Publications by authors named "Tao Liang"

658 Publications

Licochalcone B induces DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and enhances TRAIL sensitivity in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

Chem Biol Interact 2022 Aug 7:110076. Epub 2022 Aug 7.

School of Pharmacy, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Taian, 271000, PR China. Electronic address:

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly fatal disease recognized as a growing global health crisis. Traditional Chinese herbal medicines have been used to treat patients with cancer for many years in China. This study investigated the effects of licochalcone B (LCB), a flavonoid compound isolated from the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., on cell proliferation, DNA damage and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis in HCC cells. Our results showed that LCB inhibited cell proliferation and induced DNA damage, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Treatment with LCB significantly inhibited the Akt/mTOR pathway and activated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Moreover, combined treatment with LCB and TRAIL yielded evident enhancements in the viability reduction and apoptosis. LCB upregulated death receptor 4 (DR4) and death receptor 5 (DR5) protein in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The knockdown of DR5 significantly suppressed TRAIL-induced cleavage of PARP, which was enhanced by LCB. Treatment with an extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor (PD98059) or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor (SP600125) markedly reduced the LCB-induced upregulation of DR5 expression and attenuated LCB-mediated TRAIL sensitization. In summary, LCB exhibits cytotoxic activity through modulation of the Akt/mTOR, ER stress and MAPK pathways in HCC cells and effectively enhances TRAIL sensitivity through the upregulation of DR5 expression in ERK- and JNK-dependent manner. Combination therapy with LCB and TRAIL may be an alternative treatment strategy for HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2022.110076DOI Listing
August 2022

In vivo phytotoxic effect of yttrium-oxide nanoparticles on the growth, uptake and translocation of tomato seedlings (Lycopersicon esculentum).

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2022 Aug 2;242:113939. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

University of Wuppertal, School of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Institute of Foundation Engineering, Water, and Waste-Management, Laboratory of Soil, and Groundwater-Management, Pauluskirchstraße 7, 42285 Wuppertal, Germany; International Research Centre of Nanotechnology for Himalayan Sustainability (IRCNHS), Shoolini University, Solan 173212, Himachal Pradesh, India. Electronic address:

The potential toxicity and ecological risks of rare-earth nanoparticles in the environment have become a concern due to their widespread application and inevitable releases. The integration of hydroponics experiments, partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were utilized to investigate the physiological toxicity, uptake and translocation of yttrium oxide nanoparticles (YO NPs) under different hydroponic treatments (1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 mg·L of YO NPs, 19.2 mg·L Y(NO) and control) in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) seedlings. The results indicated that YO NPs had a phytotoxic effect on tomato seedlings' germination, morphology, physiology, and oxidative stress. The YO NPs and soluble Y reduced the root elongation, bud elongation, root activity, chlorophyll, soluble protein content and superoxide dismutase and accelerated the proline and malondialdehyde in the plant with increasing concentrations. The phytotoxic effects of YO NPs on tomato seedlings had a higher phytotoxic effect than soluble Y under the all treatments. The inhibition rates of different levels of YO NPs in shoot and root biomass ranged from 0.2% to 6.3% and 1.0-11.3%, respectively. The bioaccumulation and translocation factors were less than 1, which suggested that YO NPs significantly suppressed shoot and root biomass of tomato seedlings and easily bioaccumulated in the root. The observations were consistent with the process of concentration-dependent uptake and translocation factor and confirmed by TEM. YO NPs penetrate the epidermis, enter the cell wall, and exist in the intercellular space and cytoplasm of mesophyll cells of tomato seedlings by endocytic pathway. Moreover, PLS-SEM revealed that the concentration of NPs significantly negatively affects the morphology and physiology, leading to the change in biomass of plants. This study demonstrated the possible pathway of YO NPs in uptake, phytotoxicity and translocation of YO NPs in tomato seedlings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2022.113939DOI Listing
August 2022

Protocol for genome-wide CRISPR knockout screens of bacterial cytotoxins in HeLa cells.

STAR Protoc 2022 Sep 31;3(3):101595. Epub 2022 Jul 31.

College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China.

CRISPR screening is a powerful tool to identify host factors for pathogenic agents including viruses and bacterial toxins. Here, we present a protocol to conduct a genome-scale CRISPR screen on HeLa cells for host factors involved in the toxin action of TcdB4. We describe in detail how to prepare the library, set up the screen, obtain the gene sequences, and analyze the results. This protocol can also be modified for other genome-scale libraries, cell lines, and cytotoxins. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Luo et al. (2022).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xpro.2022.101595DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9344021PMC
September 2022

Paeniclostridium sordellii hemorrhagic toxin targets TMPRSS2 to induce colonic epithelial lesions.

Nat Commun 2022 Jul 26;13(1):4331. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, China.

Hemorrhagic toxin (TcsH) is an important exotoxin produced by Paeniclostridium sordellii, but the exact role of TcsH in the pathogenesis remains unclear, partly due to the lack of knowledge of host receptor(s). Here, we carried out two genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screens parallelly with TcsH and identified cell surface fucosylation and TMPRSS2 as host factors contributing to the binding and entry of TcsH. Genetic deletion of either fucosylation biosynthesis enzymes or TMPRSS2 in the cells confers resistance to TcsH intoxication. Interestingly, TMPRSS2 and fucosylated glycans can mediate the binding/entry of TcsH independently, thus serving as redundant receptors. Both TMPRSS2 and fucosylation recognize TcsH through its CROPs domain. By using Tmprss2 mice, we show that Tmprss2 is important for TcsH-induced systematic toxicity and colonic epithelial lesions. These findings reveal the importance of TMPRSS2 and surface fucosylation in TcsH actions and further provide insights into host recognition mechanisms for large clostridial toxins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-31994-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9321280PMC
July 2022

Mechanisms and influencing factors of yttrium sorption on paddy soil: Experiments and modeling.

