Publications by authors named "Tao Sun"

1,529 Publications

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Corrigendum: [A Comparative Study of Adaptive Interlimb Coordination Mechanisms for Self-Organized Robot Locomotion].

Front Robot AI 2021 2;8:702167. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Institute of Bioinspired Structure and Surface Engineering, College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/frobt.2021.638684.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/frobt.2021.702167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8208030PMC
June 2021

Tocopheryl quinone improves non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) associated dysmetabolism of glucose and lipids by upregulating the expression of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) restoring the balance of intestinal flora in rats.

Pharm Biol 2021 Dec;59(1):723-731

The Second Clinical Medical College of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, PR China.

Context: Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and α-tocopheryl quinone can promote the growth of intestinal flora and affect the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

Objective: This study determines the molecular mechanism of the effect of tocopheryl quinone in the treatment of high cholesterol and cholate diet (HFCC)-induced NASH.

Materials And Methods: Thirty-two male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats grouped as lean control (LC), LC + tocopheryl quinone (1 mL of 3 × 10 dpm tocopheryl quinone i.p. injection), HFCC (5.1 kcal/g of fat diet), and HFCC + tocopheryl quinone. Profiles of intestinal flora were assessed by 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid-based analysis. Levels and activity of GLP-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in intestinal tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Results: HFCC rats presented higher levels of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), while tocopheryl quinone reversed the effects of HFCC. HFCC dysregulated malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), Vitamin E, 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE), 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and the effects of HFCC were reversed by the treatment of tocopheryl quinone. Also, GLP-1 in the HFCC group was down-regulated while the IL-6 and TNF-α activity and endotoxins were all up-regulated. HFCC significantly decreased the number and diversity of bacteria, whereas tocopheryl quinone substantially restored the balance of intestinal flora and promoted the growth of both and .

Discussion And Conclusions: α-Tocopheryl quinone relieves HFCC-induced NASH regulating oxidative stress, GLP-1 expression, intestinal flora imbalance, and the metabolism of glucose and lipids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2021.1916542DOI Listing
December 2021

Distributed-force-feedback-based reflex with online learning for adaptive quadruped motor control.

Neural Netw 2021 Jun 5;142:410-427. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Institute of Bio-inspired Structure and Surface Engineering, College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, China; Embodied AI & Neurorobotics Lab, SDU Biorobotics, the Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller Institute, the University of Southern Denmark, Odense M, Denmark. Electronic address:

Biological motor control mechanisms (e.g., central pattern generators (CPGs), sensory feedback, reflexes, and motor learning) play a crucial role in the adaptive locomotion of animals. However, the interaction and integration of these mechanisms - necessary for generating the efficient, adaptive locomotion responses of legged robots to diverse terrains - have not yet been fully realized. One issue is that of achieving adaptive motor control for fast postural adaptation across various terrains. To address this issue, this study proposes a novel distributed-force-feedback-based reflex with online learning (DFRL). It integrates force-sensory feedback, reflexes, and learning to cooperate with CPGs in producing adaptive motor commands. The DFRL is based on a simple neural network that uses plastic synapses modulated online by a fast dual integral learner. Experimental results on different quadruped robots show that the DFRL can (1) automatically and rapidly adapt the CPG patterns (motor commands) of the robots, enabling them to realize appropriate body postures during locomotion and (2) enable the robots to effectively accommodate themselves to various slope terrains, including steep ones. Consequently, the DFRL-controlled robots can achieve efficient adaptive locomotion, to tackle complex terrains with diverse slopes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neunet.2021.06.001DOI Listing
June 2021

Recent Advancements in Nanomedicine for 'Cold' Tumor Immunotherapy.

Nanomicro Lett 2021 Mar 16;13(1):92. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery (Ministry of Education), State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology and MOE Frontiers Center for Brain Science, Institutes of Brain Science, Department of Pharmaceutics, and School of Pharmacy, Research Center on Aging and Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai, 201203, People's Republic of China.

Although current anticancer immunotherapies using immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been reported with a high clinical success rate, numerous patients still bear 'cold' tumors with insufficient T cell infiltration and low immunogenicity, responding poorly to ICI therapy. Considering the advancements in precision medicine, in-depth mechanism studies on the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) among cold tumors are required to improve the treatment for these patients. Nanomedicine has emerged as a promising drug delivery system in anticancer immunotherapy, activates immune function, modulates the TIME, and has been applied in combination with other anticancer therapeutic strategies. This review initially summarizes the mechanisms underlying immunosuppressive TIME in cold tumors and addresses the recent advancements in nanotechnology for cold TIME reversal-based therapies, as well as a brief talk about the feasibility of clinical translation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-021-00622-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006526PMC
March 2021

A machine learning framework that integrates multi-omics data predicts cancer-related LncRNAs.

BMC Bioinformatics 2021 Jun 16;22(1):332. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

School of Computer and Software, Nanyang Institute of Technology, Changjiang Road 80, Nanyang, 473004, Henan, China.

Background: LncRNAs (Long non-coding RNAs) are a type of non-coding RNA molecule with transcript length longer than 200 nucleotides. LncRNA has been novel candidate biomarkers in cancer diagnosis and prognosis. However, it is difficult to discover the true association mechanism between lncRNAs and complex diseases. The unprecedented enrichment of multi-omics data and the rapid development of machine learning technology provide us with the opportunity to design a machine learning framework to study the relationship between lncRNAs and complex diseases.

