Publications by authors named "Tao Zhao"

338 Publications

Structured Attention Composition for Temporal Action Localization.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2022 Jun 13;PP. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Temporal action localization aims at localizing action instances from untrimmed videos. Existing works have designed various effective modules to precisely localize action instances based on appearance and motion features. However, by treating these two kinds of features with equal importance, previous works cannot take full advantage of each modality feature, making the learned model still sub-optimal. To tackle this issue, we make an early effort to study temporal action localization from the perspective of multi-modality feature learning, based on the observation that different actions exhibit specific preferences to appearance or motion modality. Specifically, we build a novel structured attention composition module. Unlike conventional attention, the proposed module would not infer frame attention and modality attention independently. Instead, by casting the relationship between the modality attention and the frame attention as an attention assignment process, the structured attention composition module learns to encode the frame-modality structure and uses it to regularize the inferred frame attention and modality attention, respectively, upon the optimal transport theory. The final frame-modality attention is obtained by the composition of the two individual attentions. The proposed structured attention composition module can be deployed as a plug-and-play module into existing action localization frameworks. Extensive experiments on two widely used benchmarks show that the proposed structured attention composition consistently improves four state-of-the-art temporal action localization methods and builds new state-of-the-art performance on THUMOS14.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2022.3180925DOI Listing
June 2022

Hypercalciuria may predict better response to immunosuppressive therapy in renal sarcoidosis: a case series.

J Nephrol 2022 Jun 13. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Renal Division, Peking University First Hospital, Peking University Institute of Nephrology, No.8 Xishiku Street, Xicheng District, Beijing, China.

Background: Renal sarcoidosis is a rare cause of tubulointerstitial nephritits (TIN). The clinical and pathological characteristics, as well as outcomes, of renal sarcoidosis remain unclear.

Methods: This single-center study retrospectively analyzed 18 patients affected by sarcoidosis with tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) and 53 patients with tubulointerstitial nephritis  not related to sarcoidosis. Patients were further stratified into the granulomatous (12 sarcoidosis and 6 non-sarcoidosis) and non-granulomatous (6 sarcoidosis and 47 non-sarcoidosis) TIN groups.

Results: Half of the patients with renal sarcoidosis had signs of acute kidney injury at kidney biopsy, 94% of whom presented with extra-renal involvement. The prevalence of hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, and elevated serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels was 27.6%, 33.3%, and 31.3%, respectively. Renal sarcoidosis patients with eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m scored higher for total chronic tubulointerstitial injury (p = 0.044) and glomerular sclerosis (p = 0.027). Compared to non-sarcoidosis patients, higher urinary calcium levels (for patients with GFR [Formula: see text] 40 mL/min/1.73 m, p = 0.034), lower scores of acute tubular injury (p = 0.008), and more prominent glomerular sclerosis were observed in renal sarcoidosis. Similar characteristics of chronicity and hypercalciuria were also identified in granulomatous interstitial nephritis; however, interstitial inflammation was obvious (p = 0.001). Patients with renal sarcoidosis were initially treated with corticosteroids. Five patients receiving immunosuppressive agents showed better long-term renal recovery. High 24-h urine calcium (adjusted by weight) was identified as a factor associated with long-term remission.

Conclusion: Renal sarcoidosis is a systemic disease of insidious onset and chronic progression, sharing similar features of chronicity and hypercalciuria with granulomatous interstitial nephritis of other cause. Hypercalciuria may predict a better response to immunosuppressive therapy, presumably indicating active interstitial inflammation; thus, strengthened immunosuppression might be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40620-022-01360-7DOI Listing
June 2022

The Effect of Comprehensive Use of PDCA and FMEA Management Tools on the Work Efficiency, Teamwork, and Self-Identity of Medical Staff: A Cohort Study with Zhongda Hospital in China as an Example.

Contrast Media Mol Imaging 2022 23;2022:5286062. Epub 2022 May 23.

Medical Insurance Office, Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, China.

Objective: Taking Zhongda Hospital in China as an example, this study discusses the impact of comprehensive use of PDCA and FMEA management tools on the work efficiency, teamwork, and self-identity of medical staff.

Methods: Two hundred medical staff in our hospital from January 2020 to December 2021 were selected as the research subjects, and the 200 medical staff were divided into a control group and a research group by the digital table method, with 100 cases in each group. The medical staff in the control group implemented conventional system management methods, while the research group comprehensively used PDCA and FMEA management tools based on implementing conventional system management. The differences in work efficiency, teamwork, and self-identity of medical staff were compared.

Results: Before the study, there exhibited no significant difference in the work efficiency, teamwork, and self-identity scores of medical staff ( > 0.05). After an intervention, the work efficiency, teamwork, and self-identity scores of medical staff in the study group were higher than those in the control group ( < 0.05). After the intervention, the management quality score of the research group was higher than that of the control group ( < 0.05); after the intervention, the medical staff in the research group had lower work efficiency, insufficient professional ability, and insufficient management system cognitive behaviours than that in the control group ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: The comprehensive use of PDCA and FMEA management tools in internal hospital management can remarkably enhance the work efficiency, teamwork, and self-identity of medical staff.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/5286062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9162864PMC
June 2022

X-ray Image Enhancement Based on Nonsubsampled Shearlet Transform and Gradient Domain Guided Filtering.