Chemosphere 2022 Jul 14;307(Pt 1):135688. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

Department of Environment, Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, Seoul, 05006, Republic of Korea; University of Wuppertal, School of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Institute of Foundation Engineering, Water- and Waste-Management, Laboratory of Soil- and Groundwater-Management, Pauluskirchstraße 7, 42285, Wuppertal, Germany. Electronic address:

High-technology rare earth elements (REEs) as emerging contaminants have potentially hazardous risks for human health and the environment. Investigating the sorption of REEs on soils is crucial for understanding their migration and transformation. This study evaluated the sorption mechanisms and influencing factors of the rare earth element yttrium (Y) on paddy soil via integrated batch sorption experiments and theoretical modeling analysis. Site energy distribution theory (SEDT) combined with kinetics, thermodynamics, and isotherm sorption models were applied to illustrate the sorption mechanism. In addition, the effects of phosphorus (P), solution pH, particle size of soil microaggregates, and initial Y content on the sorption processes were evaluated by self-organizing map (SOM) and Boruta algorithm. The sorption kinetic behavior of Y on paddy soil was more consistent with the pseudo-second-order model. Thermodynamic results showed that the Y sorption was a spontaneous endothermic reaction. The generalized Langmuir model well described the isotherm data of Y sorption on heterogeneous paddy soil and soil microaggregates surface. The maximum sorption capacity of Y decreased with increasing soil particle size, which may be related to the number of sorption sites for Y on paddy soil and soil microaggregates, as confirmed by SEDT. The heterogeneity of sorption site energy for Y was the highest in the original paddy soil compared with the separated soil microaggregates. The SOM technique and Boruta algorithm highlighted that the initial concentration of Y and coexisting phosphorus played essential roles in the sorption process of Y, indicating that the addition of phosphate fertilizer may be an effective way to reduce the Y bioavailability in paddy soil in practice. These results can provide a scientific basis for the sustainable management of soil REEs and a theoretical foundation for the remediation of REEs-contaminated soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.135688DOI Listing
July 2022

MiR-630 suppresses non-small cell lung cancer by targeting vimentin.

J Clin Lab Anal 2022 Jul 15:e24536. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objective: This study aimed to clarify the function of miR-630 on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells.

Methods: Quantitative real-time PCR was utilized to detect the mRNA expression of miR-630 and vimentin (VIM) in NSCLC tissues and cells. The protein expression of VIM, P53, Caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax and JAK2/STAT3 was evaluated via Western blot. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was applied to evaluate whether VIM is the target gene of miR-630. The migration, invasion, proliferation and apoptosis of NSCLC cells were examined by wound-healing assay, transwell assay, CCK-8 assay, and flow cytometry, respectively.

Results: MiR-630 was lowly expressed in NSCLC tissues and cells, while VIM was highly expressed in NSCLC cells. Dual-luciferase reporter assay data validated that miR-630 directly targeted VIM. MiR-630 overexpression inhibited VIM expression, but the inhibition of miR-630 upregulated VIM expression. Besides, miR-630 mimics restrained cell migration, invasion, and proliferation, and promoted NSCLC cell apoptosis. Whereas, VIM overexpression partly attenuated the inhibitory effect of miR-630 on NSCLC cells. Moreover, miR-630 mimics impeded p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 protein expression; and miR-630 inhibitor upregulated p-STAT3 and VIM protein expression, which was reversed after the addition of STAT3 inhibitor C188-9.

Conclusion: MiR-630 constrained the progression of NSCLC by inhibiting JAK2/STAT3 pathway and downregulating VIM expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.24536DOI Listing
July 2022

Retraction Note: Up-regulated miR-199a-5p in gastric cancer functions as an oncogene and targets klotho.

BMC Cancer 2022 07 14;22(1):766. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

Key Laboratory of Gastroenterology of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, Hangzhou, 310014, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-022-09875-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9281175PMC
July 2022

HMCES modulates the transcriptional regulation of nodal/activin and BMP signaling in mESCs.

Cell Rep 2022 Jul;40(2):111038

School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Electronic address:

Despite the fundamental roles of TGF-β family signaling in cell fate determination in all metazoans, the mechanism by which these signals are spatially and temporally interpreted remains elusive. The cell-context-dependent function of TGF-β signaling largely relies on transcriptional regulation by SMAD proteins. Here, we discover that the DNA repair-related protein, HMCES, contributes to early development by maintaining nodal/activin- or BMP-signaling-regulated transcriptional network. HMCES binds with R-SMAD proteins, co-localizing at active histone marks. However, HMCES chromatin occupancy is independent on nodal/activin or BMP signaling. Mechanistically, HMCES competitively binds chromatin to limit binding by R-SMAD proteins, thereby forcing their dissociation and resulting in repression of their regulatory effects. In Xenopus laevis embryo, hmces KD causes dramatic development defects with abnormal left-right axis asymmetry along with increasing expression of lefty1. These findings reveal HMCES transcriptional regulatory function in the context of TGF-β family signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2022.111038DOI Listing
July 2022

Potential hot spots contaminated with exogenous, rare earth elements originating from e-waste dismantling and recycling.

