Publications by authors named "Tao Yu"

1,692 Publications

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Benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-induced transformed cells identify the significance of hsa_circ_0051488, a ERCC1-derived circular RNA in pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma.

Mol Carcinog 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China.

ERCC1 is a gene for repairing DNA damage whose function is related to carcinogenic-induced tumorigenesis and the effectiveness of platinum therapies. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are products of posttranscriptional regulation with pleiotropic effects on the pathogenesis of lung cancer. We aim to identify that specific circRNAs derived from ERCC1 can regulate key biological processes involved in the development of lung cancer. We performed bioinformatics analysis, in vitro experiments, and analyzed clinical samples, to determine the biological features of a certain ERCC1-derived circRNA termed as hsa_circ_0051488 in benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-induced malignant transformed cell and lung cancer cell. The well-established model of transformed cells provided an ideal platform for analyzing the molecular characteristics of this circRNA in the malignant transformation of lung epithelial cell, which supports that hsa_circ_0051488 functions in the onset and growth of lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). Further analysis indicates that the absence of hsa_circ_0051488 promoted the proliferation of cells with the malignant phenotype. Extensive experiments confirm that hsa_circ_0051488 is present in the cytoplasm and functioned as a competing endogenous RNA. In particular, hsa_circ_0051488 binds to mir-6717-5p, thereby modulating the expression of SATB2 gene, a lung cancer suppressor. Furthermore, our in silico experiments indicate that SATB2 can inhibit multiple tumor pathways and its expression positively correlated with the tumor suppressor gene CRMP1. These findings suggest a possible regulatory mechanism of hsa_circ_0051488 in LUSC, and that the newly discovered hsa_circ_0051488/miR-6717-5p/SATB2 axis may be a potential route for therapeutic intervention of LUSC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mc.23335DOI Listing
July 2021

The characterization and candidate gene isolation for a novel male-sterile mutant ms40 in maize.

Plant Cell Rep 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Maize Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

Key Message: A novel genic male-sterile mutant ms40 was obtained from EMS treated RP125. The key candidate gene ZmbHLH51 located on chromosome 4 was identified by map-based cloning. This study further enriched the male sterile gene resources for both production applications and theoretical studies of abortion mechanisms. Maize male-sterile mutant 40 (ms40) was obtained from the progeny of the ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) treated inbred line RP125. Genetic analysis indicated that the sterility was controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. Cytological observation of anthers revealed that the cuticles of ms40 anthers were abnormal, and no Ubisch bodies were observed on the inner surface of ms40 anthers through scanning electron microscopy(SEM). Moreover, its tapetum exhibited delayed degradation and then blocked the formation of normal microspores. Using map-based cloning strategy, the ms40 locus was found to locate in a 282-kb interval on chromosome 4, and five annotated genes were predicted within this region. PCR-based sequencing detected a single non-synonymous SNP (G > A) that changed glycine (G) to arginine (A) in the seventh exon of Zm00001d053895, while no sequence difference between ms40 and RP125 was found for the other four genes. Zm00001d053895 encodes the bHLH transcription factor ZmbHLH51 which is localized in the nucleus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ZmbHLH51 had the highest homology with Sb04g001650, a tapetum degeneration retardation (TDR) bHLH transcription factor in Sorghum bicolor. Co-expression analysis revealed a total of 1192 genes co-expressed with ZmbHLH51 in maize, 647 of which were anther-specific genes. qRT-PCR results suggested the expression levels of some known genes related to anther development were affected in ms40. In summary, these findings revealed the abortion characteristics of ms40 anthers and lay a foundation for further studies on the mechanisms of male fertility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00299-021-02762-wDOI Listing
July 2021

Low-level germline mosaicism of a novel SMARCA2 missense variant: Expanding the phenotypic spectrum and mode of genetic transmission.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2021 Jul 22:e1763. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Embryo Original Diseases, Shanghai, China.

Background: Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome (NCBRS) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with multiple abnormalities. To date, all pathogenic variants in SMARCA2 causing NCBRS are de novo and most are missense variants located in the ATPase domain of SMARCA2 protein.

Methods: In this study, a familial trio whole-exome sequencing was performed on the proband presenting with intellectual disability, early-onset epilepsy, and autistic features. A novel missense variant c.553C>G (p.Gln185Glu) in SMARCA2 was identified, which is located in the QLQ domain. The same variant was subsequently also found in the mother's ongoing pregnancy. Samples from accessible tissues such as saliva and sperm other than blood were collected from the parents, and the detection of the target variant was performed by amplicon-based deep sequencing.

Results: Low-level mosaicism of the target variant c.553C>G (p.Gln185Glu) was detected in the father's sperm with allele fraction of 2.8% by amplicon-based deep sequencing, which was not detected in either parents' blood or saliva specimens. Heterozygosity of this variant was confirmed in the proband.

Conclusion: This is the first report of paternal germline mosaicism for a SMARCA2 disease-causing variant. In addition, the missense variant c.553C>G (p.Gln185Glu) in the QLQ domain causes mainly neurological and developmental phenotypes with unremarkable characteristic facial features and limb abnormalities. Our findings expand the phenotypic spectrum and mode of genetic transmission associated with the SMARCA2 variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.1763DOI Listing
July 2021

Multiparametric MRI-based Radiomics approaches on predicting response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) in patients with rectal cancer.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Fundamental Sciences, China Medical University, Shenyang, 110122, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To investigate the value of multiparametric MRI-based radiomics on predicting response to nCRT in patients with rectal cancer.

