Publications by authors named "Tao Zhou"

1,579 Publications

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Noncovalent Assembly Enabled Strong yet Tough Materials with Room-Temperature Malleability and Healability.

ACS Nano 2022 Aug 5. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Polymer Research Institute of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, P.R. China.

The manufacturing of both metals and polymer materials strongly relies on melt processing at relatively high temperatures which needs complex shaping-cooling equipment, long molding time, and considerable energy consumption. Reducing the processing temperature to achieve room-temperature malleability is heavily desired for low-carbon demands but continues to be a great challenge. Here, we demonstrate a noncovalent assembly strategy to fabricate room-temperature malleable composites embedded by liquid metals with excellent toughness (105.88 MJ m, higher than most traditional plastics and metallic aluminum) and strong mechanical strength (35.49 MPa). The dissociation-reconstruction of supramolecular bonding interactions between assembled nanoparticles and polymer matrix allow the malleable composite with two interchangeable supramolecular states to achieve programming at room temperature stimulated by water vapor and give it self-healing ability (self-healing efficiency of ∼100%; the healed sample can lift about 52,300 times its own weight). Furthermore, the composite also exhibits metallic luster and prospective application in thermal dissipation. This strategy might be an efficient way for the development of a method for strong and tough materials structurally designed to achieve programming at moderate conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.2c05518DOI Listing
August 2022

A Turn-On Fluorescent Chemosensor for Cyanide Ion Detection in Real Water Samples.

Front Chem 2022 18;10:923149. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

School of Public Health, The Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Monitoring and Disease Control, Ministry of Education, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, China.

We have designed and synthesized a novel simple colorimetric fluorescent probe with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) properties. Probe 5-(4-(diphenylamine)phenyl) thiophen-2-formaldehyde exhibited a turn-on fluorescent response to cyanide ion (CN), which induces distinct visual color changes. Probe exhibited a highly selective and sensitive ratiometric fluorescence response for the detection of CN over a wide pH range (4-11) and in the presence of common interferents. The linear detection of CN over the concentration range of 4.00-38.00 µM ( = 0.9916, RSD = 0.02) was monitored by UV-Vis absorption spectrometry (UV-Vis) with the limit of detection determined to be 0.48 µM. The linear detection of CN over the concentration range of 8.00-38.00 µM was examined by fluorescence spectrophotometry ( = 0.99086, RSD = 0.031), and the detection limit was found to be 68.00 nM. The sensing mechanisms were confirmed by H NMR spectroscopic titrations, X-ray crystallographic analysis, and HRMS. Importantly, probe was found to show rapid response, high selectivity, and sensitivity for cyanide anions in real water samples, over the range of 100.17∼100.86% in artificial lake water and 100.54∼101.64% in running water by UV-Vis absorption spectrometry, and over the range of 99.42∼100.71% in artificial lake water and 100.59∼101.17% in running water by fluorescence spectrophotometry. Importantly, this work provides a simple and effective approach which uses an economically cheap and uncomplicated synthetic route for the selective, sensitive, and quantitative detection of CN ions in systems relevant to the environment and health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2022.923149DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9339681PMC
July 2022

The genome-wide identification and adaptive evolution of slc9 genes in Leuciscus waleckii under extremely alkaline conditions.

Gene 2022 Jul 27;840:146769. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China; Fujian Key Laboratory of Genetics and Breeding of Marine Organisms, College of Ocean and Earth Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China. Electronic address:

The solute carrier family 9 (slc9) genes, especially slc9a isoform coding proteins contribute to electroneutral countertransport of H for Na across the plasmalemmal and organellar membranes, intracellular pH and cellular volume regulation as well as the electrolyte, acid-base, and fluid volume homeostasis at the systemic level. These functional properties determine a potential basis for organisms to challenge stressful conditions. However, these well-done researches have been reported more in mammals. Thus, in this study, a total of eleven slc9 genes were identified from the latest version genome of L. waleckii, a cyprinid fish that could tolerate extremely alkaline environments (pH 9.6). The evolutionary footprint of slc9 genes was uncovered via the analysis of copy numbers, gene structure, motif composition, chromosome location and phylogenetic relationship. More importantly, there were two SNPs located on 5' UTR and three non-synonymous mutations in the coding region of the slc9a3.2 gene by comparing freshwater with alkaline water populations attached to resequencing technology. Slc9a3.2 gene was a statistically significant low expression in gill tissue with extremely alkaline pressure. Generally, slc9 gene family in L. waleckii was highly conserved. Several important SNPs with high Fst values were identified where non-synonymous mutations occurred between freshwater and alkaline water populations, and they may play an important role in specific functional differentiation. Slc9 genes had clear tissue expression preferences and were involved in abiotic stress response, indicating their roles in physiological function and strong self-regulating capacity. Our insight into the genetic variations that take place in the individual genes under extreme conditions could provide a feasible example for studying specific molecular mechanisms based on genomic data with increasing environmental stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2022.146769DOI Listing
July 2022

Bioadhesive ultrasound for long-term continuous imaging of diverse organs.

Science 2022 07 28;377(6605):517-523. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

Continuous imaging of internal organs over days could provide crucial information about health and diseases and enable insights into developmental biology. We report a bioadhesive ultrasound (BAUS) device that consists of a thin and rigid ultrasound probe robustly adhered to the skin via a couplant made of a soft, tough, antidehydrating, and bioadhesive hydrogel-elastomer hybrid. The BAUS device provides 48 hours of continuous imaging of diverse internal organs, including blood vessels, muscle, heart, gastrointestinal tract, diaphragm, and lung. The BAUS device could enable diagnostic and monitoring tools for various diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abo2542DOI Listing
July 2022

Disruption of mstn Gene by CRISPR/Cas9 in Large Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea).