Environ Pollut 2022 Jul 7;309:119717. Epub 2022 Jul 7.

Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Dismantling and recycling e-waste has been recognized as a potential emission source of rare earth elements (REEs). However, the presence of REEs in typical regional soils has yet to be studied. Given the potential health implications of such soil contamination, it is vital to study the characteristics, spatial distribution, and pollution level of REEs caused by e-waste dismantling as well as determine the influencing mechanism. This study focused on Guiyu Town as an example site, which is a typical e-waste dismantling base. From the site, 39 topsoil samples of different types were collected according to grid distribution points. Soil profiles were also collected in the dismantling and non-dismantling areas. The REE characteristic parameters showed that the REE distribution was abnormal and was affected by multiple factors. The results of the integrated pollution index showed that approximately 61.5% of soil samples were considered to be lightly polluted. Spatial distribution and correlation analysis showed that hot spots of REE-polluted soil coincided with known, main pollution sources. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation (p ≤0.05) between the REE concentration and the distance from the pollution source. E-waste disassembly and recycling greatly affect the physical and chemical properties of the surrounding soil as well as downward migration areas. In the disassembly area, REE accumulated more easily in the surface layer (0-20 cm). Geographical detector results showed that distance factor was the main contribution factor for both light rare earth elements (LREE) and heavy rare earth element (HREE) (q = 34.59% and 53.33%, respectively). REE distribution in soil was nonlinear enhanced by different factors. Taken together, these results showed that e-waste disassembling and recycling not only directly affected the spatial distribution of REEs, but that their distribution was also affected by land use type and soil properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.119717DOI Listing
July 2022

Gender-specific effects of prenatal mixed exposure to serum phthalates on neurodevelopment of children aged 2-3 years:the Guangxi Birth Cohort Study.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Jul 7. Epub 2022 Jul 7.

Center for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, Guangxi Key Laboratory for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, Guangxi Collaborative Innovation Center for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, 530021, Guangxi, China.

Phthalates have been shown to have adverse effects on neurodevelopment, which may be gender-specific. However, the association between prenatal mixed exposure to phthalates and children's neurodevelopment remains inconsistent. We measured 15 prenatal serum phthalate levels and evaluated children's neurodevelopmental indicators using Gesell Developmental Schedule (GDS) (n = 750). Generalized linear regression was fitted to examine the association. Among boys, mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP) had adverse effects on gross motor [odds ratio (OR): 7.38, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.42, 38.46]. For gross motor in boys, joint effect was discovered between mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) and MEHHP. Moreover, synergistic effects were found for MEHP with vanadium and cadmium, and antagonistic effects for MEHP with magnesium, calcium, titanium, iron, copper, selenium, rubidium, and strontium. We did not find statistically significant relationships in girls. In the 1st trimester, adverse effects were identified between mono-2-ethyl-5-oxoyhexyl phthalate (MEOHP) and adaptation (P = 0.024), and monomethyl phthalate (MMP) with social area (P = 0.017). In the 2nd trimester, MEHHP had adverse effects on social area (P = 0.035). In summary, we found boys may be more vulnerable to the neurotoxicity than girls in gross motor, and we also discovered the detrimental effects of phthalates on children's neurodevelopment in the 1st and 2nd trimesters. Therefore, the supplementation of appropriate elements in the 1st and 2nd trimesters may help reduce the adverse effects of phthalates on children's neurodevelopment, especially among boys.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-21769-8DOI Listing
July 2022

Design of a versatile microfluidic device for imaging precision-cut-tissue slices.

Biofabrication 2022 07 19;14(4). Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Advanced Diagnostics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Precision-cut-tissues (PCTs), which preserve many aspects of a tissue's microenvironment, are typically imaged using conventional sample dishes and chambers. These can require large amounts of reagent and, when used for flow-through experiments, the shear forces applied on the tissues are often ill-defined. Their physical design also makes it difficult to image large volumes and repetitively image smaller regions of interest in the living slice. We report here on the design of a versatile microfluidic device capable of holding mouse or human pancreas PCTs for 3D fluorescence imaging using confocal and selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM). Our design positions PCTs within a 5 × 5 mm × 140m deep chamber fitted with 150m tall channels to facilitate media exchange. Shear stress in the device is localized to small regions on the surface of the tissue and can be easily controlled. This design allows for media exchange at flowrates ∼10-fold lower than those required for conventional chambers. Finally, this design allows for imaging the same immunofluorescently labeled PCT with high resolution on a confocal and with large field of view on a SPIM, without adversely affecting image quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1758-5090/ac7eeaDOI Listing
July 2022

Seasonal and spatial variability of zooplankton diversity in the Poyang Lake Basin using DNA metabarcoding.

Ecol Evol 2022 Jul 5;12(6):e8972. Epub 2022 Jun 5.

School of Life Sciences Nanchang University Nanchang China.

