Publications by authors named "Tapas Manna"

25 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Ubiquitin signaling in the control of centriole duplication.

FEBS J 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram, Vithura, India.

The centrosome plays an essential role in maintaining genetic stability, ciliogenesis and cell polarisation. The core of the centrosome is made up of two centrioles that duplicate precisely once during every cell cycle to generate two centrosomes that are required for bipolar spindle assembly and chromosome segregation. Abundance of centriole proteins at optimal levels and their recruitment to the centrosome are tightly regulated in time and space in order to restrict aberrant duplication of centrioles, a phenomenon that is observed in many cancers. Recent advances have conclusively shown that dedicated ubiquitin ligase-dependent protein degradation machineries are involved in governing centriole duplication. These studies revealed intricate mechanistic insights into how the ubiquitin ligases target different centriole proteins. In certain cases, a specific ubiquitin ligase targets a number of substrate proteins that co-regulate centriole assembly, prompting the possibility that substrate-targeting occurs during formation of the sub-centriolar structures. There are also instances where a specific centriole duplication protein is targeted by several ubiquitin ligases at different stages of the cell cycle, suggesting synchronised actions. Recent evidence also indicated a direct association of E3 ubiquitin ligase with the centrioles, supporting the notion that substrate-targeting occurs in the organelle itself. In this review, we highlight these advances by underlining the mechanisms of how different ubiquitin ligase machineries control centriole duplication and discuss our views on their coordination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.16069DOI Listing
June 2021

SxIP binding disrupts the constitutive homodimer interface of EB1 and stabilizes EB1 monomer.

Biophys J 2021 05 16;120(10):2019-2029. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

School of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Electronic address:

SxIP is a microtubule tip localizing signal found in many +TIP proteins that bind to the hydrophobic cavity of the C-terminal domain of end binding protein 1 (EB1) and then positively regulate the microtubule plus-end tracking of EBs. However, the exact mechanism of microtubule activation of EBs in the presence of SxIP signaling motif is not known. Here, we studied the effect of SxIP peptide on the native conformation of EB1 in solution. Using various NMR experiments, we found that SxIP peptide promoted the dissociation of natively formed EB1 dimer. We also discovered that I224A mutation of EB1 resulted in an unfolded C-terminal domain, which upon binding with the SxIP motif folded to its native structure. Molecular dynamics simulations also confirmed the relative structural stability of EB1 monomer in the SxIP bound state. Residual dipolar couplings and heteronuclear NOE analysis suggested that the binding of SxIP peptide at the C-terminal domain of EB1 decreased the dynamics and conformational flexibility of the N-terminal domain involved in EB1-microtubule interaction. The SxIP-induced disruption of the dimeric interactions in EB1, coupled with the reduction in conformational flexibility of the N-terminal domain of EB1, might facilitate the microtubule association of EB1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2021.03.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8204336PMC
May 2021

SAS-6 Association with γ-Tubulin Ring Complex Is Required for Centriole Duplication in Human Cells.

Curr Biol 2020 06 21;30(12):2395-2403.e4. Epub 2020 May 21.

School of Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram, Vithura, Thiruvananthapuram 695551, Kerala, India. Electronic address:

Centrioles are essential components of centrosome, the main microtubule-organizing center of animal cells required for robust spindle bipolarity [1, 2]. They are duplicated once during the cell cycle [3], and the duplication involves assembly of a cartwheel on the pre-existing centriole followed by assembly of triplet microtubules around the cartwheel [4, 5]. Although the molecular details of cartwheel formation are understood [6-13], the mechanisms initiating the formation of centriolar microtubules are not known. Here, we show that the central component of cartwheel, HsSAS-6 plays a crucial role in the formation of centriolar microtubules by interacting with the microtubule nucleation machinery, γ-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC) in human cells. The globular N terminus and the central coiled-coil domain of SAS-6 are required for formation of the cartwheel [7, 14], whereas the function of its C-terminal outer cartwheel region in centriole duplication remains unclear. We find that deletion of HsSAS-6 C terminus disrupts microtubule formation in daughter centriole, and as a result, cells fail to form the new centriole. Consequently, this results in mitotic cells having only two centrioles localized at a single site. Detailed molecular analyses showed that HsSAS-6 interacts with the γ-TuRC proteins and associates with the γ-TuRC at the centrosome, and furthermore, the C terminus is essential for this association. High-resolution microscopy revealed localization of the γ-TuRC protein, γ-tubulin as multiple lobes surrounding the HsSAS-6-containing central hub in the centriole. Together, the results indicate that HsSAS-6 regulates centriolar microtubule assembly by anchoring γ-TuRCs to the pro-centriole at the onset of daughter centriole formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.04.036DOI Listing
June 2020

The ubiquitin ligase FBXW7 targets the centriolar assembly protein HsSAS-6 for degradation and thereby regulates centriole duplication.