Sensors (Basel) 2022 May 27;22(11). Epub 2022 May 27.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300131, China.

In this paper, we propose an image enhancement algorithm combining non-subsampled shearlet transform and gradient-domain guided filtering to address the problems of low resolution, noise amplification, missing details, and weak edge gradient retention in the X-ray image enhancement process. First, we decompose histogram equalization and nonsubsampled shearlet transform to the original image. We get a low-frequency sub-band and several high-frequency sub-bands. Adaptive gamma correction with weighting distribution is used for the low-frequency sub-band to highlight image contour information and improve the overall contrast of the image. The gradient-domain guided filtering is conducted for the high-frequency sub-bands to suppress image noise and highlight detail and edge information. Finally, we reconstruct all the effectively processed sub-bands by the inverse non-subsampled shearlet transform and obtain the final enhanced image. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has good results in X-ray image enhancement, and its objective index also has evident advantages over some classical algorithms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s22114074DOI Listing
May 2022

Sirt3-Sod2-mROS-Mediated Manganese Triggered Hepatic Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Lipotoxicity in a Freshwater Teleost.

Environ Sci Technol 2022 Jun 2. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Hubei Hongshan Laboratory, Fishery College, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

Exposure to excessive manganese (Mn) is toxic to humans and animals. However, the toxic effects and mechanisms of excessive Mn influencing the vertebrates have been highly overlooked. In the present study, dietary Mn overload significantly increased hepatic lipid and Mn contents, decreased superoxide dismutase 2 (Sod2) activity, increased the Sod2 acetylation level, and induced mitochondrial dysfunction; Mn induced mitochondrial dysfunction through Mtf1/sirtuin 3 (Sirt3)-mediated acetylation of Sod2 at the sites K55 and K70. Meanwhile, mitochondrial oxidative stress was involved in Mn-induced lipotoxicity. Mechanistically, Mn-induced lipotoxicity was via oxidative stress-induced Hsf1 nucleus translocation and its DNA binding capacity to the regions of a () promoter, which in turn induced the transcription of lipogenic-related target genes. For the first time, our study demonstrated that Mn-induced hepatic lipotoxicity via a mitochondrial oxidative stress-dependent Hsf1/Pparg pathway and Mtf1/-mediated Sod2 acetylation participated in mitochondrial dysfunction. Considering that lipid metabolism and lipotoxicity are widely used as the biomarkers for environmental assessments of pollutants, our study provided innovative and important insights into Mn toxicological and environmental evaluation in aquatic environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.2c00585DOI Listing
June 2022

Equivalent Classification Mapping for Weakly Supervised Temporal Action Localization.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2022 May 30;PP. Epub 2022 May 30.

Weakly supervised temporal action localization is a newly emerging yet widely studied topic in recent years. The existing methods can be categorized into the pre-classification pipeline and the post-classification pipeline. The pre-classification pipeline first performs classification on each video snippet and then aggregates the snippet-level classification scores to obtain the video-level classification score. In contrast, the post-classification pipeline aggregates the snippet-level features first and then predicts the video-level classificationscore based on the aggregated feature. Although the classifiers in these two pipelines are used in different ways, the role they play is exactly the same. To this end, an ideal classifier can make both pipelines work. This inspires us to simultaneously learn these two pipelines in a unified framework to obtain an effective classifier. Specifically, we implement two parallel network streams to model the two localization-by-classification pipelines simultaneously and make the two network streams share the same classifier. This achieves the novel Equivalent Classification Mapping (ECM) mechanism. Moreover, we discover that an ideal classifier may possess two characteristics: 1) The frame-level classification scores obtained from the pre-classification stream and the feature aggregation weights in the post-classification stream should be consistent; 2) The classification results of these two streams should be identical. Based on these two characteristics, we further introduce a weight-transition module and an equivalent training strategy into the proposed learning framework, which assists to thoroughly mine the equivalence mechanism. Comprehensive experiments are conducted on three benchmarks and ECM achieves accurate action localization results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2022.3178957DOI Listing
May 2022

Induced Mutation in Enhances the Performance of Soybean under Dense Planting Conditions.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 May 12;23(10). Epub 2022 May 12.

The National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement (NFCRI), Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China.

CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) is the key photomorphogenic inhibitor that has been extensively studied in higher plants. Nevertheless, its role has not been documented in the economically important soybean. Here we investigated the functions of two homologous genes, and , by analyzing and mutants with indels using CRISPR in soybean. We revealed that, although both genes are required for skotomorphogenesis in the dark, the gene seems to play a more prominent role than in promoting stem elongation under normal light conditions. Consistently, the bZIP transcriptional factors STF1/2, which repress stem elongation in soybean, accumulated to the highest level in the double mutant, followed by the and mutants. Furthermore, the mutants showed reduced shade response and enhanced performance under high-density conditions in field trials. Taken together, this study provides essential genetic resources for elucidating functional mechanisms of GmCOP1 and breeding of high yield soybean cultivars for future sustainable agriculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23105394DOI Listing
May 2022

The membrane associated NAC transcription factors ANAC060 and ANAC040 are functionally redundant in the inhibition of seed dormancy in Arabidopsis thaliana.