Freshwater ecosystems face multiple threats to their stability globally. Poyang Lake is the largest lake in China, but its habitat has been seriously degraded because of human activities and natural factors (e.g. climate change), resulting in a decline in freshwater biodiversity. Zooplankton are useful indicators of environmental stressors because they are sensitive to external perturbations. DNA metabarcoding is an approach that has gained significant traction by aiding ecosystem conservation and management. Here, the seasonal and spatial variability in the zooplankton diversity were analyzed in the Poyang Lake Basin using DNA metabarcoding. The results showed that the community structure of zooplankton exhibited significant seasonal and spatial variability using DNA metabarcoding, where the community structure was correlated with turbidity, water temperature, pH, total phosphorus, and chlorophyll-a. These results indicated habitat variations affected by human activities and seasonal change could be the main driving factors for the variations of zooplankton community. This study also provides an important reference for the management of aquatic ecosystem health and conservation of aquatic biodiversity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.8972DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9168339PMC
July 2022

Spina Bifida Occulta Is a Risk Factor for Spinal Cord Injury Without Fracture or Dislocation for Children Performing a Backbend During Dance.

Front Pediatr 2022 15;10:903507. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Rehabilitation, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Objective: This study aimed to explore the clinical features and outcomes of children with spinal cord injury (SCI) without fracture or dislocation.

Methods: The clinical data of children with SCI without fracture or dislocation in this retrospective study were collected in Chongqing, China (January 2010 to December 2021). We collected patient demographics at admission including age, gender, cause, level, and severity of the injury in admission and complications. Reports from radiologic imaging were reviewed to identify spina bifida occulta (SBO). Neurological function was evaluated using the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS) for an SCI.

Results: A total of 74 children with SCI (male, 27%; female, 73%; male-to-female ratio, 1:2.7; average age, 5.7 years) were included. The main cause of injury was backbend during the dance (34 patients, 45.9%, including 2 patients who hugged back falling backward), followed by traffic accidents (17 patients, 23%). Children with backbend-related SCI were older than other children (6.9 vs. 4.9 years old, < 0.001). When reviewing all radiological images, it was found that 20 (27%) patients with SCI had SBO. The proportion of SCI with SBO caused by backbend was considerably higher than those caused by non-backbend (41.2 vs. 15%, = 0.012). The AIS were 22 (29.7%), 4 (5.4%), 8 (10.8%), 31 (41.9%), and 9 (12.2%) in A, B, C, D, and E, respectively. The prognosis was poorer in the backbend during dancing than other causes of injury ( = 0.003).

Conclusion: This study showed that backbend during the dance was the main cause of children's SCI without fracture or dislocation in Chongqing, China. The prognosis was poorer in those children than in other causes of injury. Meanwhile, we have established an association between SBO and SCI for children performing a backbend during the dance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2022.903507DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9240226PMC
June 2022

Hemodynamic study of the effect of the geometric height of leaflets on the performance of the aortic valve under aortic valve reconstruction.

J Thorac Dis 2022 May;14(5):1515-1525

National Clinical Research Center for Child Health, The Children's Hospital Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Although aortic valve reconstruction has become an alternative treatment for aortic valve disease, the design of the geometric parameters of the reconstructed leaflet still mainly depends on the experience of doctors. The present study investigates the effects of the height of the leaflets on the performance and biomechanical states of the reconstructed aortic valve.

Methods: This numerical study was carried out using the finite element approach and the lattice Boltzmann method. The dynamic and biomechanical characteristics of the leaflets were evaluated by using the finite element approach, while the blood flow in the aortic sinus was evaluated by applying the lattice Boltzmann method. Three types of leaflets with different heights were designed. Then the dynamic characteristics, stress distribution, and effective orifice area (EOA) of the aortic valve and flow pattern were calculated as the indicators.

Results: The results demonstrated that the height of the leaflets could indeed regulate the performance and the biomechanical states of the aortic valve. The rapid valve opening times of the 3 types of leaflets gradually reduced along with the decrease of the height ratio (HR_0.8: 120 ms HR_1.0: 68 ms HR_1.2: 31 ms), while the rapid valve closing times (RVCTs) of the 3 types of leaflets were similar to each other (approximately 75 ms). Moreover, the radial displacement of the leaflet at the fully open time increased along with the decrease of the HR of the leaflets (HR_0.8: 8 mm HR_1.0: 6 mm HR_1.2: 4 mm). In addition, the stress level of the leaflets also increased with the increase of the height of the leaflets (max stress, HR_0.8: 0.5 MPa, HR_1.0: 1.1 MPa, HR_1.2: 1.8 MPa). Similarly, the low velocity region near the ascending aortic wall and the wall shear stress (WSS) level on the ventricular side of the leaflets also increased along with the increase of the HR of the leaflets.

Conclusions: In short, the height of the leaflets mainly affects the opening performance of the reconstructed aortic leaflets. The HR of the reconstructed leaflets for adults should be less than 1.0 to balance the opening and closing performance of aortic leaflets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-22-425DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9186252PMC
May 2022

Effects of hCG on DA neuronal death of Parkinson's disease.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2022 08 30;617(Pt 2):41-47. Epub 2022 May 30.