J Biol Chem 2020 04 21;295(14):4428-4437. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

School of Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram, Vithura, Thiruvananthapuram 695551, Kerala, India

Formation of a single new centriole from a pre-existing centriole is strictly controlled to maintain correct centrosome number and spindle polarity in cells. However, the mechanisms that govern this process are incompletely understood. Here, using several human cell lines, immunofluorescence and structured illumination microscopy methods, and ubiquitination assays, we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7 (FBXW7), a subunit of the SCF ubiquitin ligase, down-regulates spindle assembly 6 homolog (HsSAS-6), a key protein required for procentriole cartwheel assembly, and thereby regulates centriole duplication. We found that FBXW7 abrogation stabilizes HsSAS-6 and increases its recruitment to the mother centriole at multiple sites, leading to supernumerary centrioles. Ultrastructural analyses revealed that FBXW7 is broadly localized on the mother centriole and that its presence is reduced at the site where the HsSAS-6-containing procentriole is formed. This observation suggested that FBXW7 restricts procentriole assembly to a specific site to generate a single new centriole. In contrast, during HsSAS-6 overexpression, FBXW7 strongly associated with HsSAS-6 at the centriole. We also found that SCF interacts with HsSAS-6 and targets it for ubiquitin-mediated degradation. Further, we identified putative phosphodegron sites in HsSAS-6, whose substitutions rendered it insensitive to FBXW7-mediated degradation and control of centriole number. In summary, SCF targets HsSAS-6 for degradation and thereby controls centriole biogenesis by restraining HsSAS-6 recruitment to the mother centriole, a molecular mechanism that controls supernumerary centrioles/centrosomes and the maintenance of bipolar spindles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.AC119.012178DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7135989PMC
April 2020

Aurora A site specific TACC3 phosphorylation regulates astral microtubule assembly by stabilizing γ-tubulin ring complex.

BMC Mol Cell Biol 2019 12 10;20(1):58. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

School of Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Thiruvananthapuram, Vithura, Thiruvananthapuram, 695551, India.

Background: Astral microtubules emanating from the mitotic centrosomes play pivotal roles in defining cell division axis and tissue morphogenesis. Previous studies have demonstrated that human transforming acidic coiled-coil 3 (TACC3), the most conserved TACC family protein, regulates formation of astral microtubules at centrosomes in vertebrate cells by affecting γ-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC) assembly. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such function were not completely understood.

Results: Here, we show that Aurora A site-specific phosphorylation in TACC3 regulates formation of astral microtubules by stabilizing γ-TuRC assembly in human cells. Mutation of the most conserved Aurora A targeting site, Ser 558 to alanine (S558A) in TACC3 results in robust loss of astral microtubules and disrupts localization of the γ-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC) proteins at the spindle poles. Under similar condition, phospho-mimicking S558D mutation retains astral microtubules and the γ-TuRC proteins in a manner similar to control cells expressed with wild type TACC3. Time-lapse imaging reveals that S558A mutation leads to defects in positioning of the spindle-poles and thereby causes delay in metaphase to anaphase transition. Biochemical results determine that the Ser 558- phosphorylated TACC3 interacts with the γ-TuRC proteins and further, S558A mutation impairs the interaction. We further reveal that the mutation affects the assembly of γ-TuRC from the small complex components.

Conclusions: The results demonstrate that TACC3 phosphorylation stabilizes γ- tubulin ring complex assembly and thereby regulates formation of centrosomal asters. They also implicate a potential role of TACC3 phosphorylation in the functional integrity of centrosomes/spindle poles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12860-019-0242-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6902513PMC
December 2019

GTP-binding facilitates EB1 recruitment onto microtubules by relieving its auto-inhibition.

Sci Rep 2018 06 28;8(1):9792. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

School of Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Thiruvananthapuram, CET Campus, Thiruvananthapuram, 695016, Kerala, India.

Microtubule plus end-binding protein, EB1 is a key regulator of microtubule dynamics. Auto-inhibitory interaction in EB1 has previously been shown to inhibit its ability to bind to microtubules and regulate microtubule dynamics. However, the factors that promote its microtubule regulatory activity by over-coming the auto-inhibition are less known. Here, we show that GTP plays a critical role in promoting the microtubule-targeting activity of EB1 by suppressing its auto-inhibition. Our biophysical data demonstrate that GTP binds to EB1 at a distinct site in its conserved N-terminal domain. Detailed analyses reveal that GTP-binding suppresses the intra-molecular inhibitory interaction between the globular N-terminus and the C-terminal coiled-coil domain. We further show that mutation of the GTP-binding site residues in N-terminus weakens the affinity for GTP, but also for the C-terminus, indicating overlapping binding sites. Confocal imaging and biochemical analysis reveal that EB1 localization on the microtubules is significantly increased upon mutations of the GTP-binding site residues. The results demonstrate a unique role of GTP in facilitating EB1 interaction with the microtubules by relieving its intra-molecular inhibition. They also implicate that GTP-binding may regulate the functions of EB1 on the cellular microtubules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-28056-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6023887PMC
June 2018

Regulators of spindle microtubules and their mechanisms: Living together matters.

IUBMB Life 2018 02 4;70(2):101-111. Epub 2018 Jan 4.