J Exp Bot 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

Wageningen Seed Science Centre, Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Wageningen University, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands.

The NAC family of transcription factors is involved in plant development and various biotic and abiotic stresses. The Arabidopsis thaliana ANAC proteins ANAC060, ANAC040 and ANAC089 are highly homologous based on protein and nucleotide sequence similarity. These three genes are predicted to be membrane bound transcription factors (MTFs) containing a conserved NAC domain but divergent C-terminal regions. The anac060 mutant shows increased dormancy levels when compared to wild type. Mutations in ANAC040 lead to higher seed germination under salt stress and a premature stop codon in ANAC089 Cvi allele results in seeds exhibiting insensitivity to high concentrations of fructose. Thus, these three homologous MTFs confer distinct functions, although all related to germination. To investigate whether the differences in function are caused by a differential spatial or temporal regulation or are the results of differences in the coding sequence (CDS), swapping experiments have been performed in which the promoter and CDS of the three MTFs have been exchanged. Seed dormancy and salt and fructose sensitivity analyses of transgenic swapping lines in mutant backgrounds show that there is functional redundancy between ANAC060 and ANAC040, but not between ANAC060 and ANAC089.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erac232DOI Listing
May 2022

Inappropriate urinary catheterisation: a review of the prevalence, risk factors and measures to reduce incidence.

Br J Nurs 2022 May;31(9):S4-S13

Department of Science and Education, The First People's Hospital of Guiyang, Guiyang City, Guizhou Province, China.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) comprise the second most common type of healthcare-associated infections, with up to 80% of UTIs caused by indwelling urinary catheters. Current research suggests that the best way to prevent catheter-associated UTIs (CAUTIs) is to reduce unnecessary catheterisation. Few reviews have focused on the prevalence, risk factors and preventive measures for inappropriate catheterisation. This article, consequently, sought to evaluate the current evidence on the prevalence, risk factors and measures that can be taken to prevent inappropriate urinary catheterisation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2022.31.9.S4DOI Listing
May 2022

Treatment of cutaneous Balamuthia mandrillaris infection with diminazene aceturate: a report of 4 cases.

Clin Infect Dis 2022 May 6. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Dermatology, Xijing Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, No. 127 of Changlexi Road, Xian 710032, China.

Four cases of cutaneous Balamuthia mandrillaris infection were treated with diminazene aceturate. One patient was cured with mainly monotherapy, 2 patients were cured with diminazene aceturate and excision, and 1 patient died of drug induced liver damage. This is the first report of Balamuthia mandrillaris infection treated with diminazene aceturate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciac356DOI Listing
May 2022

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles traditional Chinese medicine and evaluation of their antibacterial activities.

RSC Adv 2021 Sep 2;11(47):29519-29526. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences Shanghai 201203 P. R. China

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in antibacterial research, but diverse methods for the green synthesis of AgNPs are still underexplored. Phenols, the major components in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), can reduce silver ions (Ag) to prepare AgNPs. The representative phenolic compounds are flavonoids and chlorogenic acid (CA) in TCMs. Herein, we report a new strategy to prepare AgNPs decoctions and dregs of TCMs as reductants and dispersants. flos (LJ), (AM), and bark (EU) were chosen due to their high contents of phenols. H-NMR and HPLC were run to monitor the reaction for AgNP synthesis in decoctions, and XRD and TEM analyses were performed to characterize the synthesized TCMs-AgNPs. In addition, AgNPs prepared by spent Chinese medicinal grounds (SCMGs) were characterized by IR and XRD. The antibacterial assessment demonstrated that these TCMs-AgNPs significantly inhibited the growth of and and effectively protected lettuce leaves against infection. Taken together, this study developed a new synthetic strategy that used decoctions and dregs of TCMs to obtain AgNPs with excellent antibacterial activity, which indicated the potential antibacterial application of these new TCM-based AgNP materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ra05562cDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9040639PMC
September 2021

The genome of Corydalis reveals the evolution of benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in Ranunculales.

Plant J 2022 Apr 27. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Key Lab of Chinese Medicine Resources Conservation, State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine of the People's Republic of China, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100193, China.

