Publications by authors named "Tapio Nikkari"

4 Publications

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Childhood serum fatty acid quality is associated with adult carotid artery intima media thickness in women but not in men.

J Nutr 2013 May 13;143(5):682-9. Epub 2013 Mar 13.

Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Childhood nutrition may play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease risk in adulthood. We examined the links between childhood dietary fatty acid quality and adult subclinical atherosclerosis in a cohort of 374 males and 449 females, aged 3-18 y at baseline in 1980, followed for 27 y. Serum cholesterol ester fatty acid (CEFA) percentages were analyzed as markers of dietary fatty acid intake. Adulthood carotid artery intima media thickness (cIMT, μm), adjusted for childhood and adulthood lipid and nonlipid risk markers, was used as the outcome. In women, after adjustment for age and childhood nonlipid risk markers, the childhood saturated CEFA (B = 11.3; P = 0.011), monounsaturated CEFA (B = 2.5; P = 0.025), and n3 (ω3) polyunsaturated CEFA (B = 16.2; P = 0.035) percentages were directly associated with adult cIMT. In contrast, the n6 (ω6) polyunsaturated CEFA percentage was negatively associated with cIMT (B = -2.3; P = 0.008). Similar relationships were observed between childhood dietary intake data and adult cIMT. In men, these associations were generally weak and nonsignificant (P > 0.05) after controlling for confounders. These longitudinal data suggest that fat quality as reflected in the serum cholesterol ester fraction in childhood is associated with adult cIMT in women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/jn.112.172866DOI Listing
May 2013

Childhood serum cholesterol ester fatty acids are associated with blood pressure 27 y later in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2012 Jun 9;95(6):1422-31. Epub 2012 May 9.

Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Background: In adults, dietary fatty acids (FAs) modify blood pressure (BP), but it is not known whether childhood FA quality is associated with adulthood BP.

Objective: The purpose of the study was to investigate links between childhood serum cholesterol ester fatty acid (CEFA) proportions and adulthood systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP).

Design: We examined a cohort of 803 boys and girls (aged 3-18 y at baseline in 1980 and followed for 27 y) by using regression models adjusted for the known risk factors of BP. CEFAs were analyzed as markers of dietary FA intake.

Results: In men, serum SFA (B = 2.97, P < 0.001 for SBP; B = 1.48, P = 0.015 for DBP), MUFA (B = 0.61, P = 0.001 for SBP; B = 0.27, P = 0.078 for DBP), and omega-3 (n-3) PUFA (B = 5.50, P < 0.001 for SBP; B = 2.47, P = 0.015 for DBP) proportions, which were derived mainly from animal fats in this population, were positively associated with BP, whereas the omega-6 (n-6) PUFA proportion, which was derived mainly from vegetable oils and margarines, was negatively associated with BP (B = -0.56, P < 0.001 for SBP; B = -0.27, P < 0.018 for DBP). Serum cholesterol ester SFA and PUFA associations were supported by dietary intake data. In women, the associations between CEFA proportions and BP were weaker [for SBP: B = 0.36, P = 0.638 (NS) for SFA; B = 0.44, P = 0.019 for MUFA; B = 1.18, P = 0.376 (NS) for n-3 PUFA; and B = -0.33, P = 0.023 for n-6 PUFA].

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that fat quality as reflected in the serum cholesterol ester fraction in childhood is independently associated with adulthood BP particularly in men but also, to some extent, in women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.111.030387DOI Listing
June 2012

Childhood levels of serum apolipoproteins B and A-I predict carotid intima-media thickness and brachial endothelial function in adulthood: the cardiovascular risk in young Finns study.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2008 Jul;52(4):293-9

Department of Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine whether apolipoproteins (apo) B and A-I measured in childhood and adolescence predict atherosclerosis in adulthood.

Background: Exposure to dyslipidemia in childhood predicts the development of atherosclerosis. Apolipoproteins B and A-I might be good markers of atherogenic dyslipidemia, but there is a paucity of information concerning their importance in childhood.

Methods: Apolipoproteins B and A-I, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, obesity, insulin, C-reactive protein, and smoking were assessed in 1980 and 2001 among 879 subjects in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (ages 3 to 18 years at baseline). Carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) were measured in 2001 at the age of 24 to 39 years.

Results: In subjects ages 12 to 18 years at baseline, apoB and apoB/apoA-I ratio were directly (p < 0.001) related and apoA-I was inversely (p = 0.01) related with adulthood IMT. In subjects ages 3 to 18 years at baseline, apoB (p = 0.02) and the apoB/apoA-I ratio (p < 0.001) were inversely related and apoA-I (p = 0.003) was directly related to adulthood FMD. These relations were not altered when the effects of nonlipid risk factors and adulthood apolipoproteins were taken into account. The apoB/apoA-I ratio measured in adolescence was superior to LDL/HDL ratio (c-values, 0.623 vs. 0.569, p = 0.03) in predicting increased IMT in adulthood (IMT >or=90th percentile and/or carotid plaque).

Conclusions: Apolipoproteins B and A-I measured in children and adolescents reflect a lipoprotein profile predisposing to the development of subclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood. These markers might have value in pediatric lipid risk assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2008.03.054DOI Listing
July 2008

Blood biochemistry and the risk of cancer.

Acta Oncol 2004 ;43(7):667-74

University of Tampere School of Public Health, Finland.

A longitudinal study based on a serum sample bank was carried out in Finland to find out the association between biochemical substances and the subsequent risk of cancer. The objective was to evaluate the consistency between means of individually estimated levels of these compounds and levels based on pooling. Levels of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, retinol, retinol-binding protein, and ceruloplasmin were estimated by primary site and sex and partly by age and morphology. The concentrations in pooled samples were consistently lower than the averages of the individual samples. On the basis of individual samples, all the five biochemical compounds had a rather consistent protective effect on the risk of cancers at most primary sites. This protective effect disappeared in the pool analyses, and more than half of exposure contrasts showed an opposite sign. For ceruloplasmin, the effect of pooling was smaller but not negligible. The results of this study emphasize the demand to standardize the collecting, handling, and analysing of samples in serum banks. They are, furthermore, consistent with the hypothesis that pooling of biochemical samples affects the levels of the substances and may affect the conclusions of epidemiological studies on causes of diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02841860410018566DOI Listing
February 2005
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