved by the regulatory agencies, is a pragmatic approach to discover novel treatment strategies. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a known class of United States Food and Drug Administration approved drugs used in the treatment of depression. We investigated the ability of SSRIs fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, and escitalopram on Aβ42 aggregation and fibrillogenesis. Remarkably, the aggregation kinetic experiments carried out demonstrate the anti-Aβ42 aggregation activity of SSRIs fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline at all the tested concentrations (1, 10, 50, and 100 μM). Both fluoxetine and paroxetine were identified as the most promising SSRIs, showing 74.8 and 76% inhibition of Aβ42 aggregation at 100 μM. The transmission electron microscopy experiments and dot-blot study also demonstrate the ability of fluoxetine and paroxetine to prevent Aβ42 aggregation and fibrillogenesis, providing further evidence. Investigating the binding interactions of fluoxetine and paroxetine in the Aβ42 oligomer and fibril models derived from the solid-state NMR structure suggests that these SSRIs interact at a region close to the N-terminal (Lys16-Glu22) in the S-shaped cross-β-strand assembly and reduce Aβ42 fibrillogenesis. On the basis of this study, a pharmacophore model is proposed which shows that the minimum structural requirements to design novel Aβ42 aggregation inhibitors include the presence of one ionizable group, one hydrophobic group, two aromatic rings, and two hydrogen bond donor groups. These studies demonstrate that SSRIs have the potential to prevent Aβ42 aggregation by direct binding and could be beneficial to AD patients on SSRIs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.8b00160DOI Listing
January 2019

Effect of single subconjunctival injection of bevacizumab on primary pterygium: clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical study.

Int J Ophthalmol 2018 18;11(5):797-801. Epub 2018 May 18.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut 71111, Egypt.

Aim: To evaluate the effect (clinically, histopathologically and immunohistochemically) and safety of a single intra-pterygium injection of bevacizumab.

Methods: Prospective interventional study comprised 40 eyes of 40 patients with primary fleshy pterygia who attended the Outpatient Clinic of Department of Ophthalmology, Assiut University Hospitals, Egypt from May 2015 to May 2016. Patients were randomly classified into 2 groups: the first group received a single intralesional injection of bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech, San Francisco, CA, USA); the second group comprised patients who did not receive subconjunctival bevacizumab. Excision of pterygium and conjunctival auto graft was done in both groups. The excised pterygium tissues were subjected to histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation.

Results: The study comprised 40 eyes of 40 patients (33 men, 7 women) of age range from 31-58y. The study group included 22 eyes. The control group included 18 eyes. A decrease in the vascularity of the pterygium was noted in all injected cases. The mean vessel count was higher in non-injected pterygia than that in injected pterygia and the difference was statistically significant (=0.001). Also, the mean vessel count in both groups was significantly higher than normal conjunctive (=0.005 and 0.001). A statistically significant difference in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression between injected and non-injected cases was detected in the epithelial, stromal and endothelial cells (=0.0001, 0.016, 0.014). No serious intraoperative complications occurred in both groups.

Conclusion: The use of single intra lesional injection of Avastin in pterygium decreased vascularity and decreased VEGF expression in injected pterygium after one month. Our study proved the effect of single intra lesional injection of Avastin on pterygium. Further studies may enable limiting the need for surgery and improve quality of life for patients with pterygia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18240/ijo.2018.05.13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5957031PMC
May 2018

Amelioration effect of Egyptian sweet orange hesperidin on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing mice.

Chem Biol Interact 2018 Apr 23;285:76-84. Epub 2018 Feb 23.

Biochemistry Division, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt. Electronic address:

There are global increased interests to identify novel agents that can possess anti-tumor effects or maximize the anti-tumor effects of low doses for conventional anti-cancer drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate anti-tumor effects and protective role of isolated hesperidin from sweet orange on doxorubicin-induced toxicity in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing mice. Tumor cells were injected into Swiss albino mice followed by hesperidin administration either alone or in combination with doxorubicin. Biochemical parameters on serum and hepatic were measured. In addition, the effect of hesperidin on apoptotic genes (Caspase3 and Bax) and anti-apoptotic gene (Bcl2) on tumor cells were evaluated by RT- PCR. The results showed that addition of hesperidin to doxorubicin-induced higher anti-tumor responses than treatment with hesperidin or doxorubicin alone. Hesperidin and doxorubicin in combination prolonged the life span of EAC tumor-bearing mice which was associated with a decrease in the number of viable tumor cells and increases in dead tumor cells number. In addition, co-administration of hesperidin with doxorubicin ameliorated the alteration in serum ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and LDH activities, total protein, albumin, creatinine, urea and total lipids concentrations. Moreover, hesperidin alone and in combination with doxorubicin-treated group decreased hepatic, TBARS level significantly as compared with tumor bearing mice and doxorubicin treated group. In contrast, hesperidin alone and combined with doxorubicin ameliorated total antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione level, and antioxidant enzymes activities such as GPx and CAT in liver tissues. Moreover, hesperidin induced apoptosis of tumor cells which appeared as DNA fragmentation by down-regulation of Bcl2 as anti-apoptotic gene and stimulation of Caspase3 and Bax genes expression as apoptotic genes. In conclusion, Egyptian citrus peels are a rich source of the antioxidant hesperidin. Moreover, it can ameliorate the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin while enhancing its anti-tumor effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2018.02.029DOI Listing
April 2018
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