Mar Biotechnol (NY) 2022 Jul 27. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

Fujian Key Laboratory of Genetics and Breeding of Marine Organisms, College of Ocean and Earth Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

The large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) plays an economically vital role in the marine aquaculture in China. Suffering from infection of bacteria and protozoon, effect of extreme weather and stress from high-density farming, genome editing is thought to be an important tool applied to L. croea for enhancing commercial traits such as growth rate, disease resistance, and nutrition component. In this study, we identified two mstn genes in L. croea and investigated the different phylogenetic clades, gene structures, and conserved syntenic relationships. To obtain fast-growing large yellow croaker, we specially selected two validated targets for mstnb knockout, which was homologous to mammalian myostatin gene (MSTN) and downregulated skeletal muscle growth and development. Five significant mutation types were generated in two mosaic mutants by transferring specific CRISPR/Cas9 RNPs (ribonucleoprotein) into the one-cell fertilized embryos based on CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Subsequently, we also elucidated the obstacles and possible measures to improve the success rate of inducing modified large yellow croaker. Our results would provide valuable method and reference for facilitating genome editing programs of the large yellow croaker in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10126-022-10135-xDOI Listing
July 2022

Beta-Glucan Alters Gut Microbiota and Plasma Metabolites in Pre-Weaning Dairy Calves.

Metabolites 2022 Jul 26;12(8). Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

The present study aims to evaluate the alterations in gut microbiome and plasma metabolites of dairy calves with β-glucan (BG) supplementation. Fourteen healthy newborn dairy calves with similar body weight were randomly divided into control ( = 7) and BG ( = 7) groups. All the calves were fed on the basal diet, while calves in the BG group were supplemented with oat BG on d 8 for 14 days. Serum markers, fecal microbiome, and plasma metabolites at d 21 were analyzed. The calves were weaned on d 60 and weighed. The mean weaning weight of the BG group was 4.29 kg heavier than that of the control group. Compared with the control group, the levels of serum globulin, albumin, and superoxide dismutase were increased in the BG group. Oat BG intake increased the gut microbiota richness and decreased the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio. Changes in serum markers were found to be correlated with the plasma metabolites, including sphingosine, trehalose, and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol sulfate, and gut microbiota such as , , and . Overall, these results suggest that the BG promotes growth and health of pre-weaning dairy calves by affecting the interaction between the host and gut microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo12080687DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9332571PMC
July 2022

Applying a deep residual network coupling with transfer learning for recyclable waste sorting.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Jul 26. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

The State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai, 200092, China.

Recyclable waste sorting has become a key step for promoting the development of a circular economy with the gradual realization of carbon neutrality around the world. This study aims to develop an intelligent and efficient method for recyclable waste sorting by the method of deep learning. Thus, RWNet models, which refers to various ResNet structures (ResNet-18, ResNet-34, ResNet-50, ResNet-101, and ResNet-152) based on transfer learning, were proposed to classify different types of recyclable waste. Cyclical learning rate and data augmentation were taken to improve the performance of RWNet models. In addition, accuracy, precision, recall, F1 score, and ROC were taken to evaluate the performance of RWNet models. Results showed that the accuracy of various RWNet models is almost at 88%, and the best accuracy is 88.8% in RWNet-152. The highest precision, recall, and F1 score in terms of weighted average value appeared in RWNet-101 (89.9%), RWNet-152 (88.8%), and RWNet-152 (88.9%), respectively. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is higher than 0.9, except for the AUC value of plastic (0.85), which indicated that most of the recyclable waste can be well sorted by RWNet models. This study demonstrates the good performance of RWNet models that can be used to automatically sort most of the recyclable waste, which paves the way for better recyclable waste management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-22167-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9323877PMC
July 2022

Characteristics of HBV Novel Serum Markers across Distinct Phases in Treatment-Naïve Chronic HBV-Infected Patients.

Dis Markers 2022 14;2022:4133283. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

Intervention and Cell Therapy Center, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen Peking University-The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Medical Center, Shenzhen, 518035 Guangdong Province, China.

Methods: A total of 111 patients in total from different disease phases were recruited, including 21 in immune-tolerant (IT) phase, 49 in immune-clearance (IC) phases, 29 in immune-control or low replicative (LR) phase, and 12 in reactivation phases. Serum HBV RNA, anti-HBc, HBcrAg, and intrahepatic covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) were quantified and each of these indicator's correlation with liver inflammation was analyzed.

Results: HBeAg-positive individuals had significant higher serum levels of HBV RNA and HBcrAg than those who were HBeAg negative, similar to that of serum HBV DNA. Comparatively, HBV RNA ( =0.79, < 0.01) and HBcrAg ( =0.78, < 0.01) had almost same higher overall correlation with the cccDNA, as that of HBV DNA ( =0.81, < 0.01). Serum anti-HBc level ( = -0.52, < 0.05) is negatively correlated with cccDNA level at IT phase rather than the other three phases. When set the cutoff value at 4.00 log IU/mL, serum anti-HBc showed potential to indicate liver inflammation, with AUC as 0.79 and the specificities as 78.85% for HBeAg positive, and with AUC as 0.72 and the specificities as 62.16% for HBeAg-negative patients, respectively.