Methods: This study enrolled 193 patients with pathologically confirmed LARC who received nCRT treatment between Apr. 2014 and Jun. 2018. All patients underwent baseline T1-weighted (T1W), T2-weighted (T2W) and T2-weighted fat-suppression (T2FS) MRI scans before neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Radiomics features were extracted and selected from the MRI data to establish the radiomics signature. Important clinical predictors were identified by Mann-Whitney U test and Chi-square test. The nomogram integrating the radiomics signature and important clinical predictors was constructed using multivariate logistic regression. Prediction capabilities of each model were assessed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Performance of the nomogram was evaluated by its calibration and potential clinical usefulness.

Results: For the prediction of good response (GR) and pathologic complete response (pCR), the developed radiomics signature comprising 10 and 7 features, respectively, were significantly associated with the therapeutic response to nCRT. The nomogram incorporating the radiomics signature and important clinical predictors (CEA and CA19-9 for predicting GR; CEA, posttreatment length and posttreatment thickness for predicting pCR) achieved favorable prediction efficacy, with AUCs of 0.918 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.867-0.971, Sen = 0.972, Spe = 0.828) and 0.944 (95% CI: 0.891-0.997, Sen = 0.943, Spe = 0.828) in the training and validation cohort for predicting GR, respectively; with AUCs of 0.959 (95% CI: 0.927-0.991, Sen = 1.000, Spe = 0.833) and 0.912 (95% CI: 0.843-0.982, Sen = 1.000, Spe = 0.815) in the training and validation cohort for predicting pCR, respectively. Decision curve analysis confirmed potential clinical usefulness of our nomogram.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the MRI-based radiomics nomogram is predictive of response to nCRT and can be considered as a promising tool for facilitating treatment decision-making for patients with LARC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00261-021-03219-0DOI Listing
July 2021

Glycometabolism regulates hepatitis C virus release.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Jul 23;17(7):e1009746. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Unit of Viral Hepatitis, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

HCV cell-culture system uses hepatoma-derived cell lines for efficient virus propagation. Tumor cells cultured in glucose undergo active aerobic glycolysis, but switch to oxidative phosphorylation for energy production when cultured in galactose. Here, we investigated whether modulation of glycolysis in hepatocytes affects HCV infection. We showed HCV release, but not entry, genome replication or virion assembly, is significantly blocked when cells are cultured in galactose, leading to accumulation of intracellular infectious virions within multivesicular body (MVB). Blockade of the MVB-lysosome fusion or treatment with pro-inflammatory cytokines promotes HCV release in galactose. Furthermore, we found this glycometabolic regulation of HCV release is mediated by MAPK-p38 phosphorylation. Finally, we showed HCV cell-to-cell transmission is not affected by glycometabolism, suggesting that HCV cell-to-supernatant release and cell-to-cell transmission are two mechanistically distinct pathways. In summary, we demonstrated glycometabolism regulates the efficiency and route of HCV release. We proposed HCV may exploit the metabolic state in hepatocytes to favor its spread through the cell-to-cell transmission in vivo to evade immune response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1009746DOI Listing
July 2021

Direct Targeting of the Anterior Nucleus of the Thalamus via 3 T Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping.

Front Neurosci 2021 5;15:685050. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Beijing Institute of Functional Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) is a potentially effective, minimally invasive, and reversible method for treating epilepsy. The goal of this study was to explore whether 3 T quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) could delineate the ANT from surrounding structures, which is important for the direct targeting of DBS surgery. We obtained 3 T QSM, T1-weighted (T1w), and T2-weighted (T2w) images from 11 patients with Parkinson's disease or dystonia who received subthalamic nucleus (STN) or globus pallidus interna (GPi) DBS surgery in our center. The ANT and its surrounding white matter structures on QSM were compared with available atlases. The contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) of ANT relative to the external medullary lamina (eml) were compared across the three imaging modalities. Additionally, the morphology and location of the ANT were depicted in the anterior commissure (AC)-posterior commissure (PC)-based system. ANT can be clearly distinguished from the surrounding white matter laminas and appeared hyperintense on QSM. The CNRs of the ANT-eml on QSM, T1w, and T2w images were 10.20 ± 4.23, 1.71 ± 1.03, and 1.35 ± 0.70, respectively. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated significant differences in CNRs among QSM, T1w, and T2w imaging modalities [(2) = 85.28, < 0.0001]. In addition, both the morphology and location of the ANT were highly variable between patients in the AC-PC-based system. The potential utility of QSM for the visualization of ANTs in clinical imaging is promising and may be suitable for targeting the ANT for DBS to treat epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.685050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8287058PMC
July 2021

Anterior thalamic stimulation improves working memory precision judgments.

Brain Stimul 2021 Jul 17;14(5):1073-1080. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Beijing, China; Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: The anterior nucleus of thalamus (ANT) has been suggested as an extended hippocampal system. The circuit of ANT and hippocampus has been widely demonstrated to be associated with memory function. Both lesions to each region and disrupting inter-regional information flow can induce working memory impairment. However, the role of this circuit in working memory precision remains unknown.

Objective: To test the role of the hippocampal-anterior thalamic pathway in working memory precision, we delivered intracranially electrical stimulation to the ANT. We hypothesize that ANT stimulation can improve working memory precision.

Methods: Presurgical epilepsy patients with depth electrodes in ANT and hippocampus were recruited to perform a color-recall working memory task. Participants were instructed to point out the color they were supposed to recall by clicking a point on the color wheel, while the intracranial EEG data were synchronously recorded. For randomly selected half trials, a bipolar electrical stimulation was delivered to the ANT electrodes.