School of Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, CET Campus, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

Development and survival of all eukaryotic organisms depend on equal partitioning of their chromosomes between the two newly formed daughter cells during mitosis. The mitotic spindle performs the task of physically segregating the chromosomes through multiple stages of mitosis. During this process, kinetochore-microtubule attachment requires to be selectively stabilized to hold the chromosomes, but at the same time, it has to be flexible enough to allow kinetochore microtubule dynamicity and chromosome movements. Research during the last decade or so has identified a number of proteins associated with the spindle microtubule plus ends that regulate these processes and orchestrate forces to spatially organize and separate the chromosomes. In this review, we describe the molecular details of those regulators and their mechanisms of action at the kinetochore-microtubule interface. © 2018 IUBMB Life, 70(2):101-111, 2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/iub.1708DOI Listing
February 2018

Kinetochore-microtubule interactions in chromosome segregation: lessons from yeast and mammalian cells.

Biochem J 2017 10 18;474(21):3559-3577. Epub 2017 Oct 18.

School of Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Thiruvananthapuram, CET Campus, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695016, India

Chromosome congression and segregation require robust yet dynamic attachment of the kinetochore with the spindle microtubules. Force generated at the kinetochore-microtubule interface plays a vital role to drive the attachment, as it is required to move chromosomes and to provide signal to sense correct attachments. To understand the mechanisms underlying these processes, it is critical to describe how the force is generated and how the molecules at the kinetochore-microtubule interface are organized and assembled to withstand the force and respond to it. Research in the past few years or so has revealed interesting insights into the structural organization and architecture of kinetochore proteins that couple kinetochore attachment to the spindle microtubules. Interestingly, despite diversities in the molecular players and their modes of action, there appears to be architectural similarity of the kinetochore-coupling machines in lower to higher eukaryotes. The present review focuses on the most recent advances in understanding of the molecular and structural aspects of kinetochore-microtubule interaction based on the studies in yeast and vertebrate cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BCJ20170518DOI Listing
October 2017

EB1 regulates attachment of Ska1 with microtubules by forming extended structures on the microtubule lattice.

Nat Commun 2016 05 26;7:11665. Epub 2016 May 26.

School of Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Thiruvananthapuram, CET Campus, Thiruvananthapuram 695016, India.

Kinetochore couples chromosome movement to dynamic microtubules, a process that is fundamental to mitosis in all eukaryotes but poorly understood. In vertebrates, spindle-kinetochore-associated (Ska1-3) protein complex plays an important role in this process. However, the proteins that stabilize Ska-mediated kinetochore-microtubule attachment remain unknown. Here we show that microtubule plus-end tracking protein EB1 facilitates Ska localization on microtubules in vertebrate cells. EB1 depletion results in a significant reduction of Ska1 recruitment onto microtubules and defects in mitotic chromosome alignment, which is also reflected in computational modelling. Biochemical experiments reveal that EB1 interacts with Ska1, facilitates Ska1-microtubule attachment and together stabilizes microtubules. Structural studies reveal that EB1 either with Ska1 or Ska complex forms extended structures on microtubule lattice. Results indicate that EB1 promotes Ska association with K-fibres and facilitates kinetochore-microtubule attachment. They also implicate that in vertebrates, chromosome coupling to dynamic microtubules could be mediated through EB1-Ska extended structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms11665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4894954PMC
May 2016

Human SAS-6 C-Terminus Nucleates and Promotes Microtubule Assembly in Vitro by Binding to Microtubules.

Biochemistry 2015 Oct 7;54(41):6413-22. Epub 2015 Oct 7.

School of Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Thiruvananthapuram , CET Campus, Thiruvananthapuram 695016, Kerala, India.

Centrioles are essential components of the animal centrosome and play crucial roles in the formation of cilia and flagella. They are cylindrical structures composed of nine triplet microtubules organized around a central cartwheel. Recent studies have identified spindle assembly abnormal protein SAS-6 as a critical component necessary for formation of the cartwheel. However, the molecular details of how the cartwheel participates in centriolar microtubule assembly have not been clearly understood. In this report, we show that the C-terminal tail (residues 470-657) of human SAS-6, HsSAS-6 C, the region that has been shown to extend toward the centriolar wall where the microtubule triplets are organized, nucleated and induced microtubule polymerization in vitro. The N-terminus (residues 1-166) of HsSAS-6, the domain known to be involved in formation of the central hub of the cartwheel, did not, however, exert any effect on microtubule polymerization. HsSAS-6 C bound to the microtubules and localized along the lengths of the microtubules in vitro. Microtubule pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) experiments with S-phase synchronized HeLa cell lysates showed that the endogenous HsSAS-6 coprecipitated with the microtubules, and it mediated interaction with tubulin. Isothermal calorimetry titration and size exclusion chromatography showed that HsSAS-6 C bound to the αβ-tubulin dimer in vitro. The results demonstrate that HsSAS-6 possesses an intrinsic microtubule assembly promoting activity and further implicate that its outer exposed C-terminal tail may play critical roles in microtubule assembly and stabilizing microtubule attachment with the centriolar cartwheel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biochem.5b00978DOI Listing
October 2015

Suppression of centrosome protein TACC3 induces G1 arrest and cell death through activation of p38-p53-p21 stress signaling pathway.

Eur J Cell Biol 2015 Feb 5;94(2):90-100. Epub 2015 Jan 5.