The First Affiliated Hospital (School of Clinical Medicine), Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, 510080, China. Electronic address:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide, with the incidence in men being about twice as compared to women. Gender differences may provide clues for finding key targets that mediate the death of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in PD. Luteinizing hormone (LH), analog of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and their receptor, luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR), are associated with the pathogenesis of PD. Movement-related symptoms are partially improved by hCG in PD patients. However, the relationship between hCG and PD, as well as its roles in mediating DA neuronal death, has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the potential of hCG as a treatment during PD progression. After establishment of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mouse models, we found that hCG restored the decrease of LHCGR activity caused by down-regulation of LH in the substantia nigra. Furthermore, the reduction of LHCGR activity led to DA neuronal death through knocking down the LHCGR in DA neurons by AAV-mTH-shRNA. Treatment with hCG alleviated the DA neuronal death induced by MPTP. Finally, hCG exerted neuroprotective effects by inhibiting the activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) in our MPTP-induced PD mouse and MPP-treated SH-SY5Y cell models. Together, these results demonstrate that hCG exerts neuroprotective effects for PD through LHCGR, and the inhibition of GSK3β activation is involved in this protective effect, suggesting that hCG can be taken as a potential therapeutic for the treatment of PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2022.05.089DOI Listing
August 2022

A fast responsive and cell membrane-targetable near-infrared HS fluorescent probe for drug resistance bioassays in chemotherapy.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2022 Jun 28;58(52):7301-7304. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Energy Materials Chemistry of Ministry of Education & Hubei Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science & Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission, South-Central Minzu University, Wuhan 430074, China.

A cell membrane-targeted near-infrared fluorescent probe, CMCu-HS, was fabricated through employing hydrophobic chains and cyclen-Cu as targeting and recognition groups, respectively. NIR fluorescence of CMCu-HS can significantly increase after reacting with HS by removing the quenchable Cu. This probe exhibited high selectivity and an extremely fast response rate. Cell imaging results demonstrated that there was a close relationship between the overexpression of NFS1 and drug resistance and inhibition of NFS1 was beneficial for improving the efficacy of chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2cc02430fDOI Listing
June 2022

Predictors of long-term prognosis in rheumatoid arthritis-related interstitial lung disease.

Sci Rep 2022 06 8;12(1):9469. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, 15261, USA.

The aim of the study was to identify specific clinical and serum protein biomarkers that are associated with longitudinal outcome of RA-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). 60 RA patients with clinical and serological profiles were assessed by HRCT and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) at baseline (Year 0) and 5 years post enrollment (Year 5). Progression versus non-progression was defined based on changes in Quantitative Modified HRCT scores and PFTs over time. Specific serum protein biomarkers were assessed in serum samples at baseline and Year 5 by Multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). At Year 5, 32% of patients demonstrated progressive RA-ILD, 35% were stable, and 33% improved. Baseline age and rheumatoid factor (RF) were significantly different between RA-ILD outcomes of progression vs. no-progression (p < 0.05). Changes in levels of CXCL11/I-TAC and MMP13 over 5 years also distinguished pulmonary outcomes (p < 0.05). A final binary logistic regression model revealed that baseline age and changes in serum MMP13 as well as CXCL11/I-TAC were associated with RA-ILD progression at Year 5 (p < 0.01), with an AUC of 0.7772. Collectively, these analyses demonstrated that baseline clinical variables (age, RF) and shifts in levels of selected serum proteins (CXCL11/I-TAC, MMP13) were strongly linked to RA-ILD outcome over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-13474-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9177673PMC
June 2022

Monitoring of Hydrogen Polysulfide a NIR-Excitable Reversible Fluorescent Probe Based on Upconversion Luminescence Resonance Energy Transfer.

Anal Chem 2022 06 6;94(24):8792-8801. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062, China.

Hydrogen polysulfide (HS), derived from hydrogen sulfide (HS), has attracted increasing attention, which is suggested to be the actual signal molecule instead of HS in physiological and pathological processes. Reversible detection of HS through a NIR-excitable fluorescence probe is an effective means to understand its functions but is quite challenging. Herein, we reported a NIR-excitable ratiometric nanoprobe for the reversible detection of HS based on luminescence resonance energy transfer principle with upconversion nanoparticles as the energy donor and an organic molecule, SiR1, as the energy acceptor and reversible recognition unit of HS. The as-prepared nanoprobe exhibited high selectivity and fast response for the reversible detection of HS, which can monitor the formation and consumption of endogenous HS in living cells. Because of the reduced autofluorescence by NIR excitation, it was successfully applied for tracking the fluctuation of HS concentration of mice in physiological and pathological processes including inflammation and liver injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.2c01650DOI Listing
June 2022

Dynamic Responses of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea and Bacteria Populations to Organic Material Amendments Affect Soil Nitrification and Nitrogen Use Efficiency.

Front Microbiol 2022 12;13:911799. Epub 2022 May 12.

State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China.

Organic material amendments have been proposed as an effective strategy to promote soil health by enhancing soil fertility and promoting nitrogen (N) cycling and N use efficiency (NUE). Thus, it is important to investigate the extent to which the structure and function of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) differentially respond to the organic material amendments in field settings. Here, we conducted a 9-year field experiment to track the responses of AOA and AOB populations to the organic material amendments and measured the potential nitrification activity (PNA), plant productivity, and NUE in the plant rhizosphere interface. Our results revealed that the organic material amendments significantly enhanced the abundance and diversity of AOA and AOB populations. Further, significant differences were observed in the composition and co-occurrence network of AOA and AOB. A higher occurrence of potential competitive interactions between taxa and enumerated potential keystone taxa was observed in the AOA-AOB network. Moreover, we found that AOA was more important than AOB for PNA under the organic material amendments. Structural equation modeling suggested that the diversity of AOA and AOB populations induced by the potential competitive interactions with keystone taxa dynamically accelerated the rate of PNA, and positively affected plant productivity and NUE under the organic material amendments. Collectively, our study offers new insights into the ecology and functioning of ammonia oxidizers and highlights the positive effects of organic material amendments on nitrogen cycling dynamics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.911799DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9135446PMC
May 2022

Telocytes reduce oxidative stress by downregulating DUOX2 expression in inflamed lungs of mice.

Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 2022 Apr;54(4):574-582

Department of Anesthesiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

Telocytes (TCs), a novel type of interstitial cells, have been found to participate in tissue protection and repair. In this study, we investigated the antioxidative effects of TCs in inflamed lungs of mice. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) mice were used as models of inflamed lungs of mice. Gene sequencing was used to screen the differentially expressed miRNAs in TCs after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. AntagomiR-146a-5p-pretreated TCs were first injected into mice, and antioxidant activity of TCs was estimated. TCs, RAW264.7 cells, and MLE-12 cells were collected for the detection of expressions of NOX1-4, DUOX1-2, SOD1-3, GPX1-2, CAT, Nrf2, miR-146a-5p, and miR-21a-3p after LPS stimulation. Silencing miRNAs were delivered to examine the involved signaling pathways. Oxidative stress was examined by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. We found that microRNA-146a-5p and microRNA-21a-3p were upregulated in TCs after LPS stimulation. ARDS mice that were preinfused with TCs had lower lung tissue injury scores, lung wet-dry ratios, white blood cell counts in alveolar lavage fluid and lower MDA concentrations in lung tissue. However, in antagomiR-146a-5p-pretreated ARDS mice, the infusion of TCs caused no corresponding changes. After LPS stimulation, DUOX2 and MDA concentrations were downregulated in TCs, while DUOX2 was restored by antagomiR-146a-5p in TCs. Dual-luciferase reporter assay confirmed that CREB1 was downregulated by miR-146a-5p, while DUOX2 was downregulated by CREB1, which was confirmed by treating TCs with a specific CREB1 inhibitor. This study demonstrates that LPS stimulation upregulates miR-146a-5p in TCs, which downregulates the CREB1/DUOX2 pathway, resulting in a decrease in oxidative stress in cultured TCs. TCs reduce LPS-induced oxidative stress by decreasing DUOX2 in inflamed lungs of mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/abbs.2022017DOI Listing
April 2022

Recent developments in Lam. polysaccharides: A review of the relationship between extraction methods, structural characteristics and functional activities.

Food Chem X 2022 Jun 2;14:100322. Epub 2022 May 2.

College of Food Science and Technology, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, China.

Lam. ( Lam) is a perennial tropical deciduous tree that belongs to the Moringaceae family. Polysaccharides are one of the major bioactive compounds in Lam and show immunomodulatory, anticancer, antioxidant, intestinal health protection and antidiabetic activities. At present, the structure and functional activities of Lam polysaccharides (MOPs) have been widespread, but the research data are relatively scattered. Moreover, the relationship between the structure and biological activities of MOPs has not been summarized. In this review, the current research on the extraction, purification, structural characteristics and biological activities of polysaccharides from different sources of Lam were summarized, and the structural characteristics of purified polysaccharides were focused on this review. Meanwhile, the biological activities of MOPs were introduced, and some molecular mechanisms were listed. In addition, the relationship between the structure and biological activities of MOPs was discussed. Furthermore, new perspectives and some future research of Lam polysaccharides were proposed in this review.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fochx.2022.100322DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9092490PMC
June 2022

Salidroside Ameliorates Ischemia-Induced Neuronal Injury through AMPK Dependent and Independent Pathways to Maintain Mitochondrial Quality Control.

Am J Chin Med 2022 5;50(4):1133-1153. Epub 2022 May 5.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medicine and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, Hubei, P. R. China.

Salidroside, an active ingredient in , has potent protective activity against cerebral ischemia. However, the mechanisms underlying its pharmacological actions are poorly understood. In this study, we employed a mouse middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and cellular oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) models to test the hypothesis that salidroside may restore mitochondrial quality control in neurons by modulating the relevant signaling. The results indicated that salidroside mitigated almost 40% the ischemia-induced brain infarct volumes in mice and the OGD-decreased viability of neurons to ameliorate the mitochondrial functions. Furthermore, salidroside treatment alleviated the OGD- or ischemia-induced imbalance of mitochondrial fission and fusion, mitophagy and promoted mitochondrial biogenesis in neurons by attenuating the AMPK activity. Moreover, salidroside alleviated 50% the OGD-promoted mitochondrial calcium fluorescence intensity and 5% mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM) area by down-regulating GRP75 expression independent of the AMPK signaling. Finally, similar findings were achieved in primary mouse neurons. Collectively, these data indicate that salidroside effectively restores the mitochondria dynamics, facilitates mitochondrial biogenesis by attenuating the AMPK signaling, and maintains calcium homeostasis in neurons independent of the AMPK activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X2250046XDOI Listing
June 2022

The Effects of Automatic Segmentations on Preoperative Lymph Node Status Prediction Models With Ultrasound Radiomics for Patients With Early Stage Cervical Cancer.

Technol Cancer Res Treat 2022 Jan-Dec;21:15330338221099396

Department of Radiotherapy Center, 89657Wenzhou Medical University First Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou, People's Republic of China.

