Publications by authors named "Tao Jiang"

2,634 Publications

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Cadmium bioaccumulation and distribution in the freshwater bivalve Anodonta woodiana exposed to environmentally relevant Cd levels.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 8;791:148289. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Key Laboratory of Fishery Eco-Environment Assessment and Resource Conservation in Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081, China. Electronic address:

Anodonta woodiana is a globally distributed freshwater bivalve, which is a unique bioindicator in the "Freshwater Mussel Watch" project. Numerous countries have used A. woodiana for biomonitoring the aqueous cadmium (Cd) contamination. However, the bioaccumulation and distribution characteristics of environmentally relevant Cd concentrations in the bivalve were unknown. In this study, A. woodiana was exposed to aqueous Cd concentrations (1.1, 2.6, and 5.5 μg/L) for 30 days. The concentrations of Cd in the whole soft tissues were linearly and positively correlated with the aqueous Cd concentrations and exposure time (P < 0.05). Analysis of the organic bioaccumulation and distribution showed that Cd concentrations and proportions in the gills and mantle were linearly and positively correlated with aqueous Cd concentrations and with the Cd concentrations in the whole soft tissues (P < 0.05). Analyses of the subcellular fractions showed that Cd concentrations and proportions in the metal-rich granule (MRG) were linearly and positively correlated with aqueous Cd concentrations and with the Cd concentrations in the whole soft tissues (P < 0.05). This suggests that the gills and mantle could be the main target organs for Cd bioaccumulation, and that the MRG could be the major site for Cd bioaccumulation and distribution. These results improve our understanding of the bioaccumulation and distribution mechanisms of Cd in bivalves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148289DOI Listing
June 2021

Epidemiology and Clinical Outcomes of COVID-19 Patients in Northwestern China Who Had a History of Exposure in Wuhan City: Departure Time-Originated Pinpoint Surveillance.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 28;8:582299. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Most COVID-19 patients cannot provide a clear exposure time; therefore, this study was designed to predict the progression of COVID-19 by using the definite departure time from Wuhan. In this retrospective study, all cases were selected from Northwestern China, which has the lowest population density. As our study endpoints, the incubation period was defined as the date of departure from Wuhan City to the date of symptom onset; we defined the confirmed time as the interval from symptom onset to positive results (samples from the respiratory tract). Both of them were estimated by fitting a Weibull distribution on the departure date and symptom onset. The differences among the variables were analyzed. A total of 139 patients were ultimately enrolled, and ~10.1% of patients (14 patients) had no symptoms during their disease course. We estimated the median incubation period to be 4.0 days (interquartile intervals, 2.0-8.0), and the 95th percentile of the distribution was 15.0 days. Moreover, ~5.6% of patients (7 patients) experienced symptoms 2 weeks after leaving. Furthermore, the estimation median interval from symptom onset to final diagnosis was 4.0 days (interquartile intervals, 2.0-6.0), and the 95th percentile of the distribution was 12.0 days. Finally, the median hospitalization time was 16.0 days, ranging from 3.0 to 45.0 days. Univariate analysis showed that age ( = 0.021) and severity status ( = 0.001) were correlated significantly with hospitalization time. We provide evidence that departure time can be used to estimate the incubation and confirmed times of patients infected with COVID-19 when they leave an epidemic area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.582299DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8192719PMC
May 2021

The Incessant increase Curve during the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test and its association with gut hormone level in Chinese T2DM Adults: A preliminary study.

Peptides 2021 Jun 8:170595. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100038, China.

Purpose: To investigate glucose curve shape during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and its association with β-cell function or gut hormone.

Materials And Methods: Glucose curves during 180 min OGTTs (n = 89) were classified as incessant increase and monophasic. Data on demographics, β-cell function, and insulin sensitivity were collected. Gut hormones (GLP-1, GIP, and ghrelin) at baseline or after glucose ingestion were compared between groups. In addition, the relationship between the time to glucose peak during OGTT, another OGTT shape information, and gut hormone was also analyzed.

Results: A total of 39.3% of subjects had an incessant increase glucose response curve, 59.6% had a monophasic curve, and 1.1% a biphasic curve. Lower plasma C-peptide, the lower area under the curve (AUC) of C-peptide, decreased HOMA2-β, lower AUC /AUC and higher HbA1C were found in patients with incessant increase curves compared to those with monophasic curves. Importantly, fasting plasma ghrelin was lower and incremental ghrelin at 120 min was higher in the incessant increase group, despite different age, gender, BMI, fasting glucose, and fasting insulin. Moreover, in Late-peak ones, GLP-1 at 120 min and AUC of GLP-1 were elevated than those in the Early-peak group significantly.