School of Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram, CET Campus, Trivandrum 695016, Kerala, India. Electronic address:

The centrosome regulates diverse cellular processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation. TACC3, a member of the human transforming acidic coiled-coil protein family, is a key centrosomal protein that is up-regulated in many cancers. Previous studies have demonstrated that TACC3 is essential for the survival of vertebrates and is involved in cell cycle regulation in human cells. However, the details of the underlying mechanisms in its cell cycle regulatory activity remain poorly understood. In this study, we showed that suppression of TACC3 expression induced G1 cell cycle arrest and triggered cell death in human cells. TACC3 depletion-induced G1 arrest and cell death were significantly reduced in cells either lacking p53 or with pharmacologically-inhibited p38, indicating that G1 arrest and cell death induction both require p53 and p38. TACC3 depletion up-regulated the levels of p53 and p21 and induced the accumulation of p53 both in the nucleus and at the centrosome. Interestingly, TACC3 depletion led to the activation of p38 and stimulated the recruitment of activated p38 to the centrosome. Depletion of TACC3 up-regulated the phosphorylation of p53 at Serine 33, a site known to be phosphorylated by p38 under cellular stress and further induced the accumulation of phosphorylated p53 to the centrosome. Loss of TACC3 affected centrosome integrity by disrupting the localization of components of the γ-tubulin ring complex at the centrosome. The results demonstrate that TACC3 depletion induces G1 arrest and cell death by activating p38-p53-p21 signaling and triggering a centrosome-mediated cellular stress response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejcb.2014.12.001DOI Listing
February 2015

+TIP EB1 downregulates paclitaxel‑induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis in breast cancer cells through inhibition of paclitaxel binding on microtubules.

Int J Oncol 2015 Jan 7;46(1):133-46. Epub 2014 Oct 7.

School of Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, CET Campus, Thiruvananthapuram 695016, Kerala, India.

Microtubule plus‑end‑binding protein (+TIP) EB1 has been shown to be upregulated in breast cancer cells and promote breast tumor growth in vivo. However, its effect on the cellular actions of microtubule‑targeted drugs in breast cancer cells has remained poorly understood. By using cellular and biochemical assays, we demonstrate that EB1 plays a critical role in regulating the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to anti‑microtubule drug, paclitaxel (PTX). Cell viability assays revealed that EB1 expression in the breast cancer cell lines correlated with the reduction of their sensitivity to PTX. Knockdown of EB1 by enzymatically‑prepared siRNA pools (esiRNAs) increased PTX‑induced cytotoxicity and sensitized cells to PTX‑induced apoptosis in three breast cancer cell lines, MCF‑7, MDA MB‑231 and T47D. Apoptosis was associated with activation of caspase‑9 and an increase in the cleavage of poly(ADP‑ribose) polymerase (PARP). p53 and Bax were upregulated and Bcl2 was downregulated in the EB1‑depleted PTX‑treated MCF‑7 cells, indicating that the apoptosis occurs via a p53‑dependent pathway. Following its upregulation, the nuclear accumulation of p53 and its association with cellular microtubules were increased. EB1 depletion increased PTX‑induced microtubule bundling in the interphase cells and induced formation of multiple spindle foci with abnormally elongated spindles in the mitotic MCF‑7 cells, indicating that loss of EB1 promotes PTX‑induced stabilization of microtubules. EB1 inhibited PTX‑induced microtubule polymerization and diminished PTX binding to microtubules in vitro, suggesting that it modulates the binding sites of PTX at the growing microtubule ends. Results demonstrate that EB1 downregulates inhibition of PTX‑induced proliferation and apoptosis in breast cancer cells through a mechanism in which it impairs PTX‑mediated stabilization of microtubule polymerization and inhibits PTX binding on microtubules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2014.2701DOI Listing
January 2015

TACC3 protein regulates microtubule nucleation by affecting γ-tubulin ring complexes.

J Biol Chem 2014 Nov 22;289(46):31719-31735. Epub 2014 Sep 22.

School of Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Thiruvananthapuram, CET Campus, Thiruvananthapuram 695016, Kerala, India. Electronic address:

Centrosome-mediated microtubule nucleation is essential for spindle assembly during mitosis. Although γ-tubulin complexes have primarily been implicated in the nucleation process, details of the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that a member of the human transforming acidic coiled-coil (TACC) protein family, TACC3, plays a critical role in microtubule nucleation at the centrosome. In mitotic cells, TACC3 knockdown substantially affected the assembly of microtubules in the astral region and impaired microtubule nucleation at the centrosomes. The TACC3 depletion-induced mitotic phenotype was rescued by expression of the TACC3 C terminus predominantly consisting of the TACC domain, suggesting that the TACC domain plays an important role in microtubule assembly. Consistently, experiments with the recombinant TACC domain of TACC3 demonstrated that this domain possesses intrinsic microtubule nucleating activity. Co-immunoprecipitation and sedimentation experiments revealed that TACC3 mediates interactions with proteins of both the γ-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC) and the γ-tubulin small complex (γ-TuSC). Interestingly, TACC3 depletion resulted in reduced levels of γ-TuRC and increased levels of γ-TuSC, indicating that the assembly of γ-TuRC from γ-TuSC requires TACC3. Detailed analyses suggested that TACC3 facilitates the association of γ-TuSC-specific proteins with the proteins known to be involved in the assembly of γ-TuRC. Consistent with such a role for TACC3, the suppression of TACC3 disrupted localization of γ-TuRC proteins to the centrosome. Our findings reveal that TACC3 is involved in the regulation of microtubule nucleation at the centrosome and functions in the stabilization of the γ-tubulin ring complex assembly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M114.575100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4231652PMC
November 2014

Microtubule +TIP protein EB1 binds to GTP and undergoes dissociation from dimer to monomer on binding GTP.