Results: We found that compared to non-stimulation trials, working memory precision judgements were significantly improved for stimulation trials. ANT electrical stimulation significantly increased spectral power of gamma (30-100 Hz) oscillations and decreased interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) in the hippocampus. Moreover, the increased gamma power during the pre-stimulus and retrieval period predicted the improvement of working memory precision judgements.

Conclusion: ANT electrical stimulation can improve working memory precision judgements and modulate hippocampal gamma activity, providing direct evidence on the role of the human hippocampal-anterior thalamic axis in working memory precision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2021.07.006DOI Listing
July 2021

Cerebral palsy in children born after assisted reproductive technology: a meta-analysis.

World J Pediatr 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Pediatrics, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, 20 South Renmin Road 3rd Section, Wuhou District, Chengdu 610041, China.

Background: Several studies have assessed the association between cerebral palsy (CP) and assisted reproductive technology (ART), but the results remain controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the risk of CP after ART compared with natural conceptions and to examine CP risk separately in ART singletons, multiples and preterm births.

Methods: Web-based databases (PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science) were searched until November 22, 2020. Studies which compare CP rates after ART with natural conceptions were included. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess the quality of the included studies. Effect estimates were extracted and combined using the fixed-effects or random-effects model depending on the heterogeneity test.

Results: There were nine studies included in the meta-analysis. The included studies were of moderate or high quality. A significantly higher risk of CP [odds ratio (OR) = 2.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.72-2.74] was found in ART children (n = 89,214) compared with naturally conceived children (n = 4,160,745). The significantly higher risk decreased when data were restricted to singletons (OR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.16-1.59) and disappeared when data were restricted to multiples (OR = 1.05, 95% CI 0.86-1.29) or preterm births (OR = 1.53, 95% CI 0.66-3.56). Subgroup and sensitivity analyses indicated that the overall results were robust.

Conclusions: The risk of CP is increased more than two-fold after ART. This increased risk is largely due to increased rates of multiple birth and preterm delivery in ART children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12519-021-00442-zDOI Listing
July 2021

Comparison of efficiency between VNS and ANT-DBS therapy in drug-resistant epilepsy: A one year follow up study.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 Aug 7;90:112-117. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Beijing Institute of Functional Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and anterior thalamic deep brain stimulation (ANT-DBS) have both been used for treatments of drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). However, there is no comparative study on the effectiveness of two methods from one single center. 17 patients with DRE who underwent VNS therapy and 18 patients who underwent DBS were enrolled. A retrospective study was performed starting from baseline before operation extending to 12 months after operation. The seizure types, duration of epilepsy, age at implantation, failed numbers of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) before operation, history of craniotomy, stimulation parameters and response rate were described. The analysis of liner regression on the age of onset, duration of epilepsy, numbers of AEDs, and the seizure reduction at 12 months after operation was applied. The mean seizure reduction in patients with DBS at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the operation was 57.22%, 61.61%, 63.94% and 65.28%, and that in cases with VNS was 36.06%, 39.94%, 45.24% and 48.35%, respectively. At 1 year after the operation, the patients with older operation age, focal seizures and older age of onset responded better to VNS; and those older operation age, focal generalized seizures, history of craniotomy and longer duration of disease responded better to DBS. The efficiency of ANT-DBS was higher than that of VNS at each follow up time point. Patients can choose the appropriate treatment according to the individual clinical characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2021.05.046DOI Listing
August 2021

Covalent Adaptable Liquid Crystal Networks Enabled by Reversible Ring-Opening Cascades of Cyclic Disulfides.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jul 18. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Institute of Advanced Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and Jiangsu Province Hi-Tech Key Laboratory for Biomedical Research, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China.

The development of covalent adaptable liquid crystal networks (LCNs) enabled by introducing dynamic covalent bonds has endowed liquid crystal actuators with self-healing properties and reversible shape programmability, broadening their applications in diverse soft robotic devices. However, the finite molecular design strategy limits the recyclability and the architectural diversity of these materials. Here, a strategy is first reported for fabricating photoresponsive polydisulfide-based covalent adaptable LCNs by ring-opening polymerization of cyclic dithiolane groups. Based on the disulfide metathesis, the resulting materials are self-healable, reshapable, and reprogrammable. Importantly, the equilibrium between the polymer backbones and the dithiolane-functionalized monomers enables catalytic depolymerization to recycle monomers, which could significantly weaken the disadvantage of subtractive manufacturing of photomechanical devices. This work rooted in chemistry would provide an economical and environmentally friendly strategy for the fabrication of functional soft robotics with excellent programmability and renewability and beyond.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c03661DOI Listing
July 2021

Binary pan-cancer classes with distinct vulnerabilities defined by pro- or anti-cancer YAP/TEAD activity.

Cancer Cell 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Lunenfeld Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mt Sinai Hospital, Sinai Health System, Toronto, ON M5G 1X5, Canada; Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5T 3A9, Canada; Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada; Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada. Electronic address:

Cancer heterogeneity impacts therapeutic response, driving efforts to discover over-arching rules that supersede variability. Here, we define pan-cancer binary classes based on distinct expression of YAP and YAP-responsive adhesion regulators. Combining informatics with in vivo and in vitro gain- and loss-of-function studies across multiple murine and human tumor types, we show that opposite pro- or anti-cancer YAP activity functionally defines binary YAP or YAP cancer classes that express or silence YAP, respectively. YAP solid cancers are neural/neuroendocrine and frequently RB1, such as retinoblastoma, small cell lung cancer, and neuroendocrine prostate cancer. YAP silencing is intrinsic to the cell of origin, or acquired with lineage switching and drug resistance. The binary cancer groups exhibit distinct YAP-dependent adhesive behavior and pharmaceutical vulnerabilities, underscoring clinical relevance. Mechanistically, distinct YAP/TEAD enhancers in YAP or YAP cancers deploy anti-cancer integrin or pro-cancer proliferative programs, respectively. YAP is thus pivotal across cancer, but in opposite ways, with therapeutic implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2021.06.016DOI Listing
July 2021

Sensitive and rapid on-site detection of SARS-CoV-2 using a gold nanoparticle-based high-throughput platform coupled with CRISPR/Cas12-assisted RT-LAMP.