Results: In this article, we proposed a new machine learning approach, namely LGDLDA (LncRNA-Gene-Disease association networks based LncRNA-Disease Association prediction), for disease-related lncRNAs association prediction based multi-omics data, machine learning methods and neural network neighborhood information aggregation. Firstly, LGDLDA calculates the similarity matrix of lncRNA, gene and disease respectively, and it calculates the similarity between lncRNAs through the lncRNA expression profile matrix, lncRNA-miRNA interaction matrix and lncRNA-protein interaction matrix. We obtain gene similarity matrix by calculating the lncRNA-gene association matrix and the gene-disease association matrix, and we obtain disease similarity matrix by calculating the disease ontology, the disease-miRNA association matrix, and Gaussian interaction profile kernel similarity. Secondly, LGDLDA integrates the neighborhood information in similarity matrices by using nonlinear feature learning of neural network. Thirdly, LGDLDA uses embedded node representations to approximate the observed matrices. Finally, LGDLDA ranks candidate lncRNA-disease pairs and then selects potential disease-related lncRNAs.

Conclusions: Compared with lncRNA-disease prediction methods, our proposed method takes into account more critical information and obtains the performance improvement cancer-related lncRNA predictions. Randomly split data experiment results show that the stability of LGDLDA is better than IDHI-MIRW, NCPLDA, LncDisAP and NCPHLDA. The results on different simulation data sets show that LGDLDA can accurately and effectively predict the disease-related lncRNAs. Furthermore, we applied the method to three real cancer data including gastric cancer, colorectal cancer and breast cancer to predict potential cancer-related lncRNAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12859-021-04256-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8210375PMC
June 2021

Immunological Significance of Prognostic DNA Methylation Sites in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 26;8:683240. Epub 2021 May 26.

The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a tumor with high morbidity and high mortality worldwide. DNA methylation, one of the most common epigenetic changes, might serve a vital regulatory role in cancer. To identify categories based on DNA methylation data, consensus clustering was employed. The risk signature was yielded by systematic bioinformatics analyses based on the remarkably methylated CpG sites of cluster 1. Kaplan-Meier analysis, variable regression analysis, and ROC curve analysis were further conducted to validate the prognosis predictive ability of risk signature. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed for functional annotation. To uncover the context of tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) of HCC, we employed the ssGSEA algorithm and CIBERSORT method and performed TIMER database exploration and single-cell RNA sequencing analysis. Additionally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was employed to determine the LRRC41 expression and preliminarily explore the latent role of LRRC41 in prognostic prediction. Finally, mutation data were analyzed by employing the "maftools" package to delineate the tumor mutation burden (TMB). HCC samples were assigned into seven subtypes with different overall survival and methylation levels based on 5'-cytosine-phosphate-guanine-3' (CpG) sites. The risk prognostic signature including two candidate genes (LRRC41 and KIAA1429) exhibited robust prognostic predictive accuracy, which was validated in the external testing cohort. Then, the risk score was significantly correlated with the TIME and immune checkpoint blockade (ICB)-related genes. Besides, a prognostic nomogram based on the risk score and clinical stage presented powerful prognostic ability. Additionally, LRRC41 with prognostic value was corroborated to be closely associated with TIME characterization in both expression and methylation levels. Subsequently, the correlation regulatory network uncovered the potential targets of LRRC41 and KIAA1429. Finally, the methylation level of KIAA1429 was correlated with gene mutation status. In summary, this is the first to identify HCC samples into distinct clusters according to DNA methylation and yield the CpG-based prognostic signature and quantitative nomogram to precisely predict prognosis. And the pivotal player of DNA methylation of genes in the TIME and TMB status was explored, contributing to clinical decision-making and personalized prognosis monitoring of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2021.683240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187884PMC
May 2021

Analysis of the role of Purα in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease based on RNA-seq and ChIP-seq.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 9;11(1):12178. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Ningxia Key Laboratory of Cerebrocranial Diseases, Incubation Base of the National Key Laboratory, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, China.

Purine rich element binding protein A (Purα), encoded by the Purα gene, is an important transcriptional regulator that binds to DNA and RNA and is involved in processes such as DNA replication and RNA translation. Purα also plays an important role in the nervous system. To identify the function of Pura, we performed RNA sequence (RNA-seq) analysis of Purɑ-KO mouse hippocampal neuron cell line (HT22) to analyze the effect of Purα deletion on neuronal expression profiles. And combined with ChIP-seq analysis to explore the mechanism of Purα on gene regulation. In the end, totaly 656 differentially expressed genes between HT22 and Purα-KO HT22 cells have been found, which include 7 Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related genes and 5 Aβ clearance related genes. 47 genes were regulated by Purα directly, the evidence based on CHIP-seq, which include Insr, Mapt, Vldlr, Jag1, etc. Our study provides the important informations of Purα in neuro-development. The possible regulative effects of Purα on AD-related genes consist inthe direct and indirect pathways of Purα in the pathogenesis of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90982-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8190037PMC
June 2021

A small-cohort study on tumor recurrence and surgery-related complications associated with proximal fibular tumors and the potential utility of biopsy.

J Clin Transl Res 2021 Feb 25;7(1):108-115. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Radiology, Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province 050051, PR China.

Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the incidence of tumor recurrence, iatrogenic peroneal nerve injury, and wound healing problems in a small cohort of patients with proximal fibular tumors who had undergone surgery, and to determine the relative risk of pre-operative biopsies on these outcome variables.

Methods: The study entailed a retrospective single-center analysis of patients with a histologically confirmed tumor in the proximal fibula who had undergone surgery at our institute between 2004 and 2019 ( = 66). The accuracy of diagnosis based on pre-operative biopsy ( = 10) was compared to the histological diagnosis based on resection specimens. The association between pre-operative biopsy and patient demographics and medical history as well as tumor recurrence, iatrogenic peroneal nerve injury, and impaired wound healing was analyzed statistically. The data were presented against a backdrop of bone cancer incidence and 5-year survival rates in China.