Biochemistry 2014 Sep 21;53(34):5551-7. Epub 2014 Aug 21.

School of Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram , CET Campus, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695016, India.

The +TIP protein EB1 autonomously tracks the growing plus end of microtubules and regulates plus-end dynamics. Previous studies have indicated that EB1 can recognize GTP-bound tubulin structures at the plus end, and it localizes on the microtubule surface at a site close to the exchangeable GTP-binding site of tubulin. Although the GTP-dependent structural change in tubulin has been demonstrated to be a critical determinant for recognition of plus ends by EB1, the effect of GTP on the structure of EB1 has remained unclear. Here, we have used spectroscopic, calorimetric, and biochemical methods to analyze the effect of GTP on EB1 in vitro. Isothermal titration calorimetry and tryptophan fluorescence quenching experiments demonstrated that EB1 binds to GTP with a dissociation constant ~30 μM. Circular dichroism measurements showed that EB1 undergoes changes in its secondary structure on binding GTP. Size-exclusion chromatography and urea-induced unfolding analyses revealed that GTP binding induces dissociation of the EB1 dimer to monomers. Size-exclusion chromatography followed by biochemical analysis further determined that EB1-GTP binding involves association of approximately one molecule of GTP per EB1 monomer. The results reveal a hitherto unknown GTP-dependent mechanism of dimer-to-monomer transition in EB1 and further implicate its possible role in regulating the stability of the EB1 dimer vs monomer as well as plus-end regulation in cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi5007942DOI Listing
September 2014

CIL-102 binds to tubulin at colchicine binding site and triggers apoptosis in MCF-7 cells by inducing monopolar and multinucleated cells.

Biochem Pharmacol 2012 Sep 15;84(5):633-45. Epub 2012 Jun 15.

School of Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram, CET Campus, Thiruvananthapuram 695016, Kerala, India.

A plant dictamine analog, 1-[4-(furo[2,3-b]quinolin-4-ylamino)phenyl]ethanone (CIL-102) has been shown to exert potent anti-tumor activity. In this study, we examined the mode of interaction of CIL-102 with tubulin and unraveled the cellular mechanism responsible for its anti-tumor activity. CIL-102 bound to tubulin at a single site with a dissociation constant ~0.4 μM. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that CIL-102-tubulin interaction is highly enthalpy driven and that the binding affords a large negative heat capacity change (ΔC(p) = -790 cal mol(-1) K(-1)) with an enthalpy-entropy compensation. An analysis of the modified Dixon plot suggested that CIL-102 competitively inhibited the binding of podophyllotoxin, a colchicine-binding site agent, to tubulin. Computational modeling indicated that CIL-102 binds exclusively at the β-subunit of tubulin and that CIL-102 and colchicine partially share their binding sites on tubulin. It bound to tubulin reversibly and the binding was estimated to be ~1000 times faster than that of colchicine. CIL-102 potently inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, induced monopolar spindle formation and multi-nucleation. At half-maximal inhibitory concentration, the spindle microtubules were visibly depolymerized and disorganized. CIL-102 reduced the inter-polar distances of bipolar mitotic cells indicating that it impaired microtubule-kinetochore attachments. CIL-102-treatment induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells in association with increased nuclear accumulation of p53 and p21 suggesting that apoptosis is triggered through a p53-p21 dependent pathway. The results indicated that CIL-102 exerted anti-proliferative activity by disrupting microtubule functions through tubulin binding and provided important insights into the differential mode of tubulin binding by CIL-102 and colchicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2012.06.008DOI Listing
September 2012

Regulation of microtubule dynamic instability in vitro by differentially phosphorylated stathmin.

J Biol Chem 2009 Jun 8;284(23):15640-9. Epub 2009 Apr 8.

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology and the Neuroscience Research Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA.