Sens Actuators B Chem 2021 Oct 6;345:130411. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

School of Biomedical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen, 518107, China.

The outbreak of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to a global pandemic. The high infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 highlights the need for sensitive, rapid and on-site diagnostic assays of SARS-CoV-2 with high-throughput testing capability for large-scale population screening. The current detection methods in clinical application need to operate in centralized labs. Though some on-site detection methods have been developed, few tests could be performed for high-throughput analysis. We here developed a gold nanoparticle-based visual assay that combines with CRISPR/Cas12a-assisted RT-LAMP, which is called Cas12a-assisted RT-LAMP/AuNP (CLAP) assay for rapid and sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2. In optimal condition, we could detect down to 4 copies/μL of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in 40 min. by naked eye. The sequence-specific recognition character of CRISPR/Cas12a enables CLAP a superior specificity. More importantly, the CLAP is easy for operation that can be extended to high-throughput test by using a common microplate reader. The CLAP assay holds a great potential to be applied in airports, railway stations, or low-resource settings for screening of suspected people. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first AuNP-based colorimetric assay coupled with Cas12 and RT-LAMP for on-site diagnosis of COVID-19. We expect CLAP assay will improve the current COVID-19 screening efforts, and make contribution for control and mitigation of the pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2021.130411DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8257267PMC
October 2021

Intrinsically disordered electronegative clusters improve stability and binding specificity of RNA-binding proteins.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jul 8:100945. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Chemistry, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, CH266, 901 14th Street South, Birmingham, AL, 35294-1240, USA. Electronic address:

RNA-binding proteins play crucial roles in various cellular functions, and contain abundant disordered protein regions. The disordered regions in RNA-binding proteins are rich in repetitive sequences, such as poly-K/R, poly-N/Q, poly-A, and poly-G residues. Our bioinformatic analysis identified a largely neglected repetitive sequence family we define as electronegative clusters (ENCs) that contain acidic residues and/or phosphorylation sites. The abundance and length of ENCs exceed other known repetitive sequences. Despite their abundance, the functions of ENCs in RNA-binding proteins are still elusive. To investigate the impacts of ENCs on protein stability, RNA-binding affinity, and specificity, we selected one RNA-binding protein, the ribosomal biogenesis factor 15 (Nop15) as a model. We found that the Nop15 ENC increases protein stability and inhibits nonspecific RNA binding, but minimally interferes with specific RNA binding. To investigate the effect of ENCs on sequence specificity of RNA binding, we grafted an ENC to another RNA-binding protein, Ser/Arg-rich splicing factor 3 (SRSF3). Using RNA Bind-n-Seq, we found that the engineered ENC inhibits disparate RNA motifs differently, instead of weakening all RNA motifs to the same extent. The motif site directly involved in electrostatic interaction is more susceptible to the ENC inhibition. These results suggest that one of functions of ENCs is to regulate RNA binding via electrostatic interaction. This is consistent with our finding that ENCs are also overrepresented in DNA-binding proteins, while underrepresented in halophiles, in which nonspecific nucleic acid binding is inhibited by high concentrations of salts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2021.100945DOI Listing
July 2021

A low-noise analog frontend design for the Taiji phasemeter prototype.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 May;92(5):054501

National Microgravity Laboratory, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

The Taiji program plans to utilize the laser interferometer to measure the movement at the picometer level between free-floating test masses. As the phase readout equipment, the phasemeter needs to obtain the beat note with an accuracy of μrad/Hz. The main source of noise in the phasemeter is the analog frontend of the analog to digital converter. A self-designed phasemeter prototype with a low-noise analog frontend, which includes the theme of the pilot tone correction, has been developed and tested for the Taiji program in this Note. The experimental results show that the performance of the developed phasemeter can satisfy the Taiji sensitivity requirement in the whole frequency range. The sensitivity of the board can reach 0.5 μrad/Hz in the frequency range of 0.1-1 Hz. Therefore, the prototype gives us a good model for the fully functional Taiji phasemeter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0042249DOI Listing
May 2021

ZIF-67-based catalysts for oxygen evolution reaction.

Nanoscale 2021 Jul 7;13(28):12058-12087. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, China.

As a new type of crystalline porous material, the imidazole zeolite framework (ZIF) has attracted widespread attention due to its ultra-high surface area, large pore volume, and unique advantage of easy functionalization. Developing different methods to control the shape and composition of ZIF is very important for its practical application as catalyst. In recent years, nano-ZIF has been considered an electrode material with excellent oxygen evolution reaction (OER) performance, which provides a new way to research electrolyzed water. This review focuses on the morphological engineering of the original ZIF-67 and its derivatives (core-shell, hollow, and array structures) through doping (cation doping, anion doping, and co-doping), derivative composition engineering (metal oxide, phosphide, sulfide, selenide, and telluride), and the corresponding single-atom catalysis. Besides, combined with DFT calculations, it emphasizes the in-depth understanding of actual active sites and provides insights into the internal mechanism of enhancing the OER and proposes the challenges and prospects of ZIF-67 based electrocatalysts. We summarize the application of ZIF-67 and its derivatives in the OER for the first time, which has significantly guided research in this field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr01669eDOI Listing
July 2021

Characterization and Expression Analyses of Callose Synthase Enzyme (Cals) Family Genes in Maize (Zea mays L.).