Conclusions: In adults with T2DM, the incessant increase in OGTT shape indicated an impaired insulin secretion. Lower fasting ghrelin and absence of ghrelin fall after glucose load may participate in incessant increase OGTT shape. In addition, compensatory elevated GLP-1 could not prevent peak delay in OGTT. The gut hormone may have an effect on OGTT shapes in T2DM adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2021.170595DOI Listing
June 2021

Noninvasive Bioluminescence Imaging of Matrix Metalloproteinase-14 Activity in Lung Cancer Using a Membrane-Bound Biosensor.

Anal Chem 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tangdu Hospital, Air Force Medical University, No. 569 Xinsi Road, Xi'an 710038, China.

Matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MMP-14) plays a crucial role in the cancer migration and metastasis by guiding the extracellular matrix remodeling and cell motility. Despite increasing efforts have been taken to develop methodology for measuring MMP-14 expression, there is a lack of tools capable of monitoring the MMP-14 dynamic activity with high temporal and spatial resolution in living cells and animals. Here, we describe the design of Gaussia luciferase (Gluc)-based membrane-bound biosensor for efficient visualization of MMP-14 activity. The epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced significant luciferase changes in the biosensor-transfected lung cancer cells. Deletion of the transmembrane domain in the mutant biosensor or treatment with an MMP-14 inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), relieved the EGF-induced luciferase activation, suggesting that MMP-14 functions at the cell surface to result in luciferase changes. Moreover, utilizing this biosensor, the bioluminescence signals activated by MMP-14 enabled clear visualization of MMP-14-positive lung tumors in animal models. Our results indicated this biosensor is an effective probe for quantitatively monitoring proteolytic activities in live cells and mouse models. These findings offer the general design of biosensors as an adaptable tool for studying various membrane-anchored proteases in biological models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c05189DOI Listing
June 2021

A joint method for the screening of pharmacological chaperones for phenylalanine hydroxylase.

Org Biomol Chem 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

The affiliated Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital, Center of Genetic Medicine, Nanjing 210004, Jiangsu, P.R. China.

Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency (PAHD) is an autosomal recessive disorder that causes severe injury to the nervous system, the treatment of which mainly depends on dietary therapy. The limited treatment options for PAHD are an incentive to develop new methods to identify more efficient therapeutic drugs, such as agonists which could improve PAH activity. In this study, we aimed to establish a rapid and convenient method for the screening and verification of PAH agonists. We compared fluorospectrophotometry and tandem mass spectrometry for detection of enzymatic formation of tyrosine, finding that the latter was a more sensitive method. We optimized immunoprecipitation purification conditions and measurement conditions of PAH activity. The optimal ratio between PAH protein and magnetic beads was 500 μg protein per 20 μL beads, and the optimized conditions for the detection of PAH enzymatic activity included the presence of 75 μM coenzyme ((6R)-l-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin) and 30 min reaction time. Based on virtual screening, we screened ten candidate agonists from the FDA drug library. Three of these (nefopam, fluocinonide, and risperidone) were found to activate the enzyme in a dose-dependent manner (0.1-10 μM) by the joint method. We tested the efficacy of the three agonists on three PAH mutations (p.I65T, p.H107R, and p.D101N) that influence enzyme activity, and found that risperidone could specifically activate D101N-mutated enzyme. In conclusion, we established a joint method that is highly reliable, cost-effective, labor-saving, and time-saving. And we also found a specific agonist for D101N-mutated PAH by this joint method which may assist the development of clinical treatment for PAHD patients with different enzyme deficiencies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ob00638jDOI Listing
June 2021

Comparative and mechanistic toxicity assessment of structure-dependent toxicity of carbon-based nanomaterials.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 2;418:126282. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, 220 Hollister Dr., Ithaca, NY 14853, United States. Electronic address:

The wide application of carbon-based nanomaterials (CNMs) has resulted in the ubiquity of CNMs in the natural environment and they potentially impose adverse consequences on ecosystems and human health. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated and compared potential toxicological effects and mechanisms of seven CNMs in three representative types (carbon blacks, graphene nanoplatelets, and fullerenes), to elucidate the correlation between their physicochemical/structural properties and toxicity. We employed a recently-developed quantitative toxicogenomics-based toxicity testing system with GFP-fused yeast reporter library targeting main cellular stress response pathways, as well as conventional phenotype-based bioassays. The results revealed that DNA damage, oxidative stress, and protein stress were the major mechanisms of action for all the CNMs at sub-cytotoxic concentration levels. The molecular toxicity nature were concentration-dependent, and they exhibited both similarity within the same structural group and distinctiveness among different CNMs, evidencing the structure-driven toxicity of CNMs. The toxic potential based on toxicogenomics molecular endpoints revealed the remarkable impact of size and structure on the toxicity. Furthermore, the phenotypic endpoints derived from conventional phenotype-based bioassays correlated with quantitative molecular endpoints derived from the toxicogenomics assay, suggesting that the selected protein biomarkers captured the main cellular effects that are associated with phenotypic adverse outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126282DOI Listing
June 2021

Cucurbiturils brighten Au nanoclusters in water.