Results: Recurrence, iatrogenic peroneal nerve, and wound healing issues were identified in 5 (7.6%), 8 (12.1%), and 6 patients (11.0%), respectively. A biopsy was acquired from ten of 66 patients. The pre-operative biopsy diagnostic accuracy rate was 100%. Males had an 11.2-fold higher risk of undergoing pre-operative biopsy than females (95% CI, 1.3-94.1; = 0.013). Pre-operative biopsies were 11.2 times more likely to be obtained from patients with malignant and benign aggressive tumors in the proximal fibula compared to benign tumors (95% CI, 1.1-63.1; = 0.013). Patients who had undergone biopsy were 12.4 times more likely to receive Type I or Type II resection (95% CI, 1.5-104.3; = 0.006) and had a 7.6-fold greater chance to have impaired wound healing (95% CI, 1.3-45.1; = 0.040), which was observed mainly in osteosarcoma patients. There were no significant associations of biopsy with tumor recurrence ( = 0.162) and iatrogenic peroneal nerve injury ( = 0.095).

Conclusions: Biopsy of proximal fibular lesions does not increase the risk for tumor recurrence and iatrogenic peroneal nerve injury but may be associated with post-surgical wound healing problems. This is particularly relevant for male patients and malignant and aggressive benign lesions, where biopsies are considerably more likely to be acquired to guide diagnosis and clinical management. Due to the relatively low incidence of this cancer type and the scarcity of pre-operative biopsies, larger cohort studies are warranted to validate the results.

Relevance For Patients: Patients who present with proximal fibular tumors are often young. Depending on the diagnosis of the bone cancer subtype, the surgical intervention may entail highly invasive and risky procedures. Taken together, it is imperative to ensure accurate diagnosis of the bone cancer subtype to prevent unnecessary procedures. Diagnostic accuracy can be increased by acquiring a histological specimen of the malignant bone tissue. However, it is currently not completely established whether bone biopsies in the proximal fibula can be safely performed and whether such biopsies lead to seeding metastases. Because of the rarity of these tumors and procedures, studies are needed even when these entail a small sample size.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8177019PMC
February 2021

Dynamic Coordination between a Triphenylamine-Functionalized Salicylaldehyde Schiff Base and a Copper(II) Ion.

Inorg Chem 2021 Jun 7;60(12):8581-8591. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, School of Material and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, P. R. China.

The coordination between a ligand and a metal is a spontaneous and uncontrollable process. In this Article, we successfully observe the formation of metal coordination in a triphenylamine-functionalized salicylaldehyde Schiff base with a copper(II) ion. The ligand first reacts with Cu in a stepwise process to afford the dynamic complex ([ligand]:[Cu] = 1:1), which further reacts with an extra copper(II) ion to afford with the following stepwise (or cumulative) stability constants: = 4.0694 × 10 and = 1.0761 × 10, respectively. The entire metal coordination process can be visualized, and the coordination mode of the probe toward copper was further evaluated by ultraviolet-visible/fluorescence spectra, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, density functional theory calculations, high-resolution mass spectra, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic titrations. Compound exhibited excellent sensitivity and specificity toward copper(II) ions in THF/water media with a low limit of detection of 2.687 × 10 mol L. In addition, can be applied to the detection of Cu in real samples with satisfactory recoveries in the range of 100-112% in lake water and 98-101% in tap water. This Article not only reports an excellent fluorescence probe for copper(II) ion detection but also presents an instance for more fully understanding the metal coordination process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c00523DOI Listing
June 2021

A study on evaluation and influencing factors of carbon emission performance in China's new energy vehicle enterprises.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Collage of Economics and Management, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, 211106, China.

Vehicle industry has made great contribution to human progress. However, in the process of vehicle operation, a large number of carbon compounds are emitted, which brings serious environmental problems. As one of the important means of vehicle carbon emission governance, the development of new energy vehicles (NEVs) has attracted much attention. The behavior and performance of NEV enterprises are highly concerned. Using Chinese 23 NEV vehicle enterprises' data from 2011 to 2018, this paper evaluates the carbon emission performance with the super-efficiency slacks-based measure (SE-SBM) model based on undesirable output and then constructs STIRPAT model to analyze the influencing factors of carbon emission performance. The results indicate that, firstly, the carbon emission performance of China's NEV enterprises is increasing year by year. Secondly, the carbon emission performance of different NEV enterprise is distinct in the same year, and the carbon emission performance of the same NEV enterprise is distinct in different year. Thirdly, technological innovation, government support, and free cash flow have significant positive impact on the carbon emission performance of NEV enterprises, while debt constraint, energy intensity, and enterprise size have a significant negative impact on the carbon emission performance of NEV enterprises.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14730-8DOI Listing
June 2021

Evidence-based meta-analysis of the genotoxicity induced by microplastics in aquatic organisms at environmentally relevant concentrations.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 14;783:147076. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

CAS Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research (YIC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shandong Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes, YICCAS, Yantai 264003, PR China; Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, PR China; Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Qingdao 266071, PR China. Electronic address:

Microplastics (MPs) attract global concern due to their ubiquitous existence in aquatic environments. However, the genotoxic effect of MPs on aquatic organisms in the natural environment remains controversial. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted by recompiling 44 individual studies from 12 publications to determine whether MPs could induce genotoxicity in aquatic organisms at environmentally relevant concentrations (≤1 mg/L, median = 0.5 mg/L). Multiple genotoxic endpoints were involved, including the percentage of DNA in tail (TDNA%), tail length (TL), olive tail moment (OTM), and the number of micronuclei (NM), and their increases represented the biologically adverse effects (i.e. genotoxicity). The results showed that all included endpoints tended to increase after exposure to MPs, among which TDNA%, TL and NM were significantly increased by 20%, 32% and 81% compared with the control group, respectively. The overall estimate of all endpoints in the MPs-treated groups was remarkably increased by 24%, with high statistical power and no obvious publication bias, suggesting the evident genotoxicity caused by MPs. In addition, the magnitudes of MPs-induced genotoxicity were independent of selected endpoint, MP composition, morphology, exposure concentration and duration, but closely correlated with particle size, living habitat and tested species. Overall, this work provided a reference for the health risk assessment of MPs in the natural environment, contributing to our understanding the action mode of MPs at environmentally relevant concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147076DOI Listing
August 2021

Lipid-mediated impairment of axonal lysosome transport contributing to autophagic stress.

