Publications by authors named "Taofik Sunmonu"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A Novel Afrocentric Stroke Risk Assessment Score: Models from the Siren Study.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jul 28;30(10):106003. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Medical University of South Carolina, SC, USA.

Background: Stroke risk can be quantified using risk factors whose effect sizes vary by geography and race. No stroke risk assessment tool exists to estimate aggregate stroke risk for indigenous African.

Objectives: To develop Afrocentric risk-scoring models for stroke occurrence.

Materials And Methods: We evaluated 3533 radiologically confirmed West African stroke cases paired 1:1 with age-, and sex-matched stroke-free controls in the SIREN study. The 7,066 subjects were randomly split into a training and testing set at the ratio of 85:15. Conditional logistic regression models were constructed by including 17 putative factors linked to stroke occurrence using the training set. Significant risk factors were assigned constant and standardized statistical weights based on regression coefficients (β) to develop an additive risk scoring system on a scale of 0-100%. Using the testing set, Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves were constructed to obtain a total score to serve as cut-off to discriminate between cases and controls. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) at this cut-off.

Results: For stroke occurrence, we identified 15 traditional vascular factors. Cohen's kappa for validity was maximal at a total risk score of 56% using both statistical weighting approaches to risk quantification and in both datasets. The risk score had a predictive accuracy of 76% (95%CI: 74-79%), sensitivity of 80.3%, specificity of 63.0%, PPV of 68.5% and NPV of 76.2% in the test dataset. For ischemic strokes, 12 risk factors had predictive accuracy of 78% (95%CI: 74-81%). For hemorrhagic strokes, 7 factors had a predictive accuracy of 79% (95%CI: 73-84%).

Conclusions: The SIREN models quantify aggregate stroke risk in indigenous West Africans with good accuracy. Prospective studies are needed to validate this instrument for stroke prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.106003DOI Listing
July 2021

Contribution of Epstein⁻Barr Virus Latent Proteins to the Pathogenesis of Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma.

Pathogens 2018 Jun 27;7(3). Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Institute for Cancer and Genomic Medicine, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.

Pathogenic viruses have evolved to manipulate the host cell utilising a variety of strategies including expression of viral proteins to hijack or mimic the activity of cellular functions. DNA tumour viruses often establish latent infection in which no new virions are produced, characterized by the expression of a restricted repertoire of so-called latent viral genes. These latent genes serve to remodel cellular functions to ensure survival of the virus within host cells, often for the lifetime of the infected individual. However, under certain circumstances, virus infection may contribute to transformation of the host cell; this event is not a usual outcome of infection. Here, we review how the Epstein⁻Barr virus (EBV), the prototypic oncogenic human virus, modulates host cell functions, with a focus on the role of the EBV latent genes in classical Hodgkin lymphoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7030059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6161176PMC
June 2018

Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) enhances detoxification of hepatic and macromolecular oxidants in acetaminophen-intoxicated rats.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2017 Nov;30(6):2109-2117

Phytomedicine and Phytopharmacology Research Group, Plant Sciences Department, University of the Free State, Qwaqwa campus, South Africa.

Oxidative stress is a common pathological condition associated with drug-induced hepatotoxicity. This study investigated Spondias mombin L. aqueous leaf extract on reactive oxygen species and acetaminophen-mediated oxidative onslaught in rats' hepatocytes. Hepatotoxic rats were orally administered with the extract and vitamin C for 4 weeks. The extract dose-dependently scavenged DPPH, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals, with IC values of 0.13, 0.66, and 0.64 mg/mL, and corresponding % inhibitions of 89, 80, and 90%, respectively at 1.0 mg/mL. Ferric ion was also significantly reduced. The marked (p<0.05) increases in the activities of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were reduced following treatment with the extract. The extract also significantly (p<0.05) induced the activities of antioxidant enzymes. These inductions reversed the acetaminophen-enhanced reduction in the specific activities of these enzymes as well as attenuated the observed elevated concentrations of autooxidized products and rived DNA in the acetaminophen-intoxicated animals. The observed effects competed with those of vitamin C and are suggestive of hepatoprotective and antioxidative attributes of the extract. Overall, the data from the present findings suggest that S. Mombin aqueous leaf extract is capable of ameliorating acetaminophen-mediated oxidative hepatic damage via enhancement of antioxidant defense systems.
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November 2017

KINETICS OF MODULATORY ROLE OF L. ON THE SPECIFIC ACTIVITY OF KEY CARBOHYDRATE METABOLIZING ENZYMES.

Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2017 5;14(4):46-53. Epub 2017 Jun 5.

Phytomedicine and Phytopharmacology Research Group, Plant Sciences Department, University of the Free State, Qwaqwa campus, Phuthaditjhaba 9866, South Africa.

Background: The continuous search for new lead compounds as viable inhibitors of specific enzymes linked to carbohydrate metabolism has intensified. L. is one of the therapeutically implicated botanicals against several degenerative diseases including diabetes mellitus.

Materials And Methods: This study evaluated the antioxidant and mechanism(s) of inhibitory potential of aqueous extract of on α-amylase and α-glucosidase . The extract was investigated for its radical scavenging and hypoglycaemic potentials using standard experimental procedures. Lineweaver-Burke plot was used to predict the manner in which the enzymes were inhibited.

Results: The data obtained revealed that the extract moderately and potently inhibited the specific activities of -amylase and -glucosidase, respectively. The inhibition was concentration-related with respective IC values of 5.19 and 0.78 mg/mL relative to that of the control (3.72 and 3.55 mg/mL). The extract also significantly scavenged free radicals and the effects elicited could be ascribed to its phytoconstituents.

Conclusion: The respective competitive and non-competitive mode of action of the extract is due to its inhibitory potentials on the activities of -amylase and -glucosidase. Going forward, in addition to completely characterize the exact compound(s) responsible for the elicited activity in this study, pertinent attention will be given to the evaluation of the identified constituents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21010/ajtcam.v14i4.6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5471481PMC
August 2017

Hepatoprotective potential of Phyllanthus muellarianus leaf extract: studies on hepatic, oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers.

Pharm Biol 2017 Dec;55(1):1662-1670

a Antioxidants, Redox Biology and Toxicology Research Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences , Al-Hikmah University , Ilorin , Nigeria.

Context: Leaves of Phyllanthus muellarianus (Kuntze) Exell. (Euphorbiacea) are widely used in the management of liver disorders in Nigeria. However, no there is no scientific validation to support this use.

Objective: Hepatoprotective effect of Phyllanthus muellarianus aqueous leaf extract was investigated in acetaminophen-induced liver injury mice.

Materials And Methods: Hepatoprotective effect of Phyllanthus muellarianus aqueous leaf extract was evaluated in acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in Swiss albino mice using biomarkers of hepatocellular indices, oxidative stress, proinflammatory factors and lipid peroxidation. Mice received distilled water, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg b.w of Phyllanthus muellarianus aqueous leaf extract, respectively, for seven days. Treatment groups were challenged with 300 mg/kg b.w of acetaminophen on the sixth day.

Results: Oral administration of Phyllanthus muellarianus aqueous leaf extract significantly (p < 0.05) attenuates acetaminophen-mediated alterations in serum alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin and total bilirubin by 76.56, 85.41, 89.39, 82.77 and 78.38%. Similarly, acetaminophen-mediated decrease in activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly attenuated in the liver of mice by 85.10, 80.81, 80.45, 76.23 and 95.22%, respectively. Increased levels of conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, fragmented DNA, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and -8 were significantly lowered by Phyllanthus muellarianus aqueous leaf extract.

Conclusion: Overall, results of this study show that Phyllanthus muellarianus halted acetaminophen-mediated hepatotoxicity due to its capability to enhance antioxidant enzymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2017.1317819DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6130521PMC
December 2017

Medicinal Plants Used in the Management of Diabetes Mellitus 2015.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2015 7;2015:467196. Epub 2015 Oct 7.

Faculty of Sciences and Techniques Errachidia, Moulay Ismail University, 52000 Errachidia, Morocco.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/467196DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4617416PMC
November 2015

Indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in rats: Ameliorative roles of Spondias mombin and Ficus exasperata.

Pharm Biol 2016 27;54(1):180-6. Epub 2015 Mar 27.

a Phytomedicine, Food Factors and Toxicology Research Laboratory, Biochemistry Unit, Department of Biosciences and Biotechnology , Kwara State University , Ilorin , Nigeria .

Context: Spondias mombin Linn (Anacardiaceae) and Ficus exasperata Valh (Moraceae) are botanicals with known phytotherapeutic potentials in the traditional system of medicine in the world.

Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the quantitative polyphenolic constituents and gastroprotective effects of aqueous leaf extracts of Spondias mombin and Ficus exasperata against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

Materials And Methods: Ulceration was induced by a single oral administration of indomethacin (30 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)). Ulcerated rats were orally administered with esomeprazole (a reference drug) at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight, and Spondias mombin and Ficus exasperata at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. once daily for 21 d after ulcer induction. Gastric secretions and antioxidant parameters were thereafter evaluated.

Results: The significantly increased (p < 0.05) ulcer index, gastric volume, malondialdehyde level, and pepsin activity by indomethacin were effectively reduced by 65.40, 36.47, 45.71, and 53.79%, respectively, following treatment with F. exasperata at 200 mg/kg b.w. S. mombin at this regimen also attenuated these parameters by 71.70, 46.62, 50.16, and 55.73%. Moreover, the extracts significantly increase the reduced activity of superoxide dismutase as well as pH and mucin content in the ulcerated rats.

Discussion And Conclusion: These findings are indicative of gastroprotective and antioxidative potentials of the extracts which is also evident in the degree of % inhibition against ulceration. The available data in this study suggest that the extracts proved to be capable of ameliorating indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration and the probable mechanisms are via antioxidative and proton pump inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2015.1029050DOI Listing
September 2016

Indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in rats: Protective roles of nd .

Toxicol Rep 2015 8;2:261-267. Epub 2015 Jan 8.

Phytomedicine and Plant Biochemistry Research Laboratory, Biochemistry Unit, Department of Biological Sciences, Al-Hikmah University, Ilorin, Nigeria.

This study investigated the quantitative polyphenolic constituents and gastroprotective effects of aqueous leaf extracts of and against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Ulceration was induced by a single oral administration of indomethacin (30 mg/kg body weight). Wistar rats were pretreated with esomeprazole (reference drug) at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight, or at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight once daily for 21 days prior to ulcer induction. At the end of the experiment, gastric secretions and antioxidant parameters were evaluated. We observed that the significantly increased ( < 0.05) ulcer index, gastric volume, malondialdehyde level and pepsin activity were effectively reduced following treatment with and . The extracts also markedly attenuated the reduced activity of superoxide dismutase as well as pH and mucin content in the ulcerated rats. These findings are indicative of gastroprotective and antioxidative potentials of the extracts which is also evident in the degree of % inhibition against ulceration. The available data in this study suggest that the extracts of and proved to be capable of ameliorating indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration and the probable mechanisms are via antioxidative and proton pump inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2015.01.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5598261PMC
January 2015

A novel inhibitor of cytokinin degradation (INCYDE) influences the biochemical parameters and photosynthetic apparatus in NaCl-stressed tomato plants.

Planta 2014 Oct 5;240(4):877-89. Epub 2014 Aug 5.

Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, 3209, South Africa.

The effect of 2-chloro-6-(3-methoxyphenyl)aminopurine [inhibitor of cytokinin degradation (INCYDE)] at 10 nM on growth, biochemical and photosynthetic efficiency in sodium chloride (NaCl)-stressed (75, 100 and 150 mM) tomato plants was investigated. NaCl-induced decline in plant vigor index was slightly reversed by both drenching and foliar application of INCYDE. Foliar application of INCYDE significantly increased the flower number in the control and 75 mM NaCl-supplemented plants, while drenching was more effective in 150 mM NaCl-stressed plants. Antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase) were enhanced in the presence of INCYDE in the control and NaCl-stressed plants. Higher concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) associated with oxidative (lipid peroxidation) damage in leaf tissue which was evident in the presence of NaCl stress was significantly attenuated with the drenching and foliar application of INCYDE. Regardless of NaCl concentration, application of INCYDE had no significant influence on maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II. However, the reduced quantum yield of photosystem II and coefficient of photochemical quenching under continuous illumination with actinic light at four intensities (264, 488, 800 and 1,200 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) in NaCl-stressed (100 and 150 mM) tomato plants were significantly alleviated by drenching application with INCYDE. Non-photochemical quenching of the singlet excited state of chlorophyll a and relative electron transfer rate were generally higher in INCYDE-treated plants than in the controls. From an agricultural perspective, these findings indicate the potential of INCYDE in protecting plants against NaCl stress and the possibility of enhanced productivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-014-2126-yDOI Listing
October 2014

Efficacy and safety of medicinal plants used in the management of diabetes mellitus.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014 3;2014:793035. Epub 2014 Apr 3.