Chem Sci 2020 Mar 6;11(13):3531-3537. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Feringa Nobel Prize Scientist Joint Research Center, Institute of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China University of Science & Technology 130 Meilong Road Shanghai 200237 China

Gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) with well-defined atomically precise structures present promising emissive prospects for excellent biocompatibility and optical properties. However, the relatively low luminescence efficiency in solutions for most AuNCs is still a perplexing issue to be resolved. In this study, a facile supramolecular strategy was developed to rigidify the surface of FGGC-AuNCs by modifying transition rates in excited states host-guest self-assembly between cucurbiturils (CBs) and FGGC (Phe-Gly-Gly-Cys peptide). In aqueous solutions, CB/FGGC-AuNCs presented an extremely enhanced red phosphorescence emission with a quantum yield (QY) of 51% for CB[7] and 39% for CB[8], while simple FGGC-AuNCs only showed a weak emission with a QY of 7.5%. Furthermore, CB[7]/FGGC-AuNCs showed excellent results in live cell luminescence imaging for A549 cancer cells. Our study demonstrates that host-guest self-assembly assisted by macrocycles is a facile and effective tool to non-covalently modify and adjust optical properties of nanostructures on ultra-small scales.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0sc00473aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8152592PMC
March 2020

Association of assisted reproductive technology, germline de novo mutations and congenital heart defects in a prospective birth cohort study.

Cell Res 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Emerging evidence suggests that children conceived through assisted reproductive technology (ART) have a higher risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs) even when there is no family history. De novo mutation (DNM) is a well-known cause of sporadic congenital diseases; however, whether ART procedures increase the number of germline DNM (gDNM) has not yet been well studied. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing of 1137 individuals from 160 families conceived through ART and 205 families conceived spontaneously. Children conceived via ART carried 4.59 more gDNMs than children conceived spontaneously, including 3.32 paternal and 1.26 maternal DNMs, after correcting for parental age at conception, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and exercise behaviors. Paternal DNMs in offspring conceived via ART are characterized by C>T substitutions at CpG sites, which potentially affect protein-coding genes and are significantly associated with the increased risk of CHD. In addition, the accumulation of non-coding functional mutations was independently associated with CHD and 87.9% of the mutations were originated from the father. Among ART offspring, infertility of the father was associated with elevated paternal DNMs; usage of both recombinant and urinary follicle-stimulating hormone and high-dosage human chorionic gonadotropin trigger was associated with an increase of maternal DNMs. In sum, the increased gDNMs in offspring conceived by ART were primarily originated from fathers, indicating that ART itself may not be a major reason for the accumulation of gDNMs. Our findings emphasize the importance of evaluating the germline status of the fathers in families with the use of ART.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41422-021-00521-wDOI Listing
June 2021

Comparative study of vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling and vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane flap covering in idiopathic macular hole treatment: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 May;10(5):5474-5482

The Second Clinical Medical College of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, China; Department of Ophthalmology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Background: To compare the therapeutic effects of vitrectomy (PPV) combined with the internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap coverage and PPV in combination with ILM peeling on the idiopathic large macular hole (MH), in order to better guide the treatment of large MH.

Methods: Searching was conducted within PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, CNKI, and Wanfang databases, and relevant pieces of literature between 2010 and 2020 published in English or Chinese were included.

Results: A total of 11 studies including 667 patients and 667 affected eyes were included; the effective rate of hole closure between the 2 groups were compared in 11 studies. Results exhibited 94.4% (286/303 eyes) in the test group (PPV combined with ILM flap coverage) and 85.8% (313/364 eyes) in the control group (PPV combined with ILM peeling) were closed. MH closure rates in the test group was superior to the control group [odds ratio (OR) =3.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.88-6.01, P<0.001]. All 11 studies compared the preoperative and postoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), with no significant difference in the preoperative test control group [standardized mean difference (SMD) =-0.18, 95% CI: -0.42 to 0.06, P=0.149]. The BCVA after surgery was better in the test group compared with the control group (SMD =-0.91, 95% CI: -1.43 to -0.40), P=0.001).

Discussion: Compared with PPV combined with ILM peeling, PPV combined with ILM flap coverage can significantly improve the MH closure rate and postoperative BCVA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-871DOI Listing
May 2021

Distinctive Alterations of Functional Connectivity Strength between Vascular and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

Neural Plast 2021 19;2021:8812490. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 10053, China.