Autophagy 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Synaptic Function Section, The Porter Neuroscience Research Center, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Room 2B-215, 35 Convent Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-3706, USA.

Efficient degradation of autophagic vacuoles (AVs) generated at axon terminals by mature lysosomes enriched in the cell body represents an exceptional challenge that neurons face in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Here, we discuss our recent findings revealing a lipid-mediated impairment of lysosome transport to distal axons contributing to axonal AV accumulation in the neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC). Using transmission electron microscopy, we observed a striking buildup of endocytic and autophagic organelles in NPC dystrophic axons, indicating defects in the clearance of organelles destined for lysosomal degradation. We further revealed that elevated cholesterol on NPC lysosome membranes abnormally sequesters motor-adaptors of axonal lysosome delivery, resulting in impaired anterograde lysosome transport into distal axons that disrupts maturation of axonal AVs during their retrograde transport route. Together, our study demonstrates a mechanism by which altered membrane lipid composition compromises axonal lysosome trafficking and positioning and shows that lowering lysosomal lipid levels rescues lysosome transport into NPC axons, thus reducing axonal autophagic stress at early stages of NPC disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2021.1938916DOI Listing
June 2021

Salt-Tolerant UTEX 2973 Obtained Engineering of Heterologous Synthesis of Compatible Solute Glucosylglycerol.

Front Microbiol 2021 18;12:650217. Epub 2021 May 18.

Laboratory of Synthetic Microbiology, School of Chemical Engineering & Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.

The recently isolated cyanobacterium UTEX 2973 (Syn2973) is characterized by a faster growth rate and greater tolerance to high temperature and high light, making it a good candidate chassis for autotrophic photosynthetic microbial cell factories. However, Syn2973 is sensitive to salt stress, making it urgently important to improve the salt tolerance of Syn2973 for future biotechnological applications. Glucosylglycerol, a compatible solute, plays an important role in resisting salt stress in moderate and marine halotolerant cyanobacteria. In this study, the salt tolerance of Syn2973 was successfully improved by introducing the glucosylglycerol (GG) biosynthetic pathway (OD improved by 24% at 60 h). In addition, the salt tolerance of Syn2973 was further enhanced by overexpressing the rate-limiting step of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and downregulating the gene , which encodes UDP glucose pyrophosphorylase. Taken together, these results indicate that the growth of the end-point strain M-2522-GgpPS-drfbA was improved by 62% compared with the control strain M-pSI-pSII at 60 h under treatment with 0.5 M NaCl. Finally, a comparative metabolomic analysis between strains M-pSI-pSII and M-2522-GgpPS-drfbA was performed to characterize the carbon flux in the engineered M-2522-GgpPS-drfbA strain, and the results showed that more carbon flux was redirected from ADP-GLC to GG synthesis. This study provides important engineering strategies to improve salt tolerance and GG production in Syn2973 in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.650217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168540PMC
May 2021

An approach to quantify the dependence of economy on resource efficiency: A case study in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region of north China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 24;789:147997. Epub 2021 May 24.

State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

The improvements of resource efficiency are crucial for economic development of a city. Currently, the variations of utilization efficiency of ecological resources have been studied much, but whether the efficiency has been good enough for driving the economy, is still unknown. Here, we introduced an efficiency dependence index (EDI) to assess the effects of utilization efficiency of land, energy and water resources on economy and evaluated the promotion potentials of resource efficiency. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region of north China was selected to validate the method. First, a non-collinear index system was built. After that, the EDI and the score of resource efficiency (SRE) index were constructed based on the generalized linear regression method. The main results were: (1) The efficiency contributions to economy in primary industry (4 of 13 cities) were far weaker than those in secondary industry (10 of 13 cities). (2) Water efficiency of primary industry in developed cities need further promotions. Energy efficiency needs more improvements especially in medium and small cities in both primary and secondary industries. (3) The efficiency utilization patterns of effective efficiency (EE), potential efficiency (PE) and no efficiency (NE) were categorized, and there were 26 of 65 (40%) counts of indicators performed EE, 31% counts of indicators presented PE and 29% counts of indicators showed NE. The improvement of water efficiency was the key driver to promote the resource efficiency. (4) By comparing current and ideal resource efficiency levels (via SRE), it showed that only 1 city reached to 80% of the ideal efficiency, 3 cities showed 70%, 4 cities showed 60% and 5 cities reached to less than 50% of the ideal resource efficiency. Policy suggestions of optimizing energy structure and pay attention to the comprehensiveness of resource efficiency were provided. This paper could serve as a reference for resource management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147997DOI Listing
May 2021

In-Situ Characterization of Pore Formation Dynamics in Pulsed Wave Laser Powder Bed Fusion.