Stathmin is an important regulator of microtubule polymerization and dynamics. When unphosphorylated it destabilizes microtubules in two ways, by reducing the microtubule polymer mass through sequestration of soluble tubulin into an assembly-incompetent T2S complex (two alpha:beta tubulin dimers per molecule of stathmin), and by increasing the switching frequency (catastrophe frequency) from growth to shortening at plus and minus ends by binding directly to the microtubules. Phosphorylation of stathmin on one or more of its four serine residues (Ser(16), Ser(25), Ser(38), and Ser(63)) reduces its microtubule-destabilizing activity. However, the effects of phosphorylation of the individual serine residues of stathmin on microtubule dynamic instability have not been investigated systematically. Here we analyzed the effects of stathmin singly phosphorylated at Ser(16) or Ser(63), and doubly phosphorylated at Ser(25) and Ser(38), on its ability to modulate microtubule dynamic instability at steady-state in vitro. Phosphorylation at either Ser(16) or Ser(63) strongly reduced or abolished the ability of stathmin to bind to and sequester soluble tubulin and its ability to act as a catastrophe factor by directly binding to the microtubules. In contrast, double phosphorylation of Ser(25) and Ser(38) did not affect the binding of stathmin to tubulin or microtubules or its catastrophe-promoting activity. Our results indicate that the effects of stathmin on dynamic instability are strongly but differently attenuated by phosphorylation at Ser(16) and Ser(63) and support the hypothesis that selective targeting by Ser(16)-specific or Ser(63)-specific kinases provides complimentary mechanisms for regulating microtubule function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M900343200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2708860PMC
June 2009

Dynein light intermediate chain 1 is required for progress through the spindle assembly checkpoint.

EMBO J 2009 Apr 19;28(7):902-14. Epub 2009 Feb 19.

Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA.

The spindle assembly checkpoint monitors microtubule attachment to kinetochores and tension across sister kinetochores to ensure accurate division of chromosomes between daughter cells. Cytoplasmic dynein functions in the checkpoint, apparently by moving critical checkpoint components off kinetochores. The dynein subunit required for this function is unknown. Here we show that human cells depleted of dynein light intermediate chain 1 (LIC1) delay in metaphase with increased interkinetochore distances; dynein remains intact, localised and functional. The checkpoint proteins Mad1/2 and Zw10 localise to kinetochores under full tension, whereas BubR1 is diminished at kinetochores. Metaphase delay and increased interkinetochore distances are suppressed by depletion of Mad1, Mad2 or BubR1 or by re-expression of wtLIC1 or a Cdk1 site phosphomimetic LIC1 mutant, but not Cdk1-phosphorylation-deficient LIC1. When the checkpoint is activated by microtubule depolymerisation, Mad1/2 and BubR1 localise to kinetochores. We conclude that a Cdk1 phosphorylated form of LIC1 is required to remove Mad1/2 and Zw10 but not BubR1 from kinetochores during spindle assembly checkpoint silencing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/emboj.2009.38DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2670866PMC
April 2009

TCNE-aniline charge transfer complex: ab initio and TDDFT investigations in gas phase.

J Mol Model 2009 Aug 27;15(8):885-95. Epub 2009 Jan 27.

Department of Chemistry, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan, 713 104, India.

The geometric and electronic structure of tetracyanoethylene (TCNE)-aniline (donor-acceptor type) complex has been investigated in gas phase using ab initio and time dependent density functional theory calculations. Both the above calculations predict a composed structure for the complex, in which the interacting site is a C[triple bond]N and C=C bond center in the TCNE and, -NH(2) and pi-electrons of aniline. The N atom of aniline is oriented toward the TCNE molecule. The charge transfer transition energy, estimated by calculating the ground-to-excited state transition electric dipole moments of the complex, agree well with the reported experimental value in chloroform medium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00894-008-0443-4DOI Listing
August 2009

Suppression of microtubule dynamic instability by the +TIP protein EB1 and its modulation by the CAP-Gly domain of p150glued.

Biochemistry 2008 Jan 15;47(2):779-86. Epub 2007 Dec 15.

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology and the Neuroscience Research Institute, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA.

The EB1+TIP protein family and its binding partners track growing plus ends of microtubules in cells and are thought to regulate their dynamics. Here we determined the effects of EB1 and the N-terminal CAP-Gly domain (p150n) of one of its major binding partners, p150Glued, both separately and together, on the dynamic instability parameters at plus ends of purified steady-state microtubules. With EB1 alone, the shortening rate, the extent of shortening, and the catastrophe frequency were suppressed in the absence of significant effects on the growth rate or rescue frequency. The effects of EB1 on dynamics were significantly different when p150n was added together with EB1. The rate and extent of shortening and the catastrophe frequency were suppressed 3-4 times more strongly than with EB1 alone. In addition, the EB1-p150n complex increased the rescue frequency and the mean length the microtubules grew, parameters that were not significantly affected by EB1 alone. Similarly, deletion of EB1's C-terminal tail, which is a crucial binding region for p150n, significantly increased the ability of EB1 to suppress shortening dynamics. EB1 by itself bound along the length of the microtubules with 1 mol of EB1 dimer bound per approximately 12 mol of tubulin dimer. Approximately twice the amount of EB1 was recruited to the microtubules in the presence of p150n. Our results indicate that inactivation of EB1's flexible C-terminal tail significantly changes EB1's ability to modulate microtubule dynamics. They further suggest that p150Glued may activate and thereby facilitate the recruitment of EB1 to the tips of microtubules to regulate their dynamics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi701912gDOI Listing
January 2008

Mechanism of action of the microtubule-targeted antimitotic depsipeptide tasidotin (formerly ILX651) and its major metabolite tasidotin C-carboxylate.