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of automatic segmentation algorithms on the performance of ultrasound (US) radiomics models in predicting the status of lymph node metastasis (LNM) for patients with early stage cervical cancer preoperatively. US images of 148 cervical cancer patients were collected and manually contoured by two senior radiologists. The four deep learning-based automatic segmentation models, namely U-net, context encoder network (CE-net), Resnet, and attention U-net were constructed to segment the tumor volumes automatically. Radiomics features were extracted and selected from manual and automatically segmented regions of interest (ROIs) to predict the LNM of these cervical cancer patients preoperatively. The reliability and reproducibility of radiomics features and the performances of prediction models were evaluated. A total of 449 radiomics features were extracted from manual and automatic segmented ROIs with Pyradiomics. Features with an intraclass coefficient (ICC) > 0.9 were all 257 (57.2%) from manual and automatic segmented contours. The area under the curve (AUCs) of validation models with radiomics features extracted from manual, attention U-net, CE-net, Resnet, and U-net were 0.692, 0.755, 0.696, 0.689, and 0.710, respectively. Attention U-net showed best performance in the LNM prediction model with a lowest discrepancy between training and validation. The AUCs of models with automatic segmentation features from attention U-net, CE-net, Resnet, and U-net were 9.11%, 0.58%, -0.44%, and 2.61% higher than AUC of model with manual contoured features, respectively. The reliability and reproducibility of radiomics features, as well as the performance of radiomics models, were affected by manual segmentation and automatic segmentations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15330338221099396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9082739PMC
May 2022

Distinctive signatures of pathogenic and antibiotic resistant potentials in the hadal microbiome.

Environ Microbiome 2022 Apr 25;17(1):19. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Center for Infectious Disease Research, Westlake Laboratory of Life Sciences and Biomedicine, Hangzhou, 310024, Zhejiang, China.

Background: Hadal zone of the deep-sea trenches accommodates microbial life under extreme energy limitations and environmental conditions, such as low temperature, high pressure, and low organic matter down to 11,000 m below sea level. However, microbial pathogenicity, resistance, and adaptation therein remain unknown. Here we used culture-independent metagenomic approaches to explore the virulence and antibiotic resistance in the hadal microbiota of the Mariana Trench.

Results: The results indicate that the 10,898 m Challenger Deep bottom sediment harbored prosperous microbiota with contrasting signatures of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance, compared with the neighboring but shallower 6038 m steep wall site and the more nearshore 5856 m Pacific basin site. Virulence genes including several famous large translocating virulence genes (e.g., botulinum neurotoxins, tetanus neurotoxin, and Clostridium difficile toxins) were uniquely detected in the trench bottom. However, the shallower and more nearshore site sediment had a higher abundance and richer diversity of known antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), especially for those clinically relevant ones (e.g., fosX, sul1, and TEM-family extended-spectrum beta-lactamases), revealing resistance selection under anthropogenic stresses. Further analysis of mobilome (i.e., the collection of mobile genetic elements, MGEs) suggests horizontal gene transfer mediated by phage and integrase as the major mechanism for the evolution of Mariana Trench sediment bacteria. Notably, contig-level co-occurring and taxonomic analysis shows emerging evidence for substantial co-selection of virulence genes and ARGs in taxonomically diverse bacteria in the hadal sediment, especially for the Challenger Deep bottom where mobilized ARGs and virulence genes are favorably enriched in largely unexplored bacteria.

Conclusions: This study reports the landscape of virulence factors, antibiotic resistome, and mobilome in the sediment and seawater microbiota residing hadal environment of the deepest ocean bottom on earth. Our work unravels the contrasting and unique features of virulence genes, ARGs, and MGEs in the Mariana Trench bottom, providing new insights into the eco-environmental and biological processes underlying microbial pathogenicity, resistance, and adaptative evolution in the hadal environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40793-022-00413-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9036809PMC
April 2022

A Novel Selenium Polysaccharide Alleviates the Manganese (Mn)-Induced Toxicity in Hep G2 Cells and .

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Apr 7;23(8). Epub 2022 Apr 7.

College of Life Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya'an 625014, China.

Manganese (Mn) is now known to have a variety of toxicities, particularly when exposed to it in the workplace. However, there are still ineffective methods for reducing Mn's hazardous effects. In this study, a new selenium polysaccharide (Se-PCS) was developed from the shell of to reduce Mn toxicity in vitro and in vivo. The results revealed that Se-PCS may boost cell survival in Hep G2 cells exposed to Mn and activate antioxidant enzyme activity, lowering ROS and cell apoptosis. Furthermore, after being treated with Se-PCS, survived longer under Mn stress. , a tolerant critical gene, was turned on. Moreover, the antioxidant system was enhanced as the increase in strong antioxidant enzyme activity and high expression of the , , and genes. A variety of mutations were also used to confirm that Se-PCS downregulated the insulin signaling pathway. These findings showed that Se-PCS protected Hep G2 cells and via the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway and that it could be developed into a promising medication to treat Mn toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23084097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9029073PMC
April 2022

Smart Mushroom-Inspired Imprintable and Lightly Detachable (MILD) Microneedle Patterns for Effective COVID-19 Vaccination and Decentralized Information Storage.

ACS Nano 2022 Apr 22. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Departments of Diagnostic Radiology and Surgery, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 117597, Singapore.