Materials (Basel) 2021 May 29;14(11). Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is an additive manufacturing technology with the capability of printing complex metal parts directly from digital models. Between two available emission modes employed in LPBF printing systems, pulsed wave (PW) emission provides more control over the heat input compared to continuous wave (CW) emission, which is highly beneficial for printing parts with intricate features. However, parts printed with pulsed wave LPBF (PW-LPBF) commonly contain pores, which degrade their mechanical properties. In this study, we reveal pore formation mechanisms during PW-LPBF in real time by using an in-situ high-speed synchrotron x-ray imaging technique. We found that vapor depression collapse proceeds when the laser irradiation stops within one pulse, resulting in occasional pore formation during PW-LPBF. We also revealed that the melt ejection and rapid melt pool solidification during pulsed-wave laser melting resulted in cavity formation and subsequent formation of a pore pattern in the melted track. The pore formation dynamics revealed here may provide guidance on developing pore elimination approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14112936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8198083PMC
May 2021

Combination of Modified Atmosphere and Irradiation for the Phytosanitary Disinfestation of Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae).

Insects 2021 May 12;12(5). Epub 2021 May 12.

MOA Key Laboratory of Pest Monitoring and Green Management, Department of Plant Biosecurity, College of Plant Protection, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

The khapra beetle, Everts, is defined as one of the most important quarantine pests globally, and fumigation with methyl bromide, an ozone-depleting substance, is a common phytosanitary measure currently used. The modified atmosphere (MA), irradiation, and their combination treatments of . larvae and adults were performed at room temperature (24-26 ℃) to develop an ecofriendly phytosanitary disinfestation measure and to shorten the exposure time and overcome treatment disadvantages of irradiation. Late-stage larvae are determined as the most tolerant stage resulted in large LT values of 32.6 (29.2-37.5) and 38.0 (35.1-41.7) days treated under 1% and 2% O (with N balance) atmosphere, respectively. Ionizing radiation was used to enhance the effect of MA and the mortality was highly significantly affected by all the interaction effects, indicating that the synergistic effects present in all the combined treatments. The synergistic ratios, which is defined as the estimated lethal time for MA treatment (LD, LD, and LD), divided by that of combined treatment, were between 1.47 and 2.47. In the confirmatory tests, no individuals recovered from a sum of 111,366 late-stage larvae treated under 1% O atmosphere for 14- or 15-d after 200 Gy irradiation, which resulted in validating the probit estimations and achieving an efficacy of 99.9973% mortality at 95% confidence level. Therefore, these treatment schedules are recommended to disinfest . infecting commodities for phytosanitary purposes under the warehouse, MA packaging, or in combination with international transportation by train or sea container.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects12050442DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8152004PMC
May 2021

Oguchi's disease: two cases and literature review.

Authors:
Ying Dai Tao Sun

J Int Med Res 2021 May;49(5):3000605211019921

Department of Ophthalmology, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, The First People's Hospital of Yancheng, Yancheng, China.

Oguchi's disease is a rare form of congenital stationary night blindness, associated with light-dependent golden fundus discoloration. In this report, we describe two cases of Oguchi's disease, both of which had two characteristic features: congenital stationary night blindness and fundoscopic manifestation of the Mizuo-Nakamura phenomenon. In both patients, fundus examination revealed a metallic sheen throughout the retina, which disappeared after 2.5 hours of dark adaptation, suggestive of the Mizuo-Nakamura phenomenon. The characteristic electroretinogram (ERG) changes (i.e., un-recordable rod response and reductions of maximal response, oscillatory potentials, and flicker response) in these patients confirmed the clinical diagnosis of Oguchi's disease. Furthermore, we discuss the results of our literature search for evidence concerning the diagnosis and pathogenesis of this rare disease. Further studies regarding the genes involved in phototransduction and light adaptation are needed to determine the pathogenesis of this rare disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03000605211019921DOI Listing
May 2021

In Situ Growth of Metallic 1T-MoS on TiO Nanotubes with Improved Photocatalytic Performance.

ACS Omega 2021 May 4;6(19):12787-12793. Epub 2021 May 4.

College of Materials and Chemistry, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018, China.

1T-MoS is in situ grown on TiO nanotubes (TNTs) using a hydrothermal method, forming a [email protected] composite, which is confirmed by its physical characterization. The prepared composites show enhanced photocatalytic performance for the degradation of tetracycline hydrochloride under visible light, and the improved photocatalytic activity is closely related to the loaded amount of 1T-MoS. Therein, 0.5 wt % [email protected] can degrade 57% in 1 h, which is the highest photocatalytic efficiency observed in experiments so far. It is speculated that the introduction of 1T-MoS may optimize light absorption and charge separation/transport. The active species are identified and the reaction mechanism is proposed here.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c01068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8154240PMC
May 2021

Neocortex- and hippocampus-specific deletion of Gabrg2 causes temperature-dependent seizures in mice.

Cell Death Dis 2021 May 28;12(6):553. Epub 2021 May 28.

Ningxia Key Laboratory of Cerebrocranial Disease, The Incubation Base of National Key Laboratory, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, China.

Mutations in the GABRG2 gene encoding the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor gamma 2 subunit are associated with genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, febrile seizures plus, febrile seizures, and other symptoms of epilepsy. However, the mechanisms underlying Gabrg2-mediated febrile seizures are poorly understood. Here, we used the Cre/loxP system to generate conditional knockout (CKO) mice with deficient Gabrg2 in the hippocampus and neocortex. Heterozygous CKO mice (Gabrg2Cre) exhibited temperature-dependent myoclonic jerks, generalised tonic-clonic seizures, increased anxiety-like symptoms, and a predisposition to induce seizures. Cortical electroencephalography showed the hyperexcitability in response to temperature elevation in Gabrg2Cre mice, but not in wild-type mice. Gabrg2Cre mice exhibited spontaneous seizures and susceptibility to temperature-induced seizures. Loss of neurons were observed in cortical layers V-VI and hippocampus of Gabrg2Cre mice. Furthermore, the latency of temperature- or pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures were significantly decreased in Gabrg2Cre mice compared with wild-type mice. In summary, Gabrg2Cre mice with Gabrg2 deletion in the neocortex and hippocampus reproduce many features of febrile seizures and therefore provide a novel model to further understand this syndrome at the cellular and molecular level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03846-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8163876PMC
May 2021

Treatment-Related Serious Adverse Events of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Clinical Trials: A Systematic Review.