Conclusions: In treatment-naïve patients, levels of serological markers HBV RNA and HBcrAg could mirror intrahepatic cccDNA level, but were not superior to HBV DNA level. Serum anti-HBc level had certain potential to be used as a predicting marker for liver inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/4133283DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9303147PMC
July 2022

GYY4137 ameliorates sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy via NLRP3 pathway.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2022 Jul 20;1868(12):166497. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Geriatric ICU, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China. Electronic address:

Sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy (SICM) has a poor prognosis, with no effective therapeutic strategy currently. This study aimed to explore the mechanism underlying SICM and investigate the protective role of the hydrogen sulfide (HS) donor GYY4137. This study included patients with SICM and animal models of SICM with wild-type and Nlrp3 mice, which were treated with or without GYY4137. Echocardiography, ELISA, TUNEL staining, and immunofluorescence were used to investigate phenotypic alterations. Serum levels of HS and cytokines were measured. Inflammatory cell infiltration in the myocardial tissue was identified using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. RNA expression profiles were identified using RNA sequencing. The protective mechanism of GYY4137 was further validated in the crosstalk between macrophages and cardiomyocytes using immunoblotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and immunofluorescence when conditional medium of macrophages boosted by LPS were co-cultured with cardiomyocytes. Patients and animal models of SICM presented with lower serum HS levels and heart dysfunction. GYY4137 reduced macrophage infiltration in septic heart tissue. GO analysis suggested that GYY4137 was involved in the inflammatory process. GYY4137 inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activity in macrophages, reduced the secretion of inflammatory factors, and decreased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiomyocytes, thus exerting protective effects against SICM. We further found that the protective effects of GYY4137 were absent in Nlrp3-knockout models. GYY4137 ameliorates myocardial injury in SICM via the NLRP3 pathway by inhibiting the inflammatory response and reducing the production of myocardial ROS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2022.166497DOI Listing
July 2022

Autophagy Activation Induces p62-Dependent Autophagic Degradation of Dengue Virus Capsid Protein During Infection.

Front Microbiol 2022 5;13:889693. Epub 2022 Jul 5.

MOE Key Laboratory of Gene Function and Regulation, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

In the past decade, dengue virus infection is one of the most prevalent and rapidly spreading arthropod-borne diseases worldwide with about 400 million infections every year. Although it has been reported that the dengue virus could take advantage of autophagy to promote its propagation, the association between selective autophagy and the dengue virus remains largely unclear. Here, we demonstrated that dengue virus capsid protein, the key viral protein for virus assembly, maturation, and replication, underwent autophagic degradation after autophagy activation. Autophagy cargo receptor p62 delivered ubiquitinated capsid protein to autophagosomes for degradation, which could be enhanced by Torin 1 treatments. Further study revealed that the association between p62 and viral capsid protein was dependent on the ubiquitin-binding domain of p62, and the poly-ubiquitin conjugated at lysine 76 of capsid protein served as a recognition signal for autophagy. Consistently, deficiency in Huh7 cells led to the enhancement of dengue virus replication. Our study revealed that p62 targeted dengue virus capsid protein for autophagic degradation in a ubiquitin-dependent manner, which might uncover the potential roles of p62 in restricting dengue virus replication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.889693DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9294600PMC
July 2022

Facilely tuning the intrinsic catalytic sites of the spinel oxide for peroxymonosulfate activation: From fundamental investigation to pilot-scale demonstration.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 Jul 18;119(30):e2202682119. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

CAS Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, China.

Heterogeneous peroxymonosulfate (PMS)-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have shown a great potential for pollutant degradation, but their feasibility for large-scale water treatment application has not been demonstrated. Herein, we develop a facile coprecipitation method for the scalable production (∼10 kg) of the Cu-Fe-Mn spinel oxide (CuFeMnO). Such a catalyst has rich oxygen vacancies and symmetry-breaking sites, which endorse it with a superior PMS-catalytic capacity. We find that the working reactive species and their contributions are highly dependent on the properties of target organic pollutants. For the organics with electron-donating group (e.g., -OH), high-valent metal species are mainly responsible for the pollutant degradation, whereas for the organics with electron-withdrawing group (e.g., -COOH and -NO), hydroxyl radical (•OH) as the secondary oxidant also plays an important role. We demonstrate that the CuFeMnO-PMS system is able to achieve efficient and stable removal of the pollutants in the secondary effluent from a municipal wastewater plant at both bench and pilot scales. Moreover, we explore the application prospect of this PMS-based AOP process for large-scale wastewater treatment. This work describes an opportunity to scalably prepare robust spinel oxide catalysts for water purification and is beneficial to the practical applications of the heterogeneous PMS-AOPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2202682119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9335229PMC
July 2022

Long-term exposure to low-level air pollution, genetic susceptibility and risk of dementia.

Int J Epidemiol 2022 Jul 18. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LAUSA.

Background: We aimed to assess the association between low-level air pollution and the risk of dementia, and examine the modification effect by genetic susceptibility on the relationship.

Methods: A total of 164 447 participants who were free of dementia at baseline and aged ≥60 years were included. Annual average concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with diameters of ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5), between 2.5 and 10 μm (PMcoarse), PM2.5 absorbance and nitrogen dioxides (NO2) were evaluated using the Land Use Regression models. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the association between air pollutants and incident dementia.

Results: The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of dementia for a 5-μg/m3 increase in NO2 was 1.09 (95% CI, 1.05-1.14); the adjusted HR of dementia for a 1-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was 1.10 (1.04-1.17). Such significant associations were present even within concentration ranges well below the present World Health Organization, US and European annual mean limit values. In addition, higher PM2.5 absorbance, a marker closely related to motorized traffic, was associated with higher risk of dementia. We found the risk of dementia associated with a combination of air pollutants (NO2 or PM2.5) and high genetic susceptibility (APOE-ε4 alleles or overall genetic susceptibility) was greater than the addition of the risk associated with each individual factor, indicating significant interactions on an additive scale (all P-interaction < 0.05).