Species belonging to the order Ranunculales have attracted much attention because of their phylogenetic position as a sister group to all other eudicot lineages and their ability to produce unique yet diverse benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs). The Papaveraceae family in Ranunculales is often used as a model system for studying BIA biosynthesis. Here, we report the chromosome-level genome assembly of Corydalis tomentella, a species of Fumarioideae, one of the two subfamilies of Papaveraceae. Based on comparisons of sequenced Ranunculalean species, we present clear evidence of a shared whole-genome duplication (WGD) event that has occurred before the divergence of Ranunculales but after its divergence from other eudicot lineages. The C. tomentella genome enabled us to integrate isotopic labeling and comparative genomics to reconstruct the BIA biosynthetic pathway for both sanguinarine biosynthesis shared by papaveraceous species and the cavidine biosynthesis that is specific to Corydalis. Also, our comparative analysis revealed that gene duplications, especially tandem gene duplications, underlie the diversification of BIA biosynthetic pathways in Ranunculales. In particular, tandemly duplicated berberine bridge enzyme-like genes appear to be involved in cavidine biosynthesis. In conclusion, our study of the C. tomentella genome provides important insights into the occurrence of WGDs during the early evolution of eudicots, as well as into the evolution of BIA biosynthesis in Ranunculales.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.15788DOI Listing
April 2022

Selenoprotein F (SELENOF)-mediated AKT1-FOXO3a-PYGL axis contributes to selenium supranutrition-induced glycogenolysis and lipogenesis.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech 2022 04 16;1865(3):194814. Epub 2022 Apr 16.

Key Laboratory of Freshwater Animal Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture, Fishery College, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China; Hubei Hongshan Laboratory, Wuhan 430070, China. Electronic address:

Mounting evidence showed that excess selenium (10.0-15.0-fold of adequate Se) intake caused severe hepatic lipid deposition in the vertebrate. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The study was performed to elucidate the mechanism of Se supranutrition mediated-changes of lipid deposition and metabolism. We found that dietary excessive Se addition increased hepatic TGs and glucose contents, up-regulated lipogenic enzyme activities and reduced hepatic glycogen contents. Transcriptomic and immunoblotting analysis showed that Se supranutrition significantly influenced serine/threonine kinase 1 (AKT1)-forkhead box O3a (FOXO3a)-PYGL signaling and protein levels of SELENOF. Knockdown of SELENOF and PYGL by RNA interference revealed that the AKT1-FOXO3a-PYGL axis was critical for Se supranutrition-induced lipid accumulation. Moreover, Se supranutrition-induced lipid accumulation was via the increased DNA binding capacity of FOXO3a to PYGL promoter, which increased glycogenolysis, and accordingly promoted lipogenesis and lipid accumulation. Our finding provides new insight into the mechanism of Se supranutrition-induced lipid accumulation and suggests that SELENOF may be a therapeutic target for Se supranutrition induced-lipid disorders in the vertebrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagrm.2022.194814DOI Listing
April 2022

Paclitaxel Resistance Modulated by the Interaction between TRPS1 and AF178030.2 in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 30;2022:6019975. Epub 2022 Mar 30.

Department of Oncology, The Jiangyin Hospital Affiliated to Medical College of Southeast University, 163th Shoushan Road, Jiangyin, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214400, China.

Paclitaxel is a chemotherapeutic agent that acts as an inhibitor of cellular mitosis and has been widely used in the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, paclitaxel resistance is one of the major reasons that contribute to the high failure rates of chemotherapy and the relapse of TNBC. Accumulating studies have demonstrated that long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) plays a role in the paclitaxel resistance and positively correlated with progression and metastasis of breast cancers. In the present study, microarray expression profile analysis of lncRNA was performed between paclitaxel-resistant TNBC cell line MDA-MB-231 and their parental cells. After verification with quantitative PCR, we identified that AF178030.2, an orphan lncRNA, was significantly upregulated in paclitaxel-resistant TNBC cells. Overexpression of AF178030.2 greatly attenuated the sensitivity of TNBC to paclitaxel, whereas knockdown of AF178030.2 enhanced the sensitivity of TNBC cells to paclitaxel. Furthermore, bioinformatic analysis and RNA binding protein immunoprecipitation assay reveal that AF178030.2 can directly bind with trichorhinophalangeal syndrome-1 (TRPS1), an oncogene in breast cancer, and downregulate its expression in paclitaxel-resistant TNBC cells. TRPS1 overexpression effectively increased the sensitivity of paclitaxel-resistant TNBC cells to paclitaxel. Taking together, high AF178030.2 expression contributed to paclitaxel resistance in TNBC through TRPS1 and poor clinical outcomes, which may provide a new treatment strategy for paclitaxel-resistant TNBC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/6019975DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8986375PMC
March 2022

Dietary Phosphorus Reduced Hepatic Lipid Deposition by Activating Ampk Pathway and Beclin1 Phosphorylation Levels to Activate Lipophagy in Tilapia .

Front Nutr 2022 17;9:841187. Epub 2022 Mar 17.

Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition for Aquatic Economic Animals, Fishery College, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

High-phosphorus diet (HPD) reduces lipid deposition and significantly influences lipid metabolism. However, the relevant mechanism is unknown. Herein, using widely-cultured teleost tilapia as the experimental animals, we found that HPD and Pi incubation reduced triglyceride (TG) content ( ≤ 0.05), suppressed lipogenesis, activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway and autophagy ( ≤ 0.05), and increased fatty acid β-oxidation and lipolysis in tilapia liver and hepatocytes ( ≤ 0.05). Our further investigation indicated that Pi treatments activated the lipophagy and facilitated mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation, and according reduced TG deposition ( ≤ 0.05). Mechanistically, phosphorus increased the AMPKα1 phosphorylation level at S496 and Beclin1 phosphorylation at S90, and Beclin1 phosphorylation by AMPKα1 was required for phosphorus-induced lipophagy and lipolysis. Our study revealed a mechanism for Beclin1 regulation and autophagy induction in response to high-phosphorus diet, and provided novel evidences for the link between dietary phosphorus addition and lipolytic metabolism via the AMPK/Beclin1 pathway. Our results also suggested that AMPK should be the potential target for the prevention and control of lipid metabolic disorders. Overall, these results suggested that HPD reduced hepatic lipid deposition by activating AMPK pathway and Beclin1 phosphorylation levels to activate lipophagy, which provided potential targets for the prevention and control of fatty liver in fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.841187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8969567PMC
March 2022

Early evolution of diurnal habits in owls (Aves, Strigiformes) documented by a new and exquisitely preserved Miocene owl fossil from China.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 04 28;119(15):e2119217119. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044, China.

SignificanceOwls, with their largely nocturnal habits, contrast strikingly with the vast majority of diurnal birds. A new spectacular late Miocene owl skeleton from China unexpectedly preserves the oldest evidence for daytime behavior in owls. The extinct owl is a member of the clade Surniini, which contains most living diurnal owl species. Analysis of the preserved eye bones documents them as consistent with diurnal birds, and phylogenetically constrained character mapping coincides with a reconstruction of an early evolutionary reversal away from nocturnal habits in this owl group. These results support a potential Miocene origin of nonnocturnal habits in a globally distributed owl group, which may be linked to steppe habitat expansion and climatic cooling in the late Miocene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2119217119DOI Listing
April 2022

Self-incompatibility requires GPI anchor remodeling by the poppy PGAP1 ortholog HLD1.

Curr Biol 2022 05 21;32(9):1909-1923.e5. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Department of Plant Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Ghent University, Ghent 9052, Belgium; Center for Plant Systems Biology, VIB, Ghent 9052, Belgium. Electronic address:

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are tethered to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane where they function as key regulators of a plethora of biological processes in eukaryotes. Self-incompatibility (SI) plays a pivotal role regulating fertilization in higher plants through recognition and rejection of "self" pollen. Here, we used Arabidopsis thaliana lines that were engineered to be self-incompatible by expression of Papaver rhoeas SI determinants for an SI suppressor screen. We identify HLD1/AtPGAP1, an ortholog of the human GPI-inositol deacylase PGAP1, as a critical component required for the SI response. Besides a delay in flowering time, no developmental defects were observed in HLD1/AtPGAP1 knockout plants, but SI was completely abolished. We demonstrate that HLD1/AtPGAP1 functions as a GPI-inositol deacylase and that this GPI-remodeling activity is essential for SI. Using GFP-SKU5 as a representative GPI-AP, we show that the HLD1/AtPGAP1 mutation does not affect GPI-AP production and targeting but affects their cleavage and release from membranes in vivo. Our data not only implicate GPI-APs in SI, providing new directions to investigate SI mechanisms, but also identify a key functional role for GPI-AP remodeling by inositol deacylation in planta.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2022.02.072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7612714PMC
May 2022

Spatiotemporally Resolved Protein Detection in Live Cells Using Nanopore Biosensors.

ACS Nano 2022 Mar 17. Epub 2022 Mar 17.

State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China.

Spatiotemporal detection of proteins in living cells is a persistent challenge but is the key to understanding their cellular biology and developing theranostic technologies. We develop a dual-nanopore biosensor using affinity-tunable peptide probes, which enables label-free and spatiotemporal monitoring of protein abundance and its concentration change in single live cells. We demonstrate that by screening for peptide probes with tunable affinities, the nanopore modified with a medium-affinity peptide allowed reversible and sensitive detection of the protein kinase A (PKA) catalytic subunit with a detection limit of 0.04 nM. The sensor is shown to have the ability to effectively eliminate interferences from cell membrane resistance and coexisting species in live cell detection. Moreover, our sensor is successfully implemented in monitoring of dynamic PKA activity changes (PKA catalytic subunit dynamic concentration changes) under different stimulations in single live cells. Our design may provide a paradigm for developing nanopore biosensors for spatiotemporally resolved protein analysis in live cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c10796DOI Listing
March 2022

Integrative Genomic Profiling Uncovers Therapeutic Targets of Acral Melanoma in Asian Populations.

Clin Cancer Res 2022 Jun;28(12):2690-2703

Department of Dermatology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Purpose: Acral melanoma is the major subtype of melanoma seen in Asian patients with melanoma and is featured by its insidious onset and poor prognosis. The genomic study that elucidates driving mutational events is fundamental to the development of gene-targeted therapy. However, research on genomic profiles of acral melanoma in Asian patients is still sparse.