Front Oncol 2021 11;11:621639. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Radiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors (ICI) have been progressively used in cancer treatment and produced unique toxicity profiles. This systematic review aims to comprehend the patterns and occurrence of treatment-related adverse events (trAEs) based on ICI.

Methods: PICOS/PRISMA methods were used to identify published English-language on PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus from 2015 to 2020. Published clinical trials on ICI monotherapy, combined ICIs, and ICI plus other treatment with tabulated data on grade≥3 trAEs were included. Odds ratio (OR), χ tests were used to analyze for effect size and associations.

Results: This review included 145 clinical trials involving 21786 patients. Grade 3-5 trAEs were more common with ICI when they were plused with other treatments compared with ICI monotherapy(54.3% versus 17.7%, 46.1%, <0.05). Grade 3-5 trAEs were also more common with CTLA-4 mAbs compared with anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 (34.2% versus 15.1%, 13.6%, <0.05). Hyperthyroidism (OR 3.8, 95%CI 1.7-8.6), nausea (OR 3.7, 95%CI 2.5-5.3), diarrhea (OR 2.7, 95%CI 2.2-3.2), colitis (OR 3.4, 95%CI 2.7-4.3), ALT increase (OR 4.9, 95%CI 3.9-6.1), AST increase (OR 3.8, 95%CI 3.0-4.9), pruritus (OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.5-3.9), rash (OR 2.8, 95%CI 2.1-3.8), fatigue (OR 2.8, 95%CI 2.2-3.7), decreased appetite (OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.5-3.8), and hypophysitis (OR 2.0, 95%CI 1.2-3.3) were more frequent with combined ICIs. Diarrhea (OR 8.1, 95%CI 6.4-10.3), colitis (OR 12.2, 95%CI 8.7-17.1), ALT increase (OR 5.1, 95%CI 3.5-7.4), AST increase (OR 4.2, 95%CI 2.8-6.3), pruritus (OR 4.1, 95%CI 2.0-8.4), rash (OR 4.4, 95%CI 2.9-6.8), hypophysitis (OR 12.1, 95%CI 6.3-23.4) were more common with CTLA-4 mAbs; whereas pneumonitis (OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.1-10.3) were more frequent with PD-1 mAbs.

Conclusions: Different immune checkpoint inhibitors are associated with different treatment-related adverse events profiles. A comprehensive data in this systematic review will provide comprehensive information for clinicians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.621639DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144509PMC
May 2021

Prenatal stress leads to deficits in brain development, mood related behaviors and gut microbiota in offspring.

Neurobiol Stress 2021 Nov 3;15:100333. Epub 2021 May 3.

Center for Precision Medicine, School of Medicine and School of Biomedical Sciences, Huaqiao University, Xiamen, Fujian, China.

Early exposure to stressful and adverse life events at fetal and neonatal stages is one of crucial risk factors for mood disorders such as anxiety and depressive disorder in adulthood. Intergenerational effects of prenatal stress on offspring are still not fully understood. We here uncover a significant negative impact of prenatal stress on brain development in embryos and newborns, and on mood-related behaviors and gut microbiota in adult offspring. Prenatal stress leads to reduced numbers in neural progenitors and newborn neurons, and altered gene expression profiles in the mouse embryonic cerebral cortex. Adult mouse offspring exposed to prenatal stress displays altered gene expression in the cortex and elevated responses in anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Interestingly, prenatal stress has an enduring effect on gut microbiota, as specific microbial community structure is altered in adult F1 offspring treated with prenatal stress, compared to that of the control. Our results highlight the essential impact of prenatal stress on cortical neurogenesis, gene expression patterns, mood-related behaviors, and even gut microbiota in the next generation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ynstr.2021.100333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8135039PMC
November 2021

Evolutionary game of environmental investment under national environmental regulation in China.

Authors:
Tao Sun Qiang Feng

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

College of Economics and Management, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, 211106, Jiangsu, China.

With the rapid development of social economy, the deterioration of environment has become more and more serious; it is urgent to find a balance between economic development and environmental protection. Therefore, enterprises are appealed to invest in environmental protection, and local municipalities are appealed to supervise the environmental behaviors of enterprises, while central government plays a role of regulation. In order to study the preconditions for a better environmental strategy combination of local municipalities and enterprises, an evolutionary game theory was first constructed in this paper, then the evolutionary stable strategy (ESS) of local municipalities and enterprises under different scenarios was examined, and finally a simulation was used to test the results of the analysis. The results indicate that central government's regulation has influence on the strategies chosen by local municipalities and enterprises, the larger the degree of central government's incentives are, the more possible local municipalities and enterprises would choose environment-friendly strategies; and the intensity of central government's regulation, the cost and benefits of local municipalities' supervision, and the cost and benefits of enterprises' environmental investment are the key influence factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14548-4DOI Listing
May 2021

Environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastics influence the locomotor activity of aquatic biota.