Cancer Res 2007 Apr;67(8):3767-76

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology and the Neuroscience Research Institute, University of California-Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA.

Tasidotin (ILX-651), an orally active synthetic microtubule-targeted derivative of the marine depsipeptide dolastatin-15, is currently undergoing clinical evaluation for cancer treatment. Tasidotin inhibited proliferation of MCF7/GFP breast cancer cells with an IC(50) of 63 nmol/L and inhibited mitosis with an IC(50) of 72 nmol/L in the absence of detectable effects on spindle microtubule polymer mass. Tasidotin inhibited the polymerization of purified tubulin into microtubules weakly (IC(50) approximately 30 micromol/L). However, it strongly suppressed the dynamic instability behavior of the microtubules at their plus ends at concentrations approximately 5 to 10 times below those required to inhibit polymerization. Its major actions were to reduce the shortening rate, the switching frequency from growth to shortening (catastrophe frequency), and the fraction of time the microtubules grew. In contrast with all other microtubule-targeted drugs thus far examined that can inhibit polymerization, tasidotin did not inhibit the growth rate. In contrast to stabilizing plus ends, tasidotin enhanced microtubule dynamic instability at minus ends, increasing the shortening length, the fraction of time the microtubules shortened, and the catastrophe frequency and reducing the rescue frequency. Tasidotin C-carboxylate, the major intracellular metabolite of tasidotin, altered dynamic instability of purified microtubules in a qualitatively similar manner to tasidotin but was 10 to 30 times more potent. The results suggest that the principal mechanism by which tasidotin inhibits cell proliferation is by suppressing spindle microtubule dynamics. Tasidotin may be a relatively weak prodrug for the functionally active tasidotin C-carboxylate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-3065DOI Listing
April 2007

Stathmin family protein SCG10 differentially regulates the plus and minus end dynamics of microtubules at steady state in vitro: implications for its role in neurite outgrowth.

Biochemistry 2007 Mar 21;46(11):3543-52. Epub 2007 Feb 21.

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology and the Neuroscience Research Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA.

SCG10 (superior cervical ganglia neural-specific 10 protein) is a neuron specific member of the stathmin family of microtubule regulatory proteins that like stathmin can bind to soluble tubulin and depolymerize microtubules. The direct actions of SCG10 on microtubules themselves and on their dynamics have not been investigated previously. Here, we analyzed the effects of SCG10 on the dynamic instability behavior of microtubules in vitro, both at steady state and early during microtubule polymerization. In contrast to stathmin, whose major action on dynamics is to destabilize microtubules by increasing the switching frequency from growth to shortening (the catastrophe frequency) at microtubule ends, SCG10 stabilized the plus ends both at steady state and early during polymerization by increasing the rate and extent of growth. For example, early during polymerization at high initial tubulin concentrations (20 microM), a low molar ratio of SCG10 to tubulin of 1:30 increased the growth rate by approximately 50%. In contrast to its effects at plus ends, SCG10 destabilized minus ends by increasing the shortening rate, the length shortened during shortening events, and the catastrophe frequency. Consistent with its ability to modulate microtubule dynamics at steady state, SCG10 bound to purified microtubules along their lengths. The dual activity of SCG10 at opposite microtubule ends may be important for its role in regulating growth cone microtubule dynamics. SCG10's ability to promote plus end growth may facilitate microtubule extension into filopodia, and its ability to destabilize minus ends could provide soluble tubulin for net plus end elongation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi061819dDOI Listing
March 2007

Antimitotic sulfonamides inhibit microtubule assembly dynamics and cancer cell proliferation.

Biochemistry 2006 May;45(17):5440-9

School of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076, India.

Several sulfonamides have antitumor activities and are currently undergoing clinical evaluation for the treatment of cancer. In this study, we have elucidated the antiproliferative mechanism of action of five indole sulfonamides. The indole sulfonamides inhibited the polymerization of microtubule protein into microtubules in vitro. In addition, three representative derivatives, ER-68378 (2), ER-68384 (4) and ER-68394 (5), suppressed the dynamic instability behavior at the plus ends of individual steady-state microtubules in vitro. The analogues inhibited HeLa cell proliferation with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations in the range of 6-17 microM. The compounds blocked cell cycle progression at mitosis. At their lowest effective antimitotic concentrations, they depolymerized the spindle microtubules and disorganized the chromosomes but did not affect the microtubules in interphase cells. However, at relatively high concentrations, interphase microtubules were also depolymerized by these sulfonamides. Furthermore, all five compounds were found to induce apoptosis in the cells in association with the phosphorylation of bcl-2. The results suggest that the indole sulfonamides inhibit cell proliferation at mitosis by perturbing the assembly dynamics of spindle microtubules and that they can kill cancer cells by inducing apoptosis through the bcl-2-dependent pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi0523409DOI Listing
May 2006

Stathmin strongly increases the minus end catastrophe frequency and induces rapid treadmilling of bovine brain microtubules at steady state in vitro.

J Biol Chem 2006 Jan 28;281(4):2071-8. Epub 2005 Nov 28.

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA.