Experimental Design: We carried out whole-exome sequencing (WES) on 60 acral melanoma lesions (with 55 primary samples involved), targeted deep sequencing in a validation cohort of 48 cases, RNA sequencing in 37 acral melanoma samples (all from the 60 undergoing WES), and FISH in 233 acral melanoma specimens (54 of the 60 undergoing WES included). All the specimens were derived from Asian populations.

Results: BRAF, NRAS, and KIT were discerned as significantly mutated genes (SMG) in acral melanoma. The detected COSMIC signature 3 related to DNA damage repair, along with the high genomic instability score, implied corresponding pathogenesis of acral melanoma. Moreover, the copy number gains of EP300 were associated with the response of acral melanoma to targeted therapy of A485 (a p300 inhibitor) and immune checkpoint blockade treatment. In addition, the temporal order in mutational processes of the samples was reconstructed, and copy-number alterations were identified as early mutational events.

Conclusions: Our study provided a detailed view of genomic instability, potential therapeutic targets, and intratumoral heterogeneity of acral melanoma, which might fuel the development of personalized strategies for treating acral melanoma in Asian populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-3344DOI Listing
June 2022

Amorphous CoV Phosphate Nanosheets as Efficient Oxygen Evolution Electrocatalyst.

Chem Asian J 2022 May 5;17(10):e202200126. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, 030024, Shanxi, P.R. China.

The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is crucial for hydrogen production. However, OER with four-electron transfer requires electrocatalysts to speed up its sluggish kinetics in alkaline solutions. Herein, amorphous CoV phosphate (denoted as CoV-Pi) nanosheets synthesized by a straightforward one-step hydrothermal approach is reported, which provide a low overpotential of 320 mV at 10 mA cm , a small Tafel slope down to 48.8 mV dec and long-term durability over 80 h. The efficient activity is ascribed to the amorphous nanosheets structure, high electrochemically active surface area, enhanced surface wettability and the synergistic effect of the active metal atoms. This study significantly indicates that CoV-Pi is a promising alternative to replace expensive noble metal-based catalysts for electrochemical water splitting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asia.202200126DOI Listing
May 2022

Manganese (Mn)-induced oxidative stress contributes to intestinal lipid deposition via the deacetylation of PPARγ at K339 by SIRT1.

Antioxid Redox Signal 2022 Mar 16. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Huazhong Agricultural University, 47895, Fishery College, No. Shizishan Street, Hongshan District, Wuhan, Wuhan, China, 430070;

Aims: Excessive manganese (Mn) exposure is toxic, and induces lipid deposition, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Herein, we explored how dietary Mn supplementation affects lipid deposition and metabolism in the intestine of vertebrates using the yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco as the model.

Results: High-Mn (H-Mn) diet increased intestinal Mn content, promoted lipid accumulation and lipogenesis, and inhibited lipolysis. In addition, it induced oxidative stress, up-regulated metal-response element-binding transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) protein expression in the nucleus, induced PPARγ acetylation and the interaction between PPARγ and retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRα), while it down-regulated sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression and activity. Mechanistically, Mn activated the MTF-1/divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) pathway, increased Mn accumulation in the mitochondria and induced oxidative stress. This in turn promoted lipid deposition via deacetylation of PPARγ at K339 by SIRT1. Subsequently, PPARγ mediated Mn‑induced lipid accumulation through transcriptionally activating fatty acid translocase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 and perilipin 2 promoters.

Innovation: These studies uncover a previously unknown mechanism by which Mn induces lipid deposition in the intestine via the oxidative stress-SIRT1-PPARγ pathway.

Conclusion: High dietary Mn intake activates MTF-1/DMT1 and oxidative stress pathways. Oxidative stress-mediated PPARγ deacetylation at K339 site contributes to increased lipid accumulation. Our results provided a direct link between Mn and lipid metabolism via the oxidative stress-SIRT1-PPARγ axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ars.2021.0190DOI Listing
March 2022

Salmonella typhimurium strip based on the photothermal effect and catalytic color overlap of [email protected] nanocomposite.

Food Chem 2022 Aug 7;385:132649. Epub 2022 Mar 7.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Resistance Biology, Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety of Shandong Normal University, College of Life Science, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014, PR China. Electronic address:

This work reports a sensitive and accurate multimode detection method to detect Salmonella typhimurium using inherent color, photothermal and catalytic properties of Prussian [email protected] nanoparticles ([email protected]). The inherent color of [email protected] can realize direct visual detection while the temperature increase (ΔT) of it can realize sensitive and quantitative photothermal detection. Moreover, catalytic coloration detection is applied to further amplify detection signal. The risk limit, prevention and control of Salmonella typhimurium can be more intuitively displayed through catalytic color overlap degree between [email protected] and catalytic product. The sensitivity of method is improved through photothermal and catalytic coloration detection (10 CFU·mL) compared with direct visual detection (10 CFU·mL). The multimode detection improves the accuracy of method, and exhibits good repeatability, acceptable selectivity and stability. This method is also successfully applied in real samples, displaying its good practical applicability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.132649DOI Listing
August 2022

Exercise Intensity and Brain Plasticity: What's the Difference of Brain Structural and Functional Plasticity Characteristics Between Elite Aerobic and Anaerobic Athletes?