J Hazard Mater 2021 07 4;414:125581. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

CAS Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research (YIC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS); Shandong Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes, YICCAS, Yantai 264003, PR China; Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, PR China; Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Qingdao 266071, PR China. Electronic address:

The occurrence of microplastics (MPs) in various marine and freshwater matrices has attracted great attention. However, the effect of MPs in natural environment on the locomotor performance of aquatic biota is still controversial. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted, involving 116 effect sizes from 2347 samples, to quantitatively evaluate the alteration in locomotor behavior of aquatic organisms induced by MPs at environmentally relevant concentrations (≤ 1 mg/L, median = 0.125 mg/L). It was shown that MP exposure significantly inhibited the average speed and moved distance of aquatic organisms by 5% and 8% (p < 0.05), respectively, compared with the control, resulting in an obvious reduction of locomotor ability by 6% (p < 0.05). Egger's test indicated that the results were stable without publication bias (p > 0.05). The complex influence of MPs on the locomotor ability were characterized through random-effects meta-regression analyses, presenting size-, time-, concentration-dependent manners and multi-factors interactions. In addition, several physiological changes, including energy reserve reduction, metabolism disorder, gut microbiota dysbiosis, inflammation response, neurotoxic response, and oxidative stress, of aquatic organisms triggered by MP exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations were also provided, which might account for the MPs-induced locomotor activity decline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125581DOI Listing
July 2021

iMAP: A Web Server for Metabolomics Data Integrative Analysis.

Front Chem 2021 5;9:659656. Epub 2021 May 5.

Metabo-Profile Biotechnology (Shanghai) Co. Ltd., Shanghai, China.

Metabolomics data analysis depends on the utilization of bioinformatics tools. To meet the evolving needs of metabolomics research, several integrated platforms have been developed. Our group has developed a desktop platform IP4M (integrated Platform for Metabolomics Data Analysis) which allows users to perform a nearly complete metabolomics data analysis in one-stop. With the extensive usage of IP4M, more and more demands were raised from users worldwide for a web version and a more customized workflow. Thus, iMAP (integrated Metabolomics Analysis Platform) was developed with extended functions, improved performances, and redesigned structures. Compared with existing platforms, iMAP has more methods and usage modes. A new module was developed with an automatic pipeline for train-test set separation, feature selection, and predictive model construction and validation. A new module was incorporated with sufficient editable parameters for network construction, visualization, and analysis. Moreover, plenty of plotting tools have been upgraded for highly customized publication-ready figures. Overall, iMAP is a good alternative tool with complementary functions to existing metabolomics data analysis platforms. iMAP is freely available for academic usage at https://imap.metaboprofile.cloud/ (License MPL 2.0).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2021.659656DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8133432PMC
May 2021

Assessment of Need for Recovery and Its Relationship With Work Characteristics and Health in a Sample of Chinese Doctors: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

Front Public Health 2021 7;9:600179. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Health Management to Medical College, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, China.

China is launching an unprecedented health care system reform. However, the long-term interests of doctors seem to have been ignored during this process especially considering that the work environment and work-life balance for doctors have severely deteriorated over the past decade.Their well-being and health are facing substantial threats due to heavy workloads and inadequate recovery opportunities. This study aimed to investigate the extent of need for recovery (NFR) among Chinese doctors and to examine their work-related fatigue. The study also examines the relationship of NFR with workplace satisfaction and health outcomes among Chinese doctors. A total of 2,617 doctors from 30 administrative regions in China participated in this study to assess the need for recovery and its relationship with work characteristics and health. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using the Chinese version of the Need for Recovery Scale (NFRS). Participants were invited to complete an anonymous online survey during May 2016. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, reliability analysis, Pearson correlations, and hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Significant differences in NFR scores were found across demographic characteristics such as age, service years, hospital levels, educational attainment, professional positions, work shifts, and working time. Regardless of any illnesses they might be experiencing, about 70.0% of participants remained at their job even though many doctors (22.1%) must continue working under the policies of the organization, which led to more pronounced NFR ( < 0.001). Further, a higher NFR was negatively related to workplace well-being and self-reported health outcomes of participants. Work-induced fatigue is a growing threat to doctors in China and their recovery opportunities are extremely limited in the workplace. High NFR exerts a considerable effect on their workplace well-being and health. China's hospital managers should pay close attention to the fact that doctors have little chance of recovery, and should offer doctors' positive encouragement and support to enhance well-being. To improve doctors' working conditions, targeted prevention policies must be introduced by policymakers to control this spreading crisis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.600179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8138448PMC
May 2021

Is vagal-nerve stimulation safe during pregnancy? A mini review.

Epilepsy Res 2021 Aug 14;174:106671. Epub 2021 May 14.

Ningxia Key Laboratory of Cerebrocranial Disease, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, 750004, China; Department of Neurosurgery, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, 750004, China. Electronic address:

Background: Vagus-nerve stimulation (VNS) is the most common neuromodulation technique and has been approved by the FDA for treating refractory epilepsy and refractory depression. Although VNS has been used for nearly 32 years, the impact of VNS on the safety of pregnant women and neonate remains to be evaluated.

Methods: We first analyze the relationship between the vagus nerve and the reproductive system (ovary and uterus) and then determine whether harm is inflicted to the reproductive system, thereby affecting the pregnancy. A comprehensive literature search is performed on PubMed/MEDLINE database, Web of Science, and Scopus. Ten articles are included in the study, and 44 pregnancies of 38 patients are analyzed.

Results: The vagus nerve is connected with the reproductive system, but VNS may have little effect on pregnancy. We analyze 10 articles (38 patients with 44 pregnancies) about VNS complications during pregnancy. Two of the 44 pregnancies (2/44, 4.5 %) are miscarriages, and two pregnancies have fetuses with congenital malformations (2/42, 4.8 %), which could also be attributed to polytherapy with antiepileptic drugs. The rest of the pregnant women have no postpartum complications, and their fetuses are healthy.