Widespread structural and functional alterations have been reported in the two highly prevalent mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subtypes, amnestic MCI (aMCI) and vascular MCI (VaMCI). However, the changing pattern in functional connectivity strength (FCS) remains largely unclear. The aim of the present study is to detect the differences of FCS and to further explore the detailed resting-state functional connectivity (FC) alterations among VaMCI subjects, aMCI subjects, and healthy controls (HC). Twenty-six aMCI subjects, 31 VaMCI participants, and 36 HC participants underwent cognitive assessments and resting-state functional MRI scans. At first, one-way ANCOVA and analysis indicated significant decreased FCS in the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) in aMCI and VaMCI groups compared to HC, especially in the VaMCI group. Then, we selected the left MTG as a seed to further explore the detailed resting-state FC alterations among the three groups, and the results indicated that FC between the left MTG and some frontal brain regions were significantly decreased mainly in VaMCI. Finally, partial correlation analysis revealed that the FC values between the left MTG and left inferior frontal gyrus were positively correlated with the cognitive performance episodic memory and negatively related to the living status. The present study demonstrated that different FCS alterations existed in aMCI and VaMCI. These findings may provide a novel insight into the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying different MCI subtypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8812490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8159649PMC
May 2021

MRI Evaluation of Complete Response of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer After Neoadjuvant Therapy: Current Status and Future Trends.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 1;13:4317-4328. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Radiology, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Complete tumor response can be achieved in a certain proportion of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer, who achieve maximal response to neoadjuvant therapy (NAT). For these patients, a watch-and-wait (WW) or nonsurgical strategy has been proposed and is becoming widely practiced in order to avoid unnecessary surgical complications. Therefore, a non-invasive, reliable diagnostic tool for accurately evaluating complete tumor response is needed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a crucial role in both primary staging and restaging tumor response to NAT in rectal cancer without relying on resected specimen. In recent years, numerous efforts have been made to research the value of MRI in predicting and evaluating complete response in rectal cancer. Current MRI evaluation is mainly based on morphological and functional images. Morphologic MRI yields high soft tissue resolution, multiplanar images, and provides detailed depictions of rectal cancer and its surrounding structures. Functional MRI may help to distinguish residual tumor from fibrosis, therefore improving the diagnostic performance of morphologic MRI in identifying complete tumor response. Both morphologic and functional MRI have several promising parameters that may help accurately evaluate and/or predict complete response of rectal cancer. However, these parameters still have limitations and the results remain inconsistent. Recent development of new techniques, such as textural analysis, radiomics analysis and deep learning, demonstrate great potential based on MRI-derived parameters. This article aimed to review and help better understand the strengths, limitations, and future trends of these MRI-derived methods in evaluating complete response in rectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S309252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8179813PMC
June 2021

Challenges Caused by Imported Cases Abroad for the Prevention and Control of COVID-19 in China.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 20;8:573726. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tangdu Hospital, Air Force Military Medical University (Fourth Military Medical University), Xi'an, China.

Overseas imported cases of COVID-19 continue to increase in China, so we conducted this study to review the epidemiological characteristics of these patients. From February 26 to April 4, 2020, the imported cases from abroad were enrolled in this study. The effect of prevention countermeasures in curbing the spread of COVID-19 was assessed in this study. Moreover, we defined incubation period and confirmed time as from the date of leaving the epicenter to date of symptom onset and date of final diagnosed, respectively, and the interval of symptom onset to final diagnosed time was defined as diagnostic time. Categorical variables were summarized as numbers and percentages, and the difference among the variables were analyzed. For 670 cases imported from abroad, 555 were Chinese and 115 were foreigners. Apparently, confirmed cases had significantly decreased after China was compelled to temporarily suspend the entry of foreign passport holders with valid visas or residence permits; 6 days after implement of controlled measures, the daily new confirmed cases were reduced to 13 cases. Moreover, about 84.3% of patients (166/197) presented symptoms 1 week after leaving the epicenter, and notably seven patients (3.6%) had symptoms 2 weeks after leaving the epicenter. The median incubation period was 3.0 days (inter quartile range, 1.0 to 6.0), the 95th percentile was 11.6 days. Additionally, most of cases (92.9%) were detected positively of nucleic acid after symptom onset with 4 days, the median diagnostic time was 2.0 days (interquartile range, 1.0 to 3.0), and the 95th percentile of the distribution was 5.0 days. Finally, about 5.8% of patients were healthy carriers, and the median confirmed time of asymptomatic patients was 4.0 days (interquartile range, 2.0 to 9.0). The following variables might be associated with confirmed time: symptom type ( = 0.005), exported regions ( < 0.001), and symptom onset time ( < 0.001). The prevention countermeasures for imported cases implemented by the Chinese government played an indispensable role in curbing the spread of COVID-19; the time of departure from epicenter could provide an estimate of the incubation period; and a confirmed time, 2-week quarantine period might need to be prolonged, while asymptomatic patients should be closely monitored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.573726DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172980PMC
May 2021

Recognition of a tandem lesion by DNA bacterial formamidopyrimidine glycosylases explored combining molecular dynamics and machine learning.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2021 30;19:2861-2869. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Univ. Lyon, ENS de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5182, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Laboratoire de Chimie, F69342 Lyon, France.