Biochem Genet 2021 Jul 5. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Maize Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, No.211 Huimin Road, Chengdu, 611130, Wenjiang, China.

The callose synthase enzyme genes (Cals) generally plays an important role in resisting to environmental stresses as well as in regulating the microspore development of higher plant. However till now, few researches about ZmCals genes have been reported in maize. In this study, ten ZmCals genes were identified, and they are distributed on four chromosomes in maize. All ZmCals proteins contain Glucan-synthase-domain and Fks1-domain. RNA-seq data from public databases were analyzed and the result suggested that ZmCals involved in the development of various tissues, and a strong expression presented especially in young tissue. qRT-PCR analysis shown that most of ZmCals are highly expressed in root, stem and leaf at jointing stage (V6 stage) with maize inbred line B73. Seven out of 10 ZmCals genes display higher expression during maize anther development especially from stage 6 to stage 8b, the dynamic accumulation process of callose is also observed during these period with aniline blue staining. Above results indicated multiple ZmCals may participate in the deposition of callose in maize anther. Therefore, ZmCals are necessary not only for reproductive organ but also for nutritive organ during maize growth and development. This study lays certain foundation for further investigating the roles of the callose synthase enzymes genes in maize.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10528-021-10103-5DOI Listing
July 2021

An effective method for the determination of Ru in seawater by γ-spectrometry.

J Environ Radioact 2021 Jul 1;237:106691. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Laboratory of Marine Isotopic Technology and Environmental Risk Assessment, Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resource, Xiamen, 361005, China; Observation and Research Station of Island and Coastal Ecosystem in the Western Taiwan Strait, Ministry of Natural Resources, Xiamen, 361005, China; Fujian Provincial Station for Field Observation and Research of Island and Costal Zone in Zhangzhou, Zhangzhou, 363216, China. Electronic address:

Ru is a product originating from the fission reactions of uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu). Ru represents a potential source of radioactive marine contamination since it makes up 70-90% of the total radioactivity of liquid effluents from fuel reprocessing plants; thus, it is important to effectively determine the quantity of Ru in the natural environment. In this study, a simple and effective method was developed for the determination of Ru in seawater by γ-spectrometry using NiS coprecipitation. In addition, the amounts of S and Ni added, Ru carrier addition, pH, salinity, and sample volume were tested, and accordingly, optimal conditions were proposed. With the optimized conditions, the recovery of Ru in seawater ranged from 85.3% to 92.3%, with an average of 88.1 ± 4.2%. The method proposed in the present study can also be applied to seawater samples with various salinities and volumes. For 20 L seawater and 24 h counting time on a γ-spectrometer, the limit of detection for Ru in seawater was 5.74 mBq/L. In contrast to the traditional CoS method, the usage of NiS does not require any heating process; thus, the pretreatment time is substantially reduced. In addition, by using our method, Ru can be determined in the presence of other radionuclides, further enhancing processing efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2021.106691DOI Listing
July 2021

Distribution of posterior malleolus fracture lines in ankle fracture of supination-external rotation.

Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2021 Jun 30:103000. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, 200065 Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: Supination-external rotation ankle fracture is one of the most common fractures. Studies on the fracture line distribution of this fracture type are limited. The purpose of this study is to explore the distribution characteristics of intra-articular posterior malleolus fracture lines in supination-external rotation.

Hypothesis: Most of the fracture lines are concentrated in a particular area.

Material And Methods: Computed tomography scans of a consecutive series of 70 ankle fractures of supination-external rotation were used for this study. The DICOM files were loaded into Mimics 16.0 for 3D reconstruction of the distal tibial articular surface. The intra-articular posterior malleolus fracture lines were identified after virtual fracture reduction. All the fracture lines were drawn on one picture of the distal tibial articular surface after standardization before a heat map was created based on the frequency of fracture lines.

Results: Although the distribution of posterior malleolus intra-articular fracture lines varied, most of them were concentrated in an arcuate zone. The ratios of the area of posterior fracture fragment to the total area of articular surface averaged 14.96% (range, from 2.23% to 38.45%). They were most likely to enter the articular surface at 20.4% of the tangent of the posterior edge in a standardized image and exit at 58.7% of the tangent of the lateral edge.

Conclusions: In ankle fractures of supination-external rotation, most intra-articular posterior malleolus fracture lines may be distributed regularly in an arcuate zone of the articular surface.

Level Of Proof: V; Descriptive research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.otsr.2021.103000DOI Listing
June 2021

Identification of transfer RNA-derived fragments and their potential roles in aortic dissection.

Genomics 2021 Jun 30;113(5):3039-3049. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Cardiac Ultrasound, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao 266000, China; Institute for Translational Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, No. 38 Dengzhou Road, Qingdao 266021, People's Republic of China.. Electronic address:

Emerging evidence suggests that majority of the transfer RNA (tRNA)-derived small RNA, including tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs) and tRNA halves (tiRNAs), play a significant role in the molecular mechanisms underlying some human diseases. However, expression of tRFs/tiRNAs and their potential roles in aortic dissection (AD) remain unclear. This study examined the expression characteristics and explored the functional roles of tRFs/tiRNAs in AD using RNA-sequencing, bioinformatics, real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and loss- and gain-of-function analysis. Results revealed that a total of 41 tRFs/tiRNAs were dysregulated in the AD group compared to the control group. Among them, 12 were upregulated and 29 were downregulated (fold change≥1.5 and p < 0.05). RT-qPCR results revealed that expressions of tRF-1:30-chrM.Met-CAT was significantly upregulated, while that of tRF-54:71-chrM.Trp-TCA and tRF-1:32-chrM.Cys-GCA were notably downregulated; expression patterns were consistent with the RNA sequencing data. Bioinformatic analysis showed that a variety of related pathways might be involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Functionally, tRF-1:30-chrM.Met-CAT could facilitate proliferation, migration, and phenotype switching in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which might serve as a significant regulator in the progression of AD. In summary, the study illustrated that tRFs/tiRNAs expressed in AD tissues have potential biological functions and may act as promising biomarkers or therapeutic targets for AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2021.06.039DOI Listing
June 2021

Structural, Electronic, and Nonlinear Optical Properties of CH and CCl Encapsulating Li and F Atoms.