Conclusions: VNS may be relatively safe and effective for the fetus and mother during pregnancy, and turning off VNS during pregnancy is unnecessary. However, owing to the small sample size and short follow-up time in the present study, further research is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2021.106671DOI Listing
August 2021

Pretreatment with mechano growth factor E peptide attenuates osteoarthritis through improving cell proliferation and extracellular matrix synthesis in chondrocytes under severe hypoxia.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 May 18;97:107628. Epub 2021 May 18.

National Innovation and Attracting Talents "111" base, Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030, PR China. Electronic address:

Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by pain and declining gait function associated with degeneration of cartilage. A severe hypoxic environment occurs due to tissue injury in the joint cavity and may aggravate the development of OA. In this study, the effects of severe hypoxia and treatment with mechano growth factor (MGF) E peptide on metabolism of the extracellular matrix (ECM) during the progression of OA were determined. The results showed that cell viability, cell proliferation, and type II collagen expression in chondrocytes were significantly inhibited by cobalt chloride (CoCl)-simulated severe hypoxia, whereas cell apoptosis and expression levels of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha, type I collagen, and matrix metalloproteinases 1/13 were clearly induced. Pretreatment with MGF E peptide reduced the abovementioned adverse effects induced by CoCl-simulated severe hypoxia in chondrocytes. Pretreatment also upregulated the proliferation of chondrocytes under severe hypoxia through the PI3K-Akt and MEK-ERK1/2 signaling pathways. In a rat model of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced OA. MIA treatment induced tissue necrosis and cartilage degeneration, and histological score was significantly decreased. The levels of type II collagen and aggrecan were reduced after MIA treatment for 4 or 6 weeks, and abnormal distribution of ECM occurred in the inner epicondyle after 6 weeks. MGF E peptide also reduced the progression of MIA-induced OA by retarding cartilage degeneration, upregulating type II collagen synthesis, and improving ECM distribution after 4 or 6 weeks. Our findings suggest that MGF attenuates the progression of OA, and thus may be applied for the treatment of OA in the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107628DOI Listing
May 2021

Designing and Constructing Artificial Small RNAs for Gene Regulation and Carbon Flux Redirection in Photosynthetic Cyanobacteria.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2290:229-252

Laboratory of Synthetic Microbiology, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, People's Republic of China.

Photosynthetic cyanobacteria are not only model organisms for studying photosynthesis and biological cycling of carbon in biosphere but also potential "green microbial factories" to produce renewable fuels and chemicals, due to their capability to utilizing solar energy and CO. Therefore, strategies for gene regulation and carbon flux redirection are important for both fundamental research and metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria. To address the challenges, regulatory tools based on artificial small RNAs have been developed with satisfactory effects for single or multiple gene(s) regulation in various cyanobacterial species. When combined with the promoters of varying gradient strength and the inducible switches developed in recent years, it is now feasible to realize precise gene regulation in photosynthetic cyanobacteria for producing fuels and chemicals. Here in this chapter, we provide a detailed introduction of the design principles and constructing methods of the artificial sRNA tools to achieve accurate inducible regulation of cyanobacterial gene(s).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-1323-8_16DOI Listing
June 2021

Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in yaks (Bos grunniens) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China.

Parasite 2021 18;28:43. Epub 2021 May 18.

Key Laboratory of Animal Parasitology of Ministry of Agriculture, Laboratory of Quality and Safety Risk Assessment for Animal Products on Biohazards (Shanghai) of Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai 200241, PR China.

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that is extensively prevalent globally. Studies have indicated the presence of T. gondii infection in animals in some provinces of China, but little is known about T. gondii infection in yaks (Bos grunniens) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. In the current study, to determine the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of T. gondii, a total of 2784 serum samples were collected from 18 different sampling sites in eight counties of the Qinghai and Tibet regions of China from 2018 to 2019. Serum antibodies against T. gondii were detected in 261 yaks (9.38%) via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that seroprevalence differed significantly among different counties (ranging from 5.41% in Gangcha to 19.79% in Datong), by year in the Tibet Autonomous Region (from 2.34% in 2018 to 13.24% in 2019), and by age (from 5.59% in 0 < year ≤ 1 to 11.76% in year > 7) (p < 0.05). Climate, geographical conditions, and age are the main factors influencing T. gondii infection in yaks in these regions. Therefore, our study provides a data reference for public health and prevention of yak toxoplasmosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2021043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8132598PMC
May 2021

Rapid isolation and immune profiling of SARS-CoV-2 specific memory B cell in convalescent COVID-19 patients via LIBRA-seq.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2021 05 17;6(1):195. Epub 2021 May 17.

School of Public Health (Shenzhen), Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen, China.

B cell response plays a critical role against SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, little is known about the diversity and frequency of the paired SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific BCR repertoire after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing and VDJ sequencing using the memory and plasma B cells isolated from five convalescent COVID-19 patients, and analyzed the spectrum and transcriptional heterogeneity of antibody immune responses. Via linking BCR to antigen specificity through sequencing (LIBRA-seq), we identified a distinct activated memory B cell subgroup (CD11c CD95) had a higher proportion of SARS-CoV-2 antigen-labeled cells compared with memory B cells. Our results revealed the diversity of paired BCR repertoire and the non-stochastic pairing of SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific immunoglobulin heavy and light chains after SARS-CoV-2 infection. The public antibody clonotypes were shared by distinct convalescent individuals. Moreover, several antibodies isolated by LIBRA-seq showed high binding affinity against SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) or nucleoprotein (NP) via ELISA assay. Two RBD-reactive antibodies C14646P3S and C2767P3S isolated by LIBRA-seq exhibited high neutralizing activities against both pseudotyped and authentic SARS-CoV-2 viruses in vitro. Our study provides fundamental insights into B cell response following SARS-CoV-2 infection at the single-cell level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41392-021-00610-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8127497PMC
May 2021