The combination of several closely spaced DNA lesions, which can be induced by a single radical hit, constitutes a hallmark in the DNA damage landscape and radiation chemistry. The occurrence of such a tandem base lesion gives rise to a strong coupling with the double helix degrees of freedom and induces important structural deformations, in contrast to DNA strands containing a single oxidized nucleobase. Although such complex lesions are known to be refractory to repair by DNA glycosylases, there is still a lack of structural evidence to rationalize these phenomena. In this contribution, we explore, by numerical modeling and molecular simulations, the behavior of the bacterial glycosylase responsible for base excision repair (MutM), specialized in excising oxidatively-damaged defects such as 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG). The difference in lesion recognition between a simple damage and a tandem lesion featuring an additional abasic site is assessed at atomistic resolution owing to microsecond molecular dynamics simulations and machine learning postprocessing, allowing to extensively pinpoint crucial differences in the interaction patterns of the damaged bases. Our results reveal substantial changes in the interaction network surrounding the 8-oxoG upon addition of an adjacent abasic site, leading to the perturbation of the intercalation triad which is crucial for lesion recognition and processing. The recognition process might also be impacted by a more constrained MutM-DNA binding upon tandem damage, as shown by the machine learning post-processing. This work advocates for the use of such high throughput numerical simulations for exploring the complex combinatorial chemistry of tandem DNA lesions repair and more generally local multiple damaged sites of the utmost significance in radiation chemistry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csbj.2021.04.055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8141532PMC
April 2021

E2E-LIADE: End-to-End Local Invariant Autoencoding Density Estimation Model for Anomaly Target Detection in Hyperspectral Image.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2021 Jun 2;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Hyperspectral anomaly target detection (also known as hyperspectral anomaly detection (HAD)] is a technique aiming to identify samples with atypical spectra. Although some density estimation-based methods have been developed, they may suffer from two issues: 1) separated two-stage optimization with inconsistent objective functions makes the representation learning model fail to dig out characterization customized for HAD and 2) incapability of learning a low-dimensional representation that preserves the inherent information from the original high-dimensional spectral space. To address these problems, we propose a novel end-to-end local invariant autoencoding density estimation (E2E-LIADE) model. To satisfy the assumption on the manifold, the E2E-LIADE introduces a local invariant autoencoder (LIA) to capture the intrinsic low-dimensional manifold embedded in the original space. Augmented low-dimensional representation (ALDR) can be generated by concatenating the local invariant constrained by a graph regularizer and the reconstruction error. In particular, an end-to-end (E2E) multidistance measure, including mean-squared error (MSE) and orthogonal projection divergence (OPD), is imposed on the LIA with respect to hyperspectral data. More important, E2E-LIADE simultaneously optimizes the ALDR of the LIA and a density estimation network in an E2E manner to avoid the model being trapped in a local optimum, resulting in an energy map in which each pixel represents a negative log likelihood for the spectrum. Finally, a postprocessing procedure is conducted on the energy map to suppress the background. The experimental results demonstrate that compared to the state of the art, the proposed E2E-LIADE offers more satisfactory performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCYB.2021.3079247DOI Listing
June 2021

Effects of postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy on stage IIIA-N2 non-small cell lung cancer and prognostic analysis.

J BUON 2021 Mar-Apr;26(2):328-335

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tangdu Hospital, Air Force Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Purpose: We aimed to explore the efficacy and safety of postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (stage IIIA-N2), and to analyze the influencing factors for the prognosis of patients.

Methods: A total of 142 patients with NSCLC (stage IIIA-N2) were collected for retrospective analysis. Postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy was performed in 71 cases (Radiotherapy group), while it was not conducted in the remaining 71 cases (Control group). The survival status of patients was recorded during follow-up. Moreover, the possible influencing factors for the prognosis of patients were analyzed.

Results: The median survival time was 34.7±5.4 months and 31.9±4.9 months, the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 32.4% and 26.8%, and the 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate was 25.4% and 12.7%, respectively, in the Radiotherapy group and the Control group. The 5-year OS was significantly correlated with smoking history, tumor T stage, ratio of positive lymph nodes, number of cycles of postoperative chemotherapy, and whether postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy was combined. Moreover, tumor T stage, ratio of positive lymph nodes and whether adjuvant radiotherapy was combined were independent influencing factors for postoperative OS of patients. The lower tumor T stage, lower ratio of positive lymph nodes and adjuvant radiotherapy combined corresponded to the higher OS rate.