ACS Omega 2021 Jun 14;6(24):16234-16240. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Key Laboratory of Eco-materials Advanced Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108, P. R. China.

Recently, nonclassical fullerene derivatives CH and CCl, which both contain two negatively curved moieties of heptagons, have been successfully synthesized. Inspired by these experimental achievements, the structural and electronic properties of CH, CCl, [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], and [email protected] were systematical studied through density functional theory calculations in this work. Our results show that the reduction of the front molecular orbital gap of fullerene derivatives occurs with the introduction of Li and F atoms. After quantitative analysis of back-donations of charge between an encapsulated atom and an external carbon cage, it is found that CH and CCl prefer to act as electron acceptors. It is interesting to note that the strong covalent nature of the interactions between a F atom and a carbon cage is observed, whereas the weak covalent and strong ionic interactions occur between a Li atom and a carbon cage. On the other hand, according to the first hyperpolarizability results, the encapsulation of the Li atom enhances the nonlinear optical response of fullerene derivatives. This work provides a strategy to improve nonlinear optical properties of CH and CCl, reveals the internal mechanism of the contribution from Li and F atoms to endohedral fullerene derivatives, and will contribute to the designation of endohedral fullerene derivative devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c02364DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8223433PMC
June 2021

The effect of sublethal concentrations of benzalkonium chloride on the LuxS/AI-2 quorum sensing system, biofilm formation and motility of Escherichia coli.

Int J Food Microbiol 2021 Jun 21;353:109313. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

School of Life Sciences & Basic Medicine, Xinxiang University, Xinxiang, Henan Province 453000, China. Electronic address:

Escherichia coli can survive improper disinfection processes, which is a potential source of contamination of food products. Benzalkonium chloride (BC) is a common disinfectant widely used in food industry. Bacterial quorum sensing (QS) plays a major role in food spoilage, biofilm formation and food-related pathogenesis. Understanding QS can help to control the growth of undesirable food-related bacteria. The LuxS/AI-2 QS system of E. coli has been confirmed to regulate many important phenotypes including biofilm formation and motility. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the effect of sublethal concentrations of BC on the LuxS/AI-2 system of E. coli isolates from retail meat samples, as well as bacterial biofilm formation and motility. Our results showed that sublethal concentrations of BC promoted AI-2 production in four test E. coli isolates. The results from microplate assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis indicated that sublethal concentrations of BC enhanced biofilm formation of E. coli. When treated with sublethal concentrations of BC, exopolysaccharides (EPS) production during biofilm development increased significantly and swimming motility of tested isolates was also promoted. The expression levels of luxS, biofilm-associated genes and flagellar motility genes were increased by BC at sublethal concentrations. Our findings underline the importance of proper use of the disinfectant BC in food processing environments to control food contamination by E. coli.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2021.109313DOI Listing
June 2021

Distinct changes of brain cortical thickness relate to post-treatment outcomes in children with epilepsy.

Seizure 2021 Jun 13;91:181-188. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Department of Radiology, Key Laboratory of Obstetric & Gynecologic and Pediatric Diseases and Birth Defects of Ministry of Education, National Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: In the current study, we examined the potential of neuroanatomic measures to cluster patients into different subgroups and established their clinical relevance to post-treatment outcomes.

Methods: We included seventy-two children with epilepsy (aged 14-195 months) who were treated with anti-seizure medication alone and 39 healthy participants (aged 36-60 months). High-resolution T1-weighted imaging was performed for all participants, and brain cortical thickness measurements were obtained for 68 cortical regions for each of them. Amongst the patients, data-driven hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using the selected cortical thickness measures as features. The average thickness measures in each of the 68 brain regions were then compared between patient subgroups and healthy controls.

Results: Two distinct patient subgroups were identified but were not related to the clinical types. Patients within subgroup 1 (n = 56) had a significantly higher rate of recurrent seizure than those in subgroup 2 (n = 16) (41.1% vs. 14.3%, p<0.05), while the follow-up time or medication did not differ between them. This finding was further confirmed by a recent follow-up through phone calls. The demographic variables, rate of electroencephalogram abnormalities, or sleep problems did not significantly differ between patient subgroups. Compared with healthy controls, patients in subgroup 1 showed significantly increased cortical thickness in the neocortex, whereas patients in subgroup 2 only showed regional cortical thinning in the right superior temporal gyrus.

Conclusion: These findings suggest the potential existence of distinct subgroups of children with epilepsy that were especially relevant to the differential patterns of post-treatment outcomes, with regional cortical thinning in the temporal regions relative to controls predicting lower risk of recurrent seizure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2021.06.010DOI Listing
June 2021

Removal of Unusual Foreign Metal Object (Nail) from the Right Ventricle of Human Heart: A Case Report.

Heart Surg Forum 2021 Jun 23;24(3):E560-E563. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Sichuan Academy of Medical Science & Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, Sichuan, China.