Conclusion: Long-term exposure to PM2.5 or NO2, even at relatively low levels, is associated with a higher risk of dementia. Air pollution may additively interact with the genetic susceptibility on dementia risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyac146DOI Listing
July 2022

Inflammation Markers Have Important Value in Predicting Relapse in Patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma: A Long-Term Follow-Up Retrospective Study.

Cancer Control 2022 Jan-Dec;29:10732748221115236

Department of Thyroid Surgery, 196534Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Purpose: Many markers of inflammation are increasingly found to have prognostic significance in some cancers. This study investigated the prognostic value of albumin/globulin (AGR), lymphocyte/monocyte ratio (LMR), and other inflammatory markers, including neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR), in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 764 patients newly diagnosed with PTC (608 women, 156 men) aged 10-83 years. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to analyze recurrence rates and assess potential prognostic factors. Furthermore, we used random survival forests to construct a random survival forest score (RSFscore). The correlations between various inflammatory factors and traditional prognostic factors were analyzed. We also compared the areas under the curve (AUCs) of the RSFscore and 4 inflammation-based markers.

Results: AGR, NLR, PLR, and LMR were strongly associated with invasive clinicopathological features (tumor size, lesions, lymph node metastasis, and lymph node metastasis rate) and postoperative recurrence. In the multivariate analysis, AGR and LMR were independent prognostic markers for recurrent PTC. Higher NLR and PLR values indicated a higher risk of recurrence, while higher LMR and AGR values suggested a lower recurrence risk. The predictive power of the combined indicators was stronger than that of single indicators alone.

Conclusion: Compared to the analysis of a single indicator, the combination of inflammatory markers was more helpful in determining the risk of PTC recurrence, which has an important impact on predicting patients' cancer-free survival and quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10732748221115236DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9290143PMC
July 2022

Toroidal dipole-modulated dipole-dipole double-resonance in colloidal gold rod-cup nanocrystals for improved SERS and second-harmonic generation.

Nano Res 2022 Jul 6:1-9. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

School of Science, Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, 518055 China.

Colloidal metal nanocrystals (NCs) show great potential in plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy owing to their attractive and structure-depended plasmonic properties. Herein, unique Au rod-cup NCs, where Au nanocups are embedded on the one or two ends of Au nanorods (NRs), are successfully prepared for the first time via a controllable wet-chemistry strategy. The Au rod-cup NCs possess multiple plasmon modes including transverse and longitudinal electric dipole (TED and LED), magnetic dipole (MD), and toroidal dipole (TD) modulated LED resonances, producing large extinction cross-section and huge near-field enhancements for plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy. Particularly, Au rod-cup NCs with two embedded cups show excellent surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) performance than Au NRs (75.6-fold enhancement excited at 633 nm) on detecting crystal violet owing to the strong electromagnetic hotspots synergistically induced by MD, LED, and TED-based plasmon coupling between Au cup and rod. Moreover, the strong TD-modulated dipole-dipole double-resonance and MD modes in Au rod-cup NCs bring a 37.3-fold enhancement of second-harmonic generation intensity compared with bare Au NRs, because they can efficiently harvest photoenergy at fundamental frequency and generate large near-field enhancements at second-harmonic wavelength. These findings provide a strategy for designing optical nanoantennas for plasmon-enhanced applications based on multiple plasmon modes.

Electronic Supplementary Material: Supplementary material (SEM image of Au rod-one-cup NCs; TEM image of Au/PbS hybrids; SEM image of Au rod-two-cup NCs; low-amplification SEM image of Au rod-two-cup NCs; experimental extinction and calculated electric field distributions of Au NR excited at different wavelengths; calculated absorption and scattering spectra of Au rod-one-cup NCs; schematic illustration of the cut plane and the corresponding magnetic field distribution under L3 excitation; Raman spectra of CV (10 M) adsorbed on Au rod-cup NCs with different cup sizes; calculated magnetic field distribution of Au rodcup NCs excited at 532 and 633 nm; calculated electric field distributions of Au rod-one-cup NC excited at 600 nm along TE and LE; the models of Au rod-cup NCs used in the simulations) is available in the online version of this article at 10.1007/s12274-022-4562-5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12274-022-4562-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9258465PMC
July 2022

Representation of Cone-Opponent Color Space in Macaque Early Visual Cortices.

Front Neurosci 2022 20;16:891247. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Department of Neurosurgery of the Second Affiliated Hospital, Interdisciplinary Institute of Neuroscience and Technology, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

In primate vision, the encoding of color perception arises from three types of retinal cone cells (L, M, and S cones). The inputs from these cones are linearly integrated into two cone-opponent channels (cardinal axes) before the lateral geniculate nucleus. In subsequent visual cortical stages, color-preferring neurons cluster into functional domains within "blobs" in V1, "thin/color stripes" in V2, and "color bands" in V4. Here, we hypothesize that, with increasing cortical hierarchy, the functional organization of hue representation becomes more balanced and less dependent on cone opponency. To address this question, we used intrinsic signal optical imaging in macaque V1, V2, and V4 cortices to examine the domain-based representation of specific hues (here referred to as "hue domains") in cone-opponent color space (4 cardinal and 4 intermediate hues). Interestingly, we found that in V1, the relative size of S-cone hue preference domain was significantly smaller than that for other hues. This notable difference was less prominent in V2, and, in V4 was virtually absent, resulting in a more balanced representation of hues. In V2, hue clusters contained sequences of shifting preference, while in V4 the organization of hue clusters was more complex. Pattern classification analysis of these hue maps showed that accuracy of hue classification improved from V1 to V2 to V4. These results suggest that hue representation by domains in the early cortical hierarchy reflects a transformation away from cone-opponency and toward a full-coverage representation of hue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2022.891247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9251113PMC
June 2022

Comparison of chromatin accessibility landscapes during early development of prefrontal cortex between rhesus macaque and human.