Conclusions: Postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy is safe and feasible in the treatment of NSCLC (stage IIIA-N2), which can increase the survival of patients and the local control rate of tumors. Patients with a lower tumor T stage and a lower ratio of positive lymph nodes have higher survival rates.
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June 2021

The circular RNA circSPARC enhances the migration and proliferation of colorectal cancer by regulating the JAK/STAT pathway.

Mol Cancer 2021 Jun 1;20(1):81. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of General Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, 221002, Jiangsu Province, China.

Background: Noncoding RNAs such as circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in the human body and influence the occurrence and development of various diseases. However, the biological functions of circRNAs in colorectal cancer (CRC) are largely unknown.

Methods: RT-qPCR was used to detect the expression of circRNAs and mRNA in CRC cells and tissues. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to analyze the location of circSPARC. Function-based experiments were performed using circSPARC knockdown and overexpression cell lines in vitro and in vivo, including CCK8, colony formation, transwell and metastasis models. Mechanistically, luciferase reporter assay, western blots, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), Chromatin isolation by RNA purification (ChIRP) and immunohistochemical stainings were performed.

Results: CircSPARC was upregulated in both the tissues and plasma of CRC patients. High expression of circSPARC was associated with advanced TNM stage, lymph node metastases, and poor survival. Silencing circSPARC inhibited CRC cell migration and proliferation in vitro and vivo. Mechanistically, circSPARC sponged miR-485-3p to upregulate JAK2 expression and ultimately contribute to the accumulation of phosphorylated (p)-STAT3. Besides, circSPARC recruited FUS, which facilitated the nuclear translocation of p-STAT3.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that circSPARC might serve as a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target for CRC treatment by regulating JAK2/STAT3 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12943-021-01375-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8167978PMC
June 2021

The Moderating Role of Corporate Social Responsibility in the Association of Internal Corporate Governance and Profitability; Evidence from Pakistan.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 28;18(11). Epub 2021 May 28.

School of Business and Economics, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia.

At present, climate and other environmental problems are arising because of the development of the industrial sector at a large level. The industrial sector is supposed to be a major cause of climate change problems that lead to global warming. Therefore, corporate social responsibility (CSR) with the help of corporate governance is an imperative approach to control these social problems. Consequently, in the context of the organizational and management theory, agency theory, and the stakeholder theory, this study focuses on important factors of internal corporate governance such as chief executive officer (CEO) power, the board size, independence, ownership concentration, managerial ownership, and audit quality for improving the profitability of firms. Moreover, this study considers corporate social responsibility as a controlling and moderating factor for firm performance and internal corporate governance. We employed ordinary least square (OLS) for endogeneity testing, fixed effect (FE), generalized method of moments (GMM), and feasible generalized least square (FGLS) on data of Pakistani firms for the period of 2010-2019. The results of this study demonstrate the following outcomes: firstly, all internal corporate governance factors are positively linked with firm performance; secondly, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is the most valuable tool for improving profitability. Importantly, this study suggests that all internal corporate governance factors are positively linked with firm performance because of the interactive role of corporate social responsibility (CSR). This study practically contributes to the literature by suggesting the imperative role of corporate social responsibility (CSR) for internal corporate governance, which may help to reduce climate and social problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115830DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8198289PMC
May 2021

Dual R108K and G189D Mutations in the NS1 Protein of A/H1N1 Influenza Virus Counteract Host Innate Immune Responses.

Viruses 2021 05 13;13(5). Epub 2021 May 13.

School of Basic Medical Sciences, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, China.

Influenza A viruses (IAV) modulate host antiviral responses to promote growth and pathogenicity. Here, we examined the multifunctional IAV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza A virus to better understand factors that contribute to viral replication efficiency or pathogenicity. In 2009, a pandemic H1N1 IAV (A/California/07/2009 pH1N1) emerged in the human population from swine. Seasonal variants of this virus are still circulating in humans. Here, we compared the sequence of a seasonal variant of this H1N1 influenza virus (A/Urumqi/XJ49/2018(H1N1), first isolated in 2018) with the pandemic strain A/California/07/2009. The 2018 virus harbored amino acid mutations (I123V and N205S) in important functional sites; however, 108R and 189G were highly conserved between A/California/07/2009 and the 2018 variant. To better understand interactions between influenza viruses and the human innate immune system, we generated and rescued seasonal 2009 H1N1 IAV mutants expressing an NS1 protein harboring a dual mutation (R108K/G189D) at these conserved residues and then analyzed its biological characteristics. We found that the mutated NS1 protein exhibited systematic and selective inhibition of cytokine responses via a mechanism that may not involve binding to cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 30 (CPSF30). These results highlight the complexity underlying host-influenza NS1 protein interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13050905DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8153306PMC
May 2021

New imaging features of tuberous sclerosis complex: A 7 T MRI study.