Migration of foreign bodies (FB) with the blood flow to the heart is a rare, but very alarming condition as it may lead to life-threatening complications and death. Objects that are larger than 5 mm in diameter and/or irregular in shape are recommended for removal from extra- and intracardiac areas to prevent incurable embolization. Surgical extraction of intracardiac objects is a serious surgical challenge associated with difficulties to operate, during the continuous movement of the heart, and identify the exact FB location. Early diagnosis and timely removal of FBs are crucial treatment factors for this rare case resolution. We report a case of accidental migration of a metal FB object (nail) about 1.0*0.3 cm from the right neck area jugular vein to the right ventricle apex in the heart. The FB localization was accurately detected using Bi-plane transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) with a special comet-tail artifact. TEE provided valuable information before surgery, and the nail was successfully removed through open-heart surgical procedures and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Postoperative tests indicated no complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1532/hsf.3559DOI Listing
June 2021

Boosting the charge transfer of FeOOH/Ni(OH) for excellent oxygen evolution reaction Cr modification.

Dalton Trans 2021 Jul;50(28):9746-9753

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, China. and School of Resources and Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, 066004, China.

For the electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline media, there is an urgent need to optimize the adsorption strength of OH*. Here, a flower-like hybrid of Cr-doped FeOOH/Ni(OH)2 was used as an OER catalyst with a low overpotential of 291 mV at 50 mA cm-2. The results showed that faster charge transfer was achieved at the electrode/solution interface during the OER process after the FeOOH/Ni(OH)2 was modified by Cr, which facilitates the rate-determining step of the Volmer reaction. Furthermore, the results of faradaic efficiency and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements confirmed that the synergistic effect between the ternary metal and oxygen vacancies led to excellent OER performance. This work provides a new strategy for the preparation of high-efficiency and low-cost oxygen evolution electrocatalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt01469bDOI Listing
July 2021

Localization of the Epileptogenic Zone by Multimodal Neuroimaging and High-Frequency Oscillation.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 8;15:677840. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Laboratory of Brain Disorders, Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Disorders, Ministry of Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Brain Disorders, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Accurate localization of the epileptogenic zone (EZ) is a key factor to obtain good surgical outcome for refractory epilepsy patients. However, no technique, so far, can precisely locate the EZ, and there are barely any reports on the combined application of multiple technologies to improve the localization accuracy of the EZ. In this study, we aimed to explore the use of a multimodal method combining PET-MRI, fluid and white matter suppression (FLAWS)-a novel MRI sequence, and high-frequency oscillation (HFO) automated analysis to delineate EZ. We retrospectively collected 15 patients with refractory epilepsy who underwent surgery and used the above three methods to detect abnormal brain areas of all patients. We compared the PET-MRI, FLAWS, and HFO results with traditional methods to evaluate their diagnostic value. The sensitivities, specificities of locating the EZ, and marking extent removed versus not removed [RatioChann(ev)] of each method were compared with surgical outcome. We also tested the possibility of using different combinations to locate the EZ. The marked areas in every patient established using each method were also compared to determine the correlations among the three methods. The results showed that PET-MRI, FLAWS, and HFOs can provide more information about potential epileptic areas than traditional methods. When detecting the EZs, the sensitivities of PET-MRI, FLAWS, and HFOs were 68.75, 53.85, and 87.50%, and the specificities were 80.00, 33.33, and 100.00%. The RatioChann(ev) of HFO-marked contacts was significantly higher in patients with good outcome than those with poor outcome (< 0.05). When intracranial electrodes covered all the abnormal areas indicated by neuroimaging with the overlapping EZs being completely removed referred to HFO analysis, patients could reach seizure-free ( < 0.01). The periphery of the lesion marked by neuroimaging may be epileptic, but not every lesion contributes to seizures. Therefore, approaches in multimodality can detect EZ more accurately, and HFO analysis may help in defining real epileptic areas that may be missed in the neuroimaging results. The implantation of intracranial electrodes guided by non-invasive PET-MRI and FLAWS findings as well as HFO analysis would be an optimized multimodal approach for locating EZ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2021.677840DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8217465PMC
June 2021

Identifying key mononuclear Fe species for low-temperature methane oxidation.

Chem Sci 2021 Jan 8;12(9):3152-3160. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

CAS Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Applied Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences 457 Zhongshan Road Dalian 116023 China

The direct functionalization of methane into platform chemicals is arguably one of the holy grails in chemistry. The actual active sites for methane activation are intensively debated. By correlating a wide variety of characterization results with catalytic performance data we have been able to identify mononuclear Fe species as the active site in the Fe/ZSM-5 zeolites for the mild oxidation of methane with HO at 50 °C. The 0.1% Fe/ZSM-5 catalyst with dominant mononuclear Fe species possess an excellent turnover rate (TOR) of 66 mol mol h, approximately 4 times higher compared to the state-of-the-art dimer-containing Fe/ZSM-5 catalysts. Based on a series of advanced spectroscopic studies and H- and C- nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), we found that methane activation initially proceeds on the Fe site of mononuclear Fe species. With the aid of adjacent Brønsted acid sites (BAS), methane can be first oxidized to CHOOH and CHOH, and then subsequently converted into HOCHOOH and consecutively into HCOOH. These findings will facilitate the search towards new metal-zeolite combinations for the activation of C-H bonds in various hydrocarbons, for light alkanes and beyond.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0sc06067dDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8179404PMC
January 2021

Prediction of the number of metastatic axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer by radiomic signature based on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.

Acta Radiol 2021 Jun 23:2841851211025857. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Radiology, Chongqing University Cancer Hospital & Chongqing Cancer Institute & Chongqing Cancer Hospital, Chongqing, PR China.