Nat Commun 2022 Jul 6;13(1):3883. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

CAS Key Laboratory of Genome Sciences and Information, Collaborative Innovation Center of Genetics and Development, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and China National Center for Bioinformation, 100101, Beijing, China.

Epigenetic information regulates gene expression and development. However, our understanding of the evolution of epigenetic regulation on brain development in primates is limited. Here, we compared chromatin accessibility landscapes and transcriptomes during fetal prefrontal cortex (PFC) development between rhesus macaques and humans. A total of 304,761 divergent DNase I-hypersensitive sites (DHSs) are identified between rhesus macaques and humans, although many of these sites share conserved DNA sequences. Interestingly, most of the cis-elements linked to orthologous genes with dynamic expression are divergent DHSs. Orthologous genes expressed at earlier stages tend to have conserved cis-elements, whereas orthologous genes specifically expressed at later stages seldom have conserved cis-elements. These genes are enriched in synapse organization, learning and memory. Notably, DHSs in the PFC at early stages are linked to human educational attainment and cognitive performance. Collectively, the comparison of the chromatin epigenetic landscape between rhesus macaques and humans suggests a potential role for regulatory elements in the evolution of differences in cognitive ability between non-human primates and humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-31403-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9259620PMC
July 2022

Enhanced volatile fatty acid production from food waste via anaerobic fermentation: Effect of irons with different sizes.

Environ Technol 2022 Jul 6:1-23. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

The State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092, China.

Food waste is an excellent organic matter for anaerobic fermentation. This study provided a cost-effective and highly efficient volatile fatty acid (VFA) production strategy by the addition of zero-valent iron (ZVI). Results showed that VFA concentration of 44.6 g/L was obtained with the optimized conditions of 200-mesh iron powder at a dosage of 20.0 g, fermentation time of 11 d, total solids (TS) of 10 wt.%, and fermentation temperature of 37 ℃. Further, the iron of different particle sizes (iron scraps, 200-mesh iron powder, and 800-mesh iron powder) had a differential influence on total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and VFA concentrations. For the reactor containing 200-mesh iron powder, the conversion rate of organic compound into VFA increased with the increase of dosage, which reached 58.4% at the 40.0 g dosage. The mechanism revealed that the VFA production was enhanced by micro-electrolysis, which can rapidly inactivate bacteria and increase the conversion of macromolecular organics into micromolecular organics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2022.2099309DOI Listing
July 2022

Antirheumatoid Arthritic Effects of Wall. Leaf Extracts the NF-κB Pathway and Transient Receptor Potential Protein Family.

Front Pharmacol 2022 16;13:880350. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

College of Pharmacy, Guizhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guiyang, China.

As an important traditional medicine of Buyi and Miao ethnic groups in Guizhou, Wall. provides antiviral properties against hepatitis, eliminates wind and dampness, and exhibits anti-inflammatory and pain relief properties. It has also been shown to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other diseases. However, the pharmacodynamic mechanism of Wall. for RA has not been reported. In this study, we identified the effective compounds of Wall leaves against RA and discussed the mechanism against complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) based on inflammatory proteins and transient receptor potential (TRP) proteins. Wall. leaf extracts (0.64 g/kg, 0.32 g/kg, and 0.16 g/kg, once daily) were given orally for 21 days. On the 15th day of complete Freund's adjuvant-induced RA, the effects of this medicine on RA rats were investigated. Wall. extracts increased body weight, decreased foot swelling, and reduced thymus and spleen indices in model rats. Most of pannus in the synovial tissue of RA rats disappeared upon treatment, and the local inflammatory cells were greatly reduced when given the fraction of n-butanol (0.64 g/kg/d, 0.32 g/kg/d, and 0.16 g/kg/d) of 70% alcohol-soluble fraction of Wall. leaves. In addition, the release of inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), interleukin-15 (IL-15), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the RA rat serum was inhibited. The active compounds inhibited the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-15 and nuclear factor kappa-Bp65 (NF-κBp65) inflammatory protein and TRP protein transient receptor potential melastatin-5 (TRPM-5) and transient receptor potential channel-6 (TRPC-6), to reduce the expression of VEGF in synovial tissue of RA rats and relieve redness and edema. High-performance liquid chromatography identified six flavonoids and three triterpenoid saponins as active compounds. These findings suggest Wall. leaves may play a role in RA treatment by inhibiting the release of inflammatory factors as well as participating in the inflammatory protein expression in the NF-κB pathway and TRP protein family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.880350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9243545PMC
June 2022

Transcriptome Profiling and Identification of the Candidate Genes Involved in Early Ripening in .

Front Genet 2022 14;13:863746. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

College of Horticulture, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, China.

The early ripening jujube is an immensely popular fresh fruit due to its high commercial value as well as rich nutrition. However, little is known about the mechanism of jujube fruit's ripening. In this study, the transcriptome profiles were comprehensively analyzed between the 'Lingwu Changzao' jujube and its early-ripening mutant during the fruit development and maturity. A total of 5,376 and 762 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were presented at 80 and 90 days after the flowering of the jujube fruit, respectively. Furthermore, 521 common DEGs were identified as candidate genes that might be associated with the fruit's early ripening. Our findings demonstrated that in a non-climacteric jujube fruit, abscisic acid (ABA) was more greatly involved in fruit ripening than ethylene. Meanwhile, the fruit ripening of the early-ripening mutant was regulated by eight promotors of DEGs related to glucose and fructose, seven repressors of DEGs related to brassinosteroid signal transduction, and a series of transcription factor genes (MYB, Bhlh, and ERF). Additionally, the expression of 20 candidate DEGs was further validated by real-time PCR during the late fruit maturation stage. Collectively, the present study sheds light on the metabolic mechanism of the fruit's early ripening and provides valuable candidate genes for the early-ripening mutant's breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2022.863746DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9237510PMC
June 2022

Pooling Learning: From "Invariable" to "Variable".