Faculty of Sciences and Techniques Errachidia, Moulay Ismail University, 52000 Errachidia, Morocco.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/793035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3996877PMC
May 2014

Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity and Associated Toxicity of Artemisia afra Aqueous Extract in Wistar Rats.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013 4;2013:929074. Epub 2013 Jun 4.

Research Center for Phytomedicine, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa.

Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. is a widely used medicinal plant in South Africa for the treatment of diabetes. This study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity and possible toxicity effect of aqueous leaf extract of the herb administered at different dosages for 15 days in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Administration of the extract at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight significantly (P < 0.05) increased body weight, decreased blood glucose levels, increased glucose tolerance, and improved imbalance in lipid metabolism in diabetic rats. These are indications of antidiabetic property of A. afra with 200 mg/kg body weight of the extract showing the best hypoglycemic action by comparing favourably well with glibenclamide, a standard hypoglycemic drug. The extract at all dosages tested also restored liver function indices and haematological parameters to normal control levels in the diabetic rats, whereas the kidney function indices were only normalized in the diabetic animals administered with 50 mg/kg body weight of the extract. This investigation clearly showed that in addition to its hypoglycemic activity, A. afra may also protect the liver and blood against impairment due to diabetes. However, some kidney functions may be compromised at high dosages of the extract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/929074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3687504PMC
July 2013

Protective role of Artemisia afra aqueous extract on tissue antioxidant defense systems in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2012 1;10(1):15-20. Epub 2012 Oct 1.

Phytomedicine Research Center, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa.

Changes in antioxidant capacity in the body as a result of oxidative stress play an important role in the development of diabetic complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. on antioxidant defense systems in the liver and kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Administration of the extract to diabetic rats for 21 days significantly reduced blood glucose levels and increased body weight. The diabetic animals exhibited decreased levels of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the liver and kidney, which were restored to near normal levels following treatment with the herb. The increased levels of lipid peroxidation observed in the tissues of diabetic rats were also reverted back to near normalcy after administering the extract. These findings revealed the protective role of A. afra on tissues by reducing oxidative stress which could be attributed to its flavonoids content. The efficacy of the plant compared favourably well with glibenclamide, a standard hypoglycemic drug.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3746352PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v10i1.3DOI Listing
April 2014

Artemisia afra Jacq. ameliorates oxidative stress in the pancreas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats.

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2011 7;75(11):2083-6. Epub 2011 Nov 7.

Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Phytomedicine Research Center, Alice 5700, South Africa.

Diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in pancreatic insulin secretion and/or impaired target cell responsiveness to insulin, and Artemisia afra Jacq. is widely used in South Africa to treat the disease, but the mechanism of action is yet to be elucidated. This study explored the effect of oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of A. afra on the pancreas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. We found that the extract significantly reduced blood glucose levels, accompanied by an increase in the serum insulin concentration. Moreover, the antioxidant enzymic activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase also improved significantly after treatment with the extract. Increased pancreatic lipid peroxidation in the diabetic rats was also normalized by the extract. This study indicates that A. afra possesses hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities. Our findings suggest that the herb might exert its anti-diabetic activity by regenerating pancreatic beta cells, thereby stimulating the release of insulin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1271/bbb.100792DOI Listing
March 2012

The effect of Aloe ferox Mill. in the treatment of loperamide-induced constipation in Wistar rats.

BMC Gastroenterol 2010 Aug 19;10:95. Epub 2010 Aug 19.

Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa.

Background: Constipation is the most common gastrointestinal complaint all over the world and it is a risk factor of colorectal cancer. In this study, the efficacy of aqueous leaf extract of Aloe ferox Mill. was studied against loperamide-induced constipation in Wistar rats.

Methods: Constipation was induced by oral administration of loperamide (3 mg/kg body weight) while the control rats received normal saline. The constipated rats were treated with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight/day of the extract for 7 days during which the feeding characteristics, body weight, fecal properties and gastrointestinal transit ratio were monitored.

Results: The extract improved intestinal motility, increased fecal volume and normalized body weight in the constipated rats, which are indications of laxative property of the herb with the 200 mg/kg body weight of the extract showing the best efficacy.

Conclusion: The effect of the extract compares favourably well with senokot, a standard laxative drug. These findings have therefore, lent scientific credence to the folkloric use of the herb as a laxative agent by the people of the Eastern Cape of South Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-230X-10-95DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2931457PMC
August 2010
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