Background: The number of metastatic axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) play a crucial role in the staging, prognosis and therapy of patients with breast cancer.

Purpose: To predict the number of metastatic ALNs in breast cancer via radiomics.

Material And Methods: We enrolled 197 patients with breast cancer who underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). A total of 3386 radiomic features were extracted from the early- and delayed-phase subtraction images. To classify the number of metastatic ALNs, logistic regression was used to develop a radiomic signature and nomogram.

Results: The radiomic signature were constructed to distinguish the N group from the N (metastatic ALNs ≥ 1) group, which yielded area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.82 and 0.81 in the training and test group, respectively. Based on the radiomic signature and BI-RADS category, a nomogram was further developed and showed excellent predictive performance with AUC values of 0.85 and 0.89 in the training and test groups, respectively. Another radiomic signature was constructed to distinguish the N (1-3 ALNs) group from the N (≥4 metastatic ALNs) group and showed encouraging performance with AUC values of 0.94 and 0.84 in training and test group, respectively.

Conclusions: We developed a nomogram and a radiomic signature that can be used to predict ALN metastasis and distinguish the N from the N group. Both nomogram and radiomic signature may be potential tools to assist clinicians in assessing ALN metastasis in patients with breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02841851211025857DOI Listing
June 2021

Propofol Anesthesia Decreased the Efficiency of Long-Range Cortical Interaction in Humans.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2021 Jun 23;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Objective: Phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) has recently been used to illuminate cross-frequency coordination in neurophysiological activity of electroencephalogram. However, the PAC at a meso-scale (electrocorticogram, ECoG) and PAC between different areas have still not been fully clarified.

Methods: In this study, we analyzed ECoG data recorded from surgical patients (n= 9) with pharmaco-resistant epilepsy during the surgical treatment. The modulogram and a genuine modulation index, based on a Kullback-Leibler distance and permutation test method, were developed and used to measure the slow oscillation (SO) (0.15-1 Hz)- (8-13 Hz) PAC of within-lead and cross-lead during transitions from states of wakefulness to unconsciousness during propofol induced general anesthesia.

Results: In within-lead SO- PAC, the modulation index increased in the unconscious state (p<0.05, Tukeys test), the percentages of genuine modulation indices also increased in the unconscious state (p<0.001 in the frontal area and p<0.01 in the parietal area), and distinct PAC patterns emerged more often. In cross-lead SO- PAC, there are fewer PAC patterns compared to within-lead, and the percentages of genuine modulation indices decreased significantly (p<0.001).

Conclusion: The increased modulation index of within-lead and cross-lead SO- PAC is associated with a reduction of information integration and the efficiency of long distance synchronization. These findings demonstrate that the propofol causes the neuronal populations to enter a busy state in a local scale, which prevents the information integration in long-range areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2021.3090027DOI Listing
June 2021

[Survival Analysis of 76 Cases of Head and Neck Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma
with Lung Metastasis].

Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi 2021 Jun;24(6):412-419

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, 
Capital Medical University, Beijing 100730, China.

Background: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the head and neck often develops lung metastasis. At present, there are not many research reports on ACC lung metastasis, little is known about its exact clinical features and treatment results, and there is no consensus on the best treatment strategy. This study explored the effective treatment strategies, clinical outcomes and long-term prognosis of head and neck ACC lung metastases.

Methods: The clinical and follow-up data of 76 patients with head and neck ACC lung metastases were retrospectively analyzed. According to the initial treatment of patients, they are divided into 4 groups: surgery, surgery+chemotherapy or radiotherapy, chemotherapy or radiotherapy and supportive treatment. The patients were staged according to the International Registry of Lung Metastases Staging System (IRLM). Kaplan-Meier method and Log-rank test were used to compare the statistical differences of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of patients with different treatment methods and different IRLM stages.

Results: The OS and PFS of patients undergoing surgery are better than those of supportive therapy or radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy (OS: P<0.000,1; PFS: P<0.000,1). The OS and PFS of patients with low stage IRLM are better than those with high stage (OS: P<0.000,1; PFS: P<0.000,1). Patients with single lung metastasis and without pleural effusion have better OS and PFS.

Conclusions: The long-term prognosis of patients with lung metastasis of head and neck ACC who undergo surgery is better than other treatments, which is related to higher OS and PFS. For patients with ACC lung metastases who are operationally eligible, the significance of complete surgical resection should be higher than other treatment options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2021.102.21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8246395PMC
June 2021

Spatiotemporal control of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2021 Jun 20;6(1):238. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Laboratory of Biomaterials and Translational Medicine, Center for Nanomedicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) gene editing technology, as a revolutionary breakthrough in genetic engineering, offers a promising platform to improve the treatment of various genetic and infectious diseases because of its simple design and powerful ability to edit different loci simultaneously. However, failure to conduct precise gene editing in specific tissues or cells within a certain time may result in undesirable consequences, such as serious off-target effects, representing a critical challenge for the clinical translation of the technology. Recently, some emerging strategies using genetic regulation, chemical and physical strategies to regulate the activity of CRISPR/Cas9 have shown promising results in the improvement of spatiotemporal controllability. Herein, in this review, we first summarize the latest progress of these advanced strategies involving cell-specific promoters, small-molecule activation and inhibition, bioresponsive delivery carriers, and optical/thermal/ultrasonic/magnetic activation. Next, we highlight the advantages and disadvantages of various strategies and discuss their obstacles and limitations in clinical translation. Finally, we propose viewpoints on directions that can be explored to further improve the spatiotemporal operability of CRISPR/Cas9.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41392-021-00645-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8214627PMC
June 2021
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