Biomed Res Int 2022 20;2022:4067581. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Research Institute for Reproductive Medicine and Genetic Diseases, Wuxi Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Wuxi 214002, China.

Deep learning has become a research hotspot in multimedia, especially in the field of image processing. Pooling operation is an important operation in deep learning. Pooling operation can reduce the feature dimension, the number of parameters, the complexity of computation, and the complexity of time. With the development of deep learning models, pooling operation has made great progress. The main contributions of this paper on pooling operation are as follows: firstly, the steps of the pooling operation are summarized as the pooling domain, pooling kernel, step size, activation value, and response value. Secondly, the expression form of pooling operation is standardized. From the perspective of "invariable" to "variable," this paper analyzes the pooling domain and pooling kernel in the pooling operation. Pooling operation can be classified into four categories: invariable of pooling domain, variable of pooling domain, variable of pooling kernel, and the pooling of invariable "+" variable. Finally, the four types of pooling operation are summarized and discussed with their advantages and disadvantages. There is great significance to the research of pooling operations and the iterative updating of deep learning models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/4067581DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9236794PMC
July 2022

Autocatalytic Laser Activator for Both UV and NIR Lasers: Preparation of Circuits on Polymer Substrates by Selective Metallization.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Jul 28;14(27):31411-31423. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering of China, Polymer Research Institute, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China.

In laser-induced selective metallization (LISM), conventional laser activators only work at a single laser wavelength. This study reported a new laser activator (MoO) very suitable for both 355 nm UV and 1064 nm near-infrared (NIR) lasers for the first time. When applying MoO to polymers, the prepared Cu layer on laser-activated polymers showed a good conductivity (2.63 × 10 Ω·m) and excellent adhesion. Scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and resistance analysis revealed the excellent LISM performance of the polymer/MoO composites, and the quality of the Cu layer prepared using the UV laser is much better than that using the NIR laser. The limit width of the copper wire prepared by the UV laser is as narrow as 30.1 μm. We also confirmed the mechanism of MoO initiating electroless copper plating after laser activation to be the autocatalytic mechanism, which is very different from the conventional reduction mechanism. The effect of laser activation was only to expose the MoO active species to the polymer surface. X-ray diffraction and tube experiments revealed that the activity of α·h-MoO was higher than that of α-MoO. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that a part of Mo was reduced to Mo during laser activations, leading to the increase of the oxygen vacancies in MoO and possibly further enhancing the activity of MoO. Besides, the micro-rough structures caused by the laser on the polymer surface provided riveting points for successfully depositing the copper layer. The Ni-Cu, Ag-Cu, and Au-Ni-Cu layers were obtained via the continued deposit of other metals on the Cu layer. The resistances of these metal layers had much better stability than that of the neat Cu layer. Furthermore, the Au layer further enhanced the conductivity of the circuit. The proposed strategy is easy for large-scale industrial applications, which will greatly expand the application scenarios of the LISM field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c06855DOI Listing
July 2022

Integrated bioinformatics analysis for the screening of hub genes and therapeutic drugs in Hepatocellular carcinoma.

Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery, The Affiliated Calmette Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming 650224, Yunnan, China.

Background: Liver cancer is a major medical problem because of its high morbidity and mortality. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer. At present, the mechanism of HCC is not clear, and the prognosis is poor with limited treatment.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to identify hub genes and potential therapeutic drugs for HCC.

Methods: We used the GEO2R algorithm to analyze the differential expression of each gene in 4 gene expression profiles (GSE101685, GSE62232, GSE46408, and GSE45627) between HCC and normal hepatic tissues. Next, we screened out the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by corresponding calculation data according to adjusted P-value < 0.05 and | log fold change (FC) | > 1.0. Subsequently, we used the DAVID software to analyze the DEGs by GO and KEGG enrichment analysis. Then, we carried out the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis of DEGs using the STRING tool, and the PPI network was constructed by Cytoscape software. MCODE plugin was used for module analysis, and the hub genes was screened out by CytoHubba plugin. Meanwhile, we used The Kaplan-Meier plotter, GEPIA2 and HPA databases to exert survival analysis and verify the expression alternation of hub genes. Furthermore, we used ENCORI, TargetScan, miRDB and miRWalk database to predict the upstream regulated miRNA of hub genes and construct miRNA-hub genes network by Cytoscape software. Finally, we selected potential therapeutic drugs for HCC through DGIdb databases.

Results: A total of 415 DEGs were screened in HCC, including 196 up-regulated DEGs and 219 down-regulated DEGs. The results of KEGG pathway analysis suggested that the up-regulated DEGs can regulate cell cycle, DNA replication signal pathway, while the down-regulated DEGs were associated with metabolic pathways. In this study, we identified 11 hub genes (AURKA, BUB1B, TOP2A, MAD2L1, CCNA2, CCNB1, BUB1, KIF11, CDK1, CCNB2 and TPX2), which were independent risk factors of HCCand all up-regulated DEGs. We verified the expression difference of hub genes through GEPIA2 and HPA database, which was consistent with the results of GEO data. We found that those hub genes were mutations in HCC according to the cBioPortal database. Finally, we used the DGIdb database to select 32 potential therapeutic targeting drugs for hub genes.

Conclusions: In summary, our study provided a new perspective for researching the molecular mechanism of HCC. Hub genes, miRNAs, and candidate drugs provide a new direction for early diagnosis and treatment of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389201023666220628113452DOI Listing
June 2022

Catalytic Oxygen Activation over the Defective CuO Nanoparticles for Ultrafast Dehalogenation.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Jul 26;14(26):29964-29973. Epub 2022 Jun 26.