NMR Biomed 2021 Jun 1:e4565. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, Beijing MRI Center for Brain Research, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Few in vivo studies have focused on the perivenous association of tubers and iron deposition in the deep gray nuclei in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). We investigated this possible relationship in TSC patients using susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) at 7 T. SWI with high spatial resolution and enhanced sensitivity was performed on 11 TSC patients in comparison with 15 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The relationship between tubers and veins was evaluated. In addition, the phase images of SWI were processed to produce local field shift (LFS) maps to quantify iron deposition. The mean LFS in the deep gray nuclei was compared between the TSC patients and healthy controls using a covariance analysis. Venous involvement was observed in 211 of the 231 (91.3%) cortical tubers on SWI. The slender tubers often oriented around the long axis of penetrating veins, possibly because cortical tubers typically developed and/or migrated along venous vasculatures. A significant difference in LFS of the thalamus was detected between the TSC patients and healthy controls (3.36 ± 0.50 versus 3.01 ± 0.39, p < 0.01). The new in vivo imaging features observed at 7 T provide valuable insights into the possible venous association of TSC lesions and iron accumulation in the deep gray nuclei. Our results may lead to a better understanding of the pathological changes involved in TSC under in vivo conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nbm.4565DOI Listing
June 2021

Percutaneous Transhepatic Papillary Balloon Dilation versus Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography for Common Bile Duct Stones: A Multicenter Prospective Study.

Radiology 2021 Jun 1:201115. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

From the Department of Interventional Medicine (B.L., Y.L.) and Digestive Department (H.W.), The Second Hospital of Shandong University, 247 Beiyuan Rd, Jinan 250033, PR China; Department of Interventional Oncology, Institute of Shandong University, Jinan, PR China (B.L., Y.L.); Department of Interventional Medicine, Jinxiang People's Hospital, Jining, PR China (J.M.); Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Weihai Municipal Hospital, Weihai, PR China (S.L.); Department of Interventional Medicine, Zibo Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine Hospital, Zibo, PR China (C.L.); Department of General Surgery, Dezhou Municipal Hospital, Dezhou, PR China (H.Q.); Department of Interventional Medicine, Qingdao Hiser Hospital, Qingdao, PR China (D.N.); Department of Interventional Medicine, Weifang Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Weifang, PR China (C.Y.); Department of Interventional Medicine, Linyi Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Linyi, PR China (J.Z.); Department of Radiology, Jiyang People's Hospital, Jinan, PR China (C.W.); Department of Interventional Medicine, Linzi District People's Hospital, Zibo, PR China (Y.J.); Department of Interventional Medicine, Central Hospital of Xinwen Mining Group, Taian, PR China (T.J.); Department of Interventional Medicine, Yiyuan County People's Hospital, Zibo, PR China (J.L.); Department of Interventional Medicine, Huantai County People's Hospital, Zibo, PR China (L.W.); Department of Interventional Medicine, Shanxi Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Taiyuan, PR China (D.S.); Department of General Surgery, Dezhou People's Hospital, Dezhou, PR China (X.H.); Department of Interventional Medicine, Laiwu Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Jinan, PR China (D.L.); Department of Interventional Medicine, Linshu People's Hospital, Linyi, PR China (Z.Z.); Department of Interventional Medicine, Pingyin Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Jinan, PR China, (F.D.); and Digestive Department, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, PR China (T.Y.).

Background Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is recommended by major guidelines for the removal of common bile duct (CBD) stones but is technically challenging in patients with low cardiopulmonary reserve and anatomic abnormalities of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Purpose To compare percutaneous transhepatic papillary balloon dilation (PTPBD) with ERCP for CBD stone removal. Materials and Methods Participants with one to three CBD stones (largest stone ≤30 mm) and without intrahepatic bile duct or gallbladder stones were eligible for this prospective cohort study. PTPBD was recommended in participants with low cardiopulmonary reserve or definitive anatomic abnormalities of the upper GI tract. Otherwise, both procedures were offered without preference. Follow-up, including abdominal CT, was conducted at 1-week and 1-, 3- and 6-month follow-up, and every 6 months thereafter. US and MR cholangiopancreatography were conducted if recurrence could not be confirmed with CT. Technical success rate was the primary outcome. Results A total of 531 participants were analyzed: there were 360 undergoing PTPBD (median age, 76 years; interquartile range [IQR], 64-82 years; 163 men) and 171 undergoing ERCP (median age, 66 years; IQR, 57-74 years; 94 men). The technical success rate was 99% (355 of 360) in the PTPBD group and 98% (167 of 171) in the ERCP group (relative risk, 1.02; = .12). The incidence of overall complications was 4% (13 of 360) for PTPBD and 8% (13 of 171) for ERCP (relative risk, 0.27; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.61; < .001). The PTPBD group showed a longer fluoroscopy time and a higher radiation exposure, with adjusted differences of 28.7 minutes (95% CI: 22.2, 35.2) and 384.3 mGy (95% CI: 296.5, 472), respectively. A propensity score-matching analysis ( = 123 per group) indicated that PTPBD had a slightly higher technical success rate and significantly fewer complications. Conclusion When compared with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, percutaneous transhepatic papillary balloon dilation has a similar technical success rate and fewer perioperative complications but a higher radiation exposure. © RSNA, 2021 . See also the editorial by vanSonnenberg and Mueller in this issue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2021201115DOI Listing
June 2021

Weakly Supervised Discriminative Learning With Spectral Constrained Generative Adversarial Network for Hyperspectral Anomaly Detection.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 May 31;PP. Epub 2021 May 31.