The key to controlling the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and reducing mortality is highly dependent on the safe and effective use of vaccines for the general population. Current COVID-19 vaccination practices (intramuscular injection of solution-based vaccines) are limited by heavy reliance on medical professionals, poor compliance, and laborious vaccination recording procedures, resulting in a waste of health resources and low vaccination coverage, In this study, we developed a smart mushroom-inspired imprintable and lightly detachable (MILD) microneedle platform for the effective and convenient delivery of multidose COVID-19 vaccines and decentralized vaccine information storage. The mushroom-like structure allows the MILD system to be easily pressed into the skin and detached from the patch base, acting as a "tattoo" to record the vaccine counts without any storage equipment, offering quick accessibility and effortless readout, saving a great deal of valuable time and energy for both patients and health professionals. After loading inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus-based vaccines, MILD system induced a high level of antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) without eliciting systemic toxicity and local damage. Collectively, this smart delivery platform serves as a promising carrier to improve COVID-19 vaccination efficacy through its dual capabilities of vaccine delivery and data storage, thus exhibiting great potential for helping to contain the COVID-19 pandemic or a resurgence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c10718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9045675PMC
April 2022

An Atypical Case of Monomicrobial Septicemia With No Gastrointestinal Manifestations.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2022 31;12:853252. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Key Laboratory of Structural Biology of Zhejiang Province, School of Life Sciences, Westlake University, Hangzhou, China.

An uncommon case of monomicrobial septicemia in a 63-year-old man was reported in Zhejiang, China. Once diagnosed, vancomycin treatment cleared the infections. The patient had no remarkable medical history, and the inspection showed no overt gastrointestinal symptoms, though was detected in his stool samples. However, we later defined that the strain isolated from the blood sample was different from the one isolated from his stool using the whole genome sequencing analysis. By retrospective analysis of his medical record, we noticed that the man had a recent tooth extraction thus the bacterium may have invaded through the root canal. Therefore, we suggest that oral colonization may be a potential risk factor for severe septicemia, which could be clinically alarming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2022.853252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9009443PMC
March 2022

The role of epigenetic modifications in Colorectal Cancer Metastasis.

Clin Exp Metastasis 2022 08 16;39(4):521-539. Epub 2022 Apr 16.

The State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Regulation and Breeding of Grassland Livestock, School of Life Sciences, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, China.

Distant metastasis is the major contributor to the high mortality rate of colorectal cancer (CRC). To overcome the poor prognosis caused by distant metastasis, the mechanisms of CRC metastasis should be further explored. Epigenetic events are the main mediators of gene regulation and further affect tumor progression. Recent studies have found that some epigenetic enzymes are often dysregulated or mutated in multiple tumor types, which prompted us to study the roles of these enzymes in CRC metastasis. In this review, we summarized the alteration of enzymes related to various modifications, including histone modification, nonhistone modification, DNA methylation, and RNA methylation, and their epigenetic mechanisms during the progression of CRC metastasis. Existing data suggest that targeting epigenetic enzymes is a promising strategy for the treatment of CRC metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10585-022-10163-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9338907PMC
August 2022

A pattern-discovery-based outcome predictive tool integrated with clinical data repository: design and a case study on contrast related acute kidney injury.

BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2022 04 15;22(1):103. Epub 2022 Apr 15.

Department of Cardiology, Peking University First Hospital, 8 Xishiku St., Xicheng District, Beijing, 100034, China.

Background: Clinical data repositories (CDR) including electronic health record (EHR) data have great potential for outcome prediction and risk modeling. We built a prediction tool integrated with CDR based on pattern discovery and demonstrated a case study on contrast related acute kidney injury (AKI).

Methods: Patients undergoing cardiac catheterization from January 2015 to April 2017 were included. AKI was identified based on Acute Kidney Injury Network definition. Predictive model including 16 variables covered in existing AKI models was built. A visual analytics tool based on pattern discovery was trained on 70% data up to August 2016 with three interactive knowledge incorporation modes to develop 3 models: (1) pure data-driven, (2) domain knowledge, and (3) clinician-interactive, which were tested and compared on 30% consecutive cases dated afterwards.

Results: Among 2560 patients in the final dataset, 189 (7.3%) had AKI. We measured 4 existing models, whose areas under curves (AUCs) of receiver operating characteristics curve for the test dataset were 0.70 (Mehran's), 0.72 (Chen's), 0.67 (Gao's) and 0.62 (AGEF), respectively. A pure data-driven machine learning method achieves AUC of 0.72 (Easy Ensemble). The AUCs of our 3 models are 0.77, 0.80, 0.82, respectively, with the last being top where physician knowledge is incorporated.

Conclusions: We developed a novel pattern-discovery-based outcome prediction tool integrated with CDR and purely using EHR data. On the case of predicting contrast related AKI, the tool showed user-friendliness by physicians, and demonstrated a competitive performance in comparison with the state-of-the-art models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12911-022-01841-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9013021PMC
April 2022

Reporting both length and mass values to quantify body size for amphibians and reptiles.

Authors:
Tao Liang

Zootaxa 2022 Mar 28;5120(3):449-450. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

College of Forestry, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China, 210037..

Body size is perhaps the most important trait for organism biologists, as it is associated with a myriad of ecological, evolutionary, behavioral, morphological, physiological and life-history aspects (e.g., rates of molecular evolution, metabolic rates, predation, reproduction), and with extinction risk. There are, however, several measures commonly used to quantify organism body size. Within ectothermic tetrapods, the most common measures include snout-vent length (SVL, mostly in lizards), and total length (TL, in most snakes). In endotherms, however, and especially in mammals, body mass is the most common measure of size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5120.3.11DOI Listing
March 2022
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