Front Hum Neurosci 2022 22;16:757522. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

Division of Sports Science and Physical Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

This study investigated the differences in morphometry and functional plasticity characteristics of the brain after long-term training of different intensities. Results showed that an aerobic group demonstrated higher gray matter volume in the cerebellum and temporal lobe, while an anaerobic group demonstrated higher gray matter volume in the region of basal ganglia. In addition, the aerobic group also showed significantly higher fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) and degree centrality (DC) in the motor area of the frontal lobe and parietal lobe, and the frontal gyrus, respectively. At the same time, the anaerobic group demonstrated higher fALFF and DC in the cerebellum posterior lobe (family-wise error corrected, < 0.01). These findings may further prove that different brain activation modes respond to different intensities of physical activity and may help to reveal the neural mechanisms that can classify athletes from different intensity sports.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2022.757522DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8901604PMC
February 2022

HSF1-SELENOS pathway mediated dietary inorganic Se-induced lipogenesis via the up-regulation of PPARγ expression in yellow catfish.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech 2022 04 4;1865(3):194802. Epub 2022 Mar 4.

Hubei Hongshan Laboratory, Fishery College, Huazhong Agriculture University, Wuhan 430070, China; Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China. Electronic address:

At present, studies involved in the effects of dietary Se sources on lipid metabolism were very scarce and the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Previous studies reported that dietary Se sources differentially affected selenoprotein S (SELENOS) expression and SELENOS affected lipid metabolism via the inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α)- spliced X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1s) pathway. Thus, we used yellow catfish as an experimental model to explore whether dietary selenium sources affected the hepatic lipid metabolism, and further determined the role of SELENOS-IRE1α-XBP1s pathway in dietary selenium sources affecting hepatic lipid metabolism. Compared with the selenomethionine (S-M) group, sodium selenite (SS) group possessed higher liver triglycerides (TGs) (34.7%), lipogenic enzyme activities (57.9-70.6%), and lower antioxidant enzyme activities (23.3-35.5%), increased protein levels of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) and SELENOS (1.17-fold and 47.4%, respectively), and XBP1s- peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) pathway. Blocking SELENOS and PPARγ by RNA interference demonstrated that the SELENOS/XBP1s/PPARγ axis was critical for S-S-induced lipid accumulation. Moreover, S-S-induced upregulation of SELENOS was via the increased DNA binding capacity of HSF1 to SELENOS promoter, which activated the XBP1s/PPARγ pathway and promoted lipogenesis and lipid accumulation. XBP1s is required for S-S-induced upregulation of PPARγ expression. Our finding elucidated the mechanism of dietary Se sources affecting the lipid metabolism in the liver of yellow catfish and demonstrated novel function of SELENOS in metabolic regulation. Our study also suggested that seleno-methionine was a better Se source than selenite against abnormal lipid deposition in the liver of yellow catfish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagrm.2022.194802DOI Listing
April 2022

A systematic study of the production of Monacolin K by solid state fermentation of Monascus ruber.

AMB Express 2022 Mar 3;12(1):29. Epub 2022 Mar 3.

School of Food Science and Engineering, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan, 250353, People's Republic of China.

Monacolin K is one of the bioactive substances produced by Monascus ruber during fermentation. The multi-factors and their interactions on the effect of solid-state fermentation of Monascus for high yield of monacolin K were attractive to industrial production. A detailed study of 7 single-factor experiments and a series of experiments with Plackette-Burman and Box-Benhnken design, data fitting and modeling, and analyzing the visual 3D response surface plots for investigation of the key factors for Monacolin K production. The results showed that initial moisture (50 ~ 55%) and bran content (4.5 ~ 5.5%) as the key factors of transport for nutrients and oxygen during the solid-state fermentation (SSF) process of Monascus. Under the optimal conditions, a temperature shifting of the SSF with a higher Monacolin K yield of 14.53 ± 0.16 mg·g compared with the content of monacolin K in the commercially available functional red yeast rice of 8 mg g.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13568-022-01368-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8894543PMC
March 2022

Research on China Cities' Total Factor Productivity of Carbon Emission: Based on Decoupling Effect.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 02 11;19(4). Epub 2022 Feb 11.

School of Accountancy, Beijing Wuzi University, Beijing 101149, China.