Stathmin is a ubiquitous microtubule destabilizing protein that is believed to play an important role linking cell signaling to the regulation of microtubule dynamics. Here we show that stathmin strongly destabilizes microtubule minus ends in vitro at steady state, conditions in which the soluble tubulin and microtubule levels remain constant. Stathmin increased the minus end catastrophe frequency approximately 13-fold at a stathmin:tubulin molar ratio of 1:5. Stathmin steady-state catastrophe-promoting activity was considerably stronger at the minus ends than at the plus ends. Consistent with its ability to destabilize minus ends, stathmin strongly increased the treadmilling rate of bovine brain microtubules. By immunofluorescence microscopy, we also found that stathmin binds to purified microtubules along their lengths in vitro. Co-sedimentation of purified microtubules polymerized in the presence of a 1:5 initial molar ratio of stathmin to tubulin yielded a binding stoichiometry of 1 mol of stathmin per approximately 14.7 mol of tubulin in the microtubules. The results firmly establish that stathmin can increase the steady-state catastrophe frequency by a direct action on microtubules, and furthermore, they indicate that an important regulatory action of stathmin in cells may be to destabilize microtubule minus ends.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M510661200DOI Listing
January 2006

The primary antimitotic mechanism of action of the synthetic halichondrin E7389 is suppression of microtubule growth.

Mol Cancer Ther 2005 Jul;4(7):1086-95

Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of California Santa Barbara, 93106-9610, USA.

E7389, which is in phase I and II clinical trials, is a synthetic macrocyclic ketone analogue of the marine sponge natural product halichondrin B. Whereas its mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated, its main target seems to be tubulin and/or the microtubules responsible for the construction and proper function of the mitotic spindle. Like most microtubule-targeted antitumor drugs, it inhibits tumor cell proliferation in association with G(2)-M arrest. It binds to tubulin and inhibits microtubule polymerization. We examined the mechanism of action of E7389 with purified microtubules and in living cells and found that, unlike antimitotic drugs including vinblastine and paclitaxel that suppress both the shortening and growth phases of microtubule dynamic instability, E7389 seems to work by an end-poisoning mechanism that results predominantly in inhibition of microtubule growth, but not shortening, in association with sequestration of tubulin into aggregates. In living MCF7 cells at the concentration that half-maximally blocked cell proliferation and mitosis (1 nmol/L), E7389 did not affect the shortening events of microtubule dynamic instability nor the catastrophe or rescue frequencies, but it significantly suppressed the rate and extent of microtubule growth. Vinblastine, but not E7389, inhibited the dilution-induced microtubule disassembly rate. The results suggest that, at its lowest effective concentrations, E7389 may suppress mitosis by directly binding to microtubule ends as unliganded E7389 or by competition of E7389-induced tubulin aggregates with unliganded soluble tubulin for addition to growing microtubule ends. The result is formation of abnormal mitotic spindles that cannot pass the metaphase/anaphase checkpoint.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-04-0345DOI Listing
July 2005

MAP2 prevents protein aggregation and facilitates reactivation of unfolded enzymes.

Eur J Biochem 2004 Apr;271(8):1488-96

Department of Biochemistry, Centenary Campus, PI/12, Bose Institute, CIT Scheme VIIM, Calcutta 700-054, India.

It is well established that in addition to its functional role in cell motility, cell division and intracellular transport, cytoskeletal protein tubulin also possesses significant chaperone-like activity. In vitro studies from our laboratory showed that dimeric tubulin can prevent stress induced aggregation of substrate proteins, can resist thermal deactivation of enzymes and can also refold enzymes from their fully denatured state [Manna, T., Sarkar, T., Poddar, A., Roychowdhury, M., Das, K.P. & Bhattacharyya, B. (2001) J. Biol. Chem.276, 39742-39747]. Negative charges of the C-termini of both subunits of tubulin are essential for this chaperone-like property as the deletion of only beta-C-terminus or the binding of a 14-residue basic peptide P2 to the alpha-C-terminus completely abolishes this property [Sarkar, T., Manna, T., Bhattacharyya, S., Mahapatra, P., Poddar, A., Roy, S., Pena, J., Solana, R., Tarazona, R. & Bhattacharyya, B. (2001) Proteins Struct. Funct. Genet.44, 262-269]. Based on these results, one would expect that the microtubular proteins (MTP, tubulin with microtubular-associated proteins, i.e. MAPs bound to the C-terminus) should not possess any chaperone-like activity. To our surprise we noticed excellent chaperone-like activity of MTP. MTP prevents chemical and thermal aggregation of other proteins and can enhance the extent of refolding of fully unfolded substrate enzymes. Because MTP contains tubulin as well as several MAPs bound to the C-termini of tubulin, we fractionated and purified microtubular associated protein 2 (MAP2) and tau using phosphocellulose chromatography. Experiments with purified proteins demonstrated that it is the MAP2 of MTP that exhibits significant chaperone-like activity. This has been shown by the prevention of dithiothreitol-induced aggregation of insulin, thermal aggregation of alcohol dehydrogenase and regain of enzymatic activity during refolding of unfolded substrates. Tau, which shares a homologous C-terminal domain with MAP2, possesses no such activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1432-1033.2004.04053.xDOI Listing
April 2004
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