CAS Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China.

The nucleophilic superoxide radical (O)-based dehalogenation reaction shows great potential to degrade the toxic halogenated organic compounds (HOCs). But such an O-mediated reductive reaction often suffers from the competition of the secondary oxidative species (e.g., •OH), leading to inferior electron efficiency and possible disinfection byproduct formation. Here, an O-dominant ultrafast dehalogenation system is developed via molecular O activation by the oxygen vacancy (OV)-rich CuO nanoparticles (nCuO). The nCuO delivers a remarkable dechlorination rate constant of 3.92 × 10 L min m for 2,4-dichlorophenol, much higher than that of the conventional zerovalent (bi)metals. The absorbed O on the nCuO surface is exclusively responsible for O generation, and its reactivity increases with the elevated OV content because of the enhanced orbital hybridization between the O p- and Cu d-orbitals. More importantly, the ubiquitous carbonate species firmly bound to the surface OVs block the formation of the secondary oxidative species via HO activation, assuring the dominant role of the in situ generated O for the selective HOC dehalogenation. The carbonate-deactivated OVs of the nCuO can be feasibly recovered via air annealing for sustainable dehalogenation. This work provides a new opportunity for selective O generation via interfacial defect engineering for dehalogenation and other environmental applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c08189DOI Listing
July 2022

Reverse transcription-recombinase-aided amplification and CRISPR/Cas12a-based visual detection of maize chlorotic mottle virus.

Phytopathol Res 2022 20;4(1):23. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, MARA Key Laboratory of Surveillance and Management for Plant Quarantine Pests, College of Plant Protection, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193 China.

Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) is one of the important quarantine pathogens in China. It often co-infects with one or two viruses in the family and causes maize lethal necrosis disease. Therefore, an accurate and sensitive method for the detection of MCMV is urgently needed. Combined with reverse transcription and recombinase-aided amplification, we developed a CRISPRCas12a-based visual nucleic acid detection system targeting the MCMV coat protein gene. The whole process can be completed within 45 min with high sensitivity. This system could detect cDNAs diluted up to 10 when 2000 ng of total RNA was used for reverse transcription. The Cas12a/crRNA complex designed for MCMV detection could recognize and cleave the targeted double-stranded DNA, and ultimately cleave the single-stranded DNA probes and produce fluorescent signals. The green fluorescence produced under blue light (440-460 nm) in this procedure could be observed by the naked eye. Since this novel method is specific, rapid, sensitive and does not require special instruments and technical expertise, it should be suitable for on-site visual detection of MCMV in seeds, plants of maize and potentially in its insect vectors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s42483-022-00128-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9207886PMC
June 2022

The complete chloroplast genome of Schltr., a medicinal plant with yellow flowers.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2022 10;7(6):1053-1055. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Guizhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guiyang, China.

Schltr. (Orchidaceae) is a traditional medicinal plant widely distributed in the south-central part of China. The complete chloroplast genome of was sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq X Ten platform. The chloroplast genome was 160,018 bp in length, which contained two short inverted repeat (IRa and IRb) regions of 26,295 bp and was separated by a large single copy (LSC) region of 88,270 bp and a small single copy (SSC) region of 19,158 bp. The GC content of the whole chloroplast genome was 37.2%. The chloroplast DNA of consisted of 114 distinct genes, including 80 protein-coding genes, 4 ribosomal RNA genes, and 30 transfer RNA genes. The phylogenetic tree showed that was sister to . Meanwhile, the monophyletic clade formed by all species of genus was closely related to genus .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1992316DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9225769PMC
June 2022

A rare case of gastric adenocarcinoma with enteroblastic differentiation presenting as pancreatic hepatoid adenocarcinoma metastases.

J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Gastroenterology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jhbp.1203DOI Listing
June 2022

Soil Microbial Communities Affect the Growth and Secondary Metabolite Accumulation in (Thunb.) Rchb. f.

Front Microbiol 2022 6;13:916418. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Resource Institute for Chinese and Ethnic Materia Medica, Guizhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guiyang, China.

(Thunb.) Rchb.f. is a perennial herb belonging to the Orchidaceae family. Its tubers are used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat gastric ulcers, inflammation, silicosis tuberculosis, and pneumogastric hemorrhage. It has been reported that different soil types can affect the growth of and the accumulation of secondary metabolites in its tubers, but the biological mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. In this study, we compared agronomic traits and the accumulation of secondary metabolites (extractum, polysaccharide, total phenol, militarine) in grown in sandy loam or sandy clay soil. In addition, we compared physicochemical properties and microbial communities between the two soil types. In pot experiments, we tested how irradiating soil or transplanting microbiota from clay or loam into soil affected growth and accumulation of secondary metabolites. The results showed that sandy loam and sandy clay soils differed significantly in their physicochemical properties as well as in the structure and composition of their microbial communities. Sandy loam soil had higher pH, SOM, SOC, T-Ca, T-N, T-Mg, T-Mn, T-Zn, A-Ca, A-Mn, and A-Cu than sandy clay soil, but significantly lower T-P, T-K, T-Fe, and A-P content. Sandy loam soil showed 7.32% less bacterial diversity based on the Shannon index, 19.59% less based on the Ace index, and 24.55% less based on the Chao index. The first two components of the PCoA explained 74.43% of the variation in the bacterial community (PC1 = 64.92%, PC2 = 9.51%). Similarly, the first two components of the PCoA explained 58.48% of the variation in the fungal community (PC1 = 43.67%, PC2 = 14.81%). The microbiome associated with sandy clay soil can promote the accumulation of militarine in tubers, but it inhibits the growth of The accumulation of secondary metabolites such as militarine in was significantly higher in sandy clay than in sandy loam soil. Conversely, grew better in sandy loam soil. The microbiome associated with sandy loam soil can promote the growth of , but it reduces the accumulation of militarine in tubers. Pot experiment results further confirmed that the accumulation of secondary metabolites such as militarine was higher in soil transplanted with loam microbiota than in soil transplanted with clay microbiota. These results may help guide efforts to improve yield and its accumulation of specific secondary metabolites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.916418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9207479PMC
June 2022