Economic development depends on energy consumption, which is a major source of carbon emission. How to achieve economic decarbonization has become one of the key questions urgently needing to be solved on the road of carbon peak and carbon neutral development in China. Advancing total factor productivity (TFP) of carbon emission is an important way to promote economic decarbonization. For the carbon emission TFP, current research is mainly conducted from province level or an industry perspective, and studies its deference with various geographical locations, economic development levels, urbanization levels, etc., lacking the research that combines the decoupling effect to carbon emission TFP. The carbon emission TFP of Chinese cities and how to improve it remain unclear. Therefore, based on Tapio decoupling theory, this paper firstly analyzed the decoupling effect of China's 284 cities from 2005 to 2019, and aggregated the cities into four groups according to the decoupling effect. Then, using the DEA-Malmquist index, this paper researched the carbon emission TFP and its driving factors based on the aggregation. The result shows that weak decoupling is the main decoupling status in China. As a whole, carbon emission TFP of Chinese cities does not perform well, but it shows a growth trend over time. Strong decoupling cities outperform expansive negative decoupling cities on carbon emission TFP. Technical change and pure technical efficiency change have inhibiting effect and promoting effect on carbon emission TFP, respectively, which are the main factors for the difference of carbon emission TFP between strong decoupling cities and expansive negative decoupling cities. Based on these findings, some common but differentiated recommendations are provided for improving Chinese cities' carbon emission TFP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8871953PMC
February 2022

GmBICs Modulate Low Blue Light-Induced Stem Elongation in Soybean.

Front Plant Sci 2022 3;13:803122. Epub 2022 Feb 3.

The National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement (NFCRI), Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Blue-light inhibitors of cryptochromes (BICs) promote hypocotyl elongation by suppressing the activity of cryptochromes in . Nevertheless, the roles of BICs in other plant species are still unclear. Here we investigate their functions by genetic overexpression and CRISPR/Cas9 engineered mutations targeting the six genes in soybean. We showed that the overexpression () lines strongly promoted stem elongation, while the single, double, and quadruple mutations in the genes resulted in incremental dwarfing phenotypes. Furthermore, overexpression of GmBIC2a abolished the low blue light (LBL)-induced stem elongation, demonstrating the involvement of GmBICs in regulating cryptochrome-mediated LBL-induced shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). The quadruple mutant displayed reduced stem elongation under LBL conditions, which was reminiscent of the lines. Taken together, this study provided essential genetic resources for elucidating GmBICs functional mechanisms and breeding of shade-tolerant soybean cultivars in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.803122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8850649PMC
February 2022

Unambiguous evidence of brilliant iridescent feather color from hollow melanosomes in an Early Cretaceous bird.

Natl Sci Rev 2022 Feb 28;9(2):nwab227. Epub 2021 Dec 28.

Institute of Geology and Paleontology, Linyi University, China.

A unique form of melanosomes contributing to brilliant iridescent colors in modern bird feathers, previously unknown in fossil birds, is identified in the Early Cretaceous bird Eoconfuciusornis. The discovery highlights the complexity of plumage color nanostructures utilized early in bird evolution as far back as 130 million years ago.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nsr/nwab227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8824705PMC
February 2022

Case Report: Endocapillary Glomerulopathy Associated With Large Granular T Lymphocyte Leukemia.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:810223. Epub 2022 Jan 25.

Department of Nephrology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

Large granular T lymphocyte leukemia (T-LGLL) is a rare indolent lymphocyte leukemia. The clonal proliferation of T cells, which is related to STAT3 gene mutation and abnormal Fas-mediated apoptosis pathway after cell activation, plays a major role in disease progression. Some studies have found that the exogenous and continuous stimulation of endogenous antigens, such as virus infection, is related to the pathogenesis of T-LGLL. The renal pathological manifestations of T-LGLL have rarely been described. In this study, we report a case of T-LGLL with kidney involvement as proteinuria, acute kidney injury, with the appearance of circulating T-LGL infiltrating intra-glomerular capillaries, and endocapillary glomerulopathy. We also summarize reported cases of renal injury associated with LGLL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.810223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8821965PMC
March 2022

Mitochondria-Dependent Oxidative Stress Mediates ZnO Nanoparticle (ZnO NP)-Induced Mitophagy and Lipotoxicity in Freshwater Teleost Fish.

Environ Sci Technol 2022 02 2;56(4):2407-2420. Epub 2022 Feb 2.

Hubei Hongshan Laboratory, Fishery College, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

Due to many special characteristics, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are widely used all over the world, leading to their wide distribution in the environment. However, the toxicities and mechanisms of environmental ZnO NP-induced changes of physiological processes and metabolism remain largely unknown. Here, we found that addition of dietary ZnO NPs disturbed hepatic Zn metabolism, increased hepatic Zn and lipid accumulation, downregulated lipolysis, induced oxidative stress, and activated mitophagy; ,,','-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN, Zn ions chelator) alleviated high ZnO NP-induced Zn and lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, and mitophagy. Mechanistically, the suppression of mitochondrial oxidative stress attenuated ZnO NP-activated mitophagy and ZnO NP-induced lipotoxicity. Taken together, our study elucidated that mitochondrial oxidative stress mediated ZnO NP-induced mitophagy and lipotoxicity; ZnO NPs could be dissociated to free Zn ions, which partially contributed to ZnO NP-induced changes in oxidative stress, mitophagy, and lipid metabolism. Our study provides novel insights into the impacts and mechanism of ZnO NPs as harmful substances inducing lipotoxicity of aquatic organisms, and accordingly, metabolism-relevant parameters will be useful for the risk assessment of nanoparticle materials in the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c07198DOI Listing
February 2022
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