The chromosome-level genome for provides crucial insights into Anacardiaceae evolution and urushiol biosynthesis.

iScience 2022 Jul 2;25(7):104512. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Xi'an Botanical Garden of Shaanxi Province, Shaanxi Province Qinling-Bashan Mountains Engineering Research Centre of Conservation and Utilization of Biological Resources, Xi'an 710061, China.

The lacquer tree ( (Stokes) F.A. Barkley) is an important tree with economic, industrial, and medicinal values. Here, we generated the reference genome of at the chromosome level with 491.93 Mb in size, in which 98.26% of the assembled contigs were anchored onto 15 pseudochromosomes with the scaffold N50 of 32.97 Mb. Comparative genomic analysis revealed the gene families related to urushiol biosynthesis were expanded, contributing to the ecological fitness and biological adaptability of the lacquer tree. We combined multi-omics data to identify genes that encode key enzymes in the urushiol and lignin biosynthetic pathways. Furthermore, the unique active metabolites, such as butin and fisetin, in cultivar lacquers were identified by metabolism profiling. Our work would provide crucial insights into metabolite synthesis such as urushiol and lignin, meanwhile offer a basis for further exploration of the cultivation and breeding of and other Anacardiaceae members.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2022.104512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9207680PMC
July 2022

Prevalence and Trends in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Among Women in the United States, 2006-2017: A Population-Based Study.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 6;13:868094. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, United States.

The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has increased with the increasing rate of obesity. However, national data on the prevalence and secular trends of GDM during the past decade in the United States are lacking. This study included 37,357 women aged more than 18 years and who had ever been pregnant from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). We examined GDM prevalence in 2006, 2016, and 2017, with age-standardized to the US population in 2000. We found that the prevalence of GDM per 100 people increased from 4.6 (95% CI, 4.1-5.1) in 2006 to 8.2 (95% CI, 7.5-8.9) in 2016 (test for difference; P <0.001), with a relatively increased rate of 78%. Non-Hispanic white women tended to have a lower increase (2.8%) than non-Hispanic black women (3.8%), Hispanic women (4.1%), and women of other race/ethnicity (8.4%). The prevalence of GDM in non-Hispanic white women was higher than that in non-Hispanic black women in 2006 (4.8% vs 3.5%, P = 0.006); such differences became non-significant in 2016 (P = 0.72). Additionally, the increase of GDM from 2006 to 2016 tended to be more evident among women who were overweight (25≤ BMI ≤30 kg/m), physically inactive, and with family income below the poverty threshold than women in other BMI ranges, with more physical activity, and with higher incomes. The prevalence of GDM per 100 people in 2017 was 8.4 (7.6-9.2), and there was no significant change in the overall and subgroup prevalence compared with 2016. Collectively, in the United States, the prevalence of GDM continuously increased, nearly doubled, from 2006 to 2016, and then leveled off in 2017. The increase appeared more marked among the minority populations and subpopulations with overweight people, insufficient activity, and family incomes below the poverty threshold.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2022.868094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9207520PMC
June 2022

Statistical Optimization of Novel Medium to Maximize the Yield of Exopolysaccharide From ZFM216 and Its Immunomodulatory Activity.

Front Nutr 2022 2;9:924495. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Key Laboratory for Food Microbial Technology of Zhejiang Province, School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou, China.

The traditional media used for the fermentation of always contain carbohydrate polymers, which interfere with the analysis of the exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by the bacteria. In this investigation, a novel medium formulation that could avoid such interference was successfully developed. The beef extract, yeast extract, and peptone used in this formulation were subjected to the removal of polysaccharides before use. The factors affecting the EPS production were optimized by a single factor test, Plackett-Burman design, and Box-Behnken design. The optimum formula was ascertained as: 7.5 g L yeast extract, 12.5 g L beef extract, 10 g L peptone, 21.23 g L maltose, 5.51 g L yeast nitrogen base, 2 g L KHPO, 5 g L anhydrous sodium acetate, 2 g L ammonium citrate, 0.58 g L MgSO⋅7HO, 0.25 g L MnSO⋅HO, and 1 mL L Tween 80. The initial pH of the medium was 6.5. The optimized conditions for fermentation of the strain to produce EPS were as follows: seed size 1%, culture temperature 37°C, and culture time 20 h. Optimum results showed that EPS yield was 496.64 ± 3.15 mg L, being 76.70% higher than that of unoptimized conditions (281.07 ± 5.90 mg L). The EPS was mainly comprised of glucose and guluronic acid, with a weight average molecular weight of 19.9 kDa; it was also characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV analysis. EPS was found to significantly enhance the phagocytic capacity, promote the NO, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 secretion, and improve mRNA expression of cytokines in RAW 264.7 macrophages, indicating its considerable immunomodulatory activity. Western bolt and immunofluorescence results demonstrated that the EPS was able to increase p65 nuclear translocation in the macrophages, indicating that EPS enhanced immunity via the NF-κB signaling pathway. EPS investigated in this work has potential as an attractive functional food supplement candidate for the hypoimmunity population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.924495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9201479PMC
June 2022
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