Anomaly detection (AD) using hyperspectral images (HSIs) is of great interest for deep space exploration and Earth observations. This article proposes a weakly supervised discriminative learning with a spectral constrained generative adversarial network (GAN) for hyperspectral anomaly detection (HAD), called weaklyAD. It can enhance the discrimination between anomaly and background with background homogenization and anomaly saliency in cases where anomalous samples are limited and sensitive to the background. A novel probability-based category thresholding is first proposed to label coarse samples in preparation for weakly supervised learning. Subsequently, a discriminative reconstruction model is learned by the proposed network in a weakly supervised fashion. The proposed network has an end-to-end architecture, which not only includes an encoder, a decoder, a latent layer discriminator, and a spectral discriminator competitively but also contains a novel Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence-based orthogonal projection divergence (OPD) spectral constraint. Finally, the well-learned network is used to reconstruct HSIs captured by the same sensor. Our work paves a new weakly supervised way for HAD, which intends to match the performance of supervised methods without the prerequisite of manually labeled data. Assessments and generalization experiments over real HSIs demonstrate the unique promise of such a proposed approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2021.3082158DOI Listing
May 2021

Application of ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound to distinguish salivary focal inflammatory masses from malignant masses: A retrospective observational study.

Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 2021 May 23. Epub 2021 May 23.

Department of Ultrasound, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Background: The aim was to retrospectively analyze the ultrasonographic and clinical characteristics of focal inflammatory masses and malignant masses of salivary gland by using B-mode ultrasound (US) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for differential analysis.

Methods: The features of US and CEUS were retrospectively analyzed for 19 cases of focal salivary inflammatory masses and 45 cases of malignant salivary masses. All cases were confirmed by pathohistological examination.

Results: On B-mode US, the incidence of expansive growth patterns of malignant salivary masses (44.4%, 20/45) was significantly higher than that of focal salivary inflammatory masses (15.8%, 3/19) (p = 0.029). The rate of lymphadenopathy surrounding salivary glands of malignant salivary masses (42.2%, 19/45) was significantly higher than that of focal salivary inflammatory masses (15.8%, 3/19) (p = 0.042). On CEUS, clear enhancement margins were more common in malignant salivary masses (44.4%, 20/45) compared to focal salivary inflammatory masses (15.8%, 3/19) (p = 0.029); Rapid washout was more common in malignant salivary masses (82.2%, 37/45) than focal salivary inflammatory masses (31.6%, 6/19) (p <  0.001). Rapid washout on CEUS and craniocaudal diameter were independent predictive factors in differentiating salivary inflammatory masses and malignant masses according to binary logistic regression analysis. US and CEUS achieved a sensitivity of 80.0%, a specificity of 78.9%and an accuracy of 80.0%for discrimination between salivary inflammatory masses and malignant masses.

Conclusion: Therefore, a multimodal ultrasonographic pathway combining clinical manifestations, B-mode US and CEUS was needed to differentiate between salivary focal inflammatory masses and malignancies to avoid unnecessary biopsies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/CH-211151DOI Listing
May 2021

An improved lentiviral system for efficient expression and purification of β-defensins in mammalian cells.

Biotechnol J 2021 May 30:e2100023. Epub 2021 May 30.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, School of Medicine, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital of Tongji University, No. 301 Middle Yanchang Road, Shanghai, 200072, China.

β-defensins are a family of conserved small cationic antimicrobial peptides with different significant biological functions. The majority of mammalian β-defensins are expressed in epididymis, and many of them are predicted to have post-translational modifications. However, only a few of its members have been well studied due to the limitations of expressing and purifying bioactive proteins with correct post-translational modifications efficiently. Here we developed a novel Fc tagged lentiviral system and Fc tagged prokaryotic expression systems provided new options for β-defensins expression and purification. The novel lentiviral system contains a secretive signal peptide, a N-terminal IgG Fc tag, a green fluorescent protein (GFP), and a puromycin selection marker to facilitate efficient expression and fast purification of β-defensins by protein A magnetic or agarose beads. It also enables stable and large-scale expression of β-defensins with regular biological activities and post-translational modification. Purified β-defensins such as Bin1b and a novel human β-defensin hBD129 showed antimicrobial activity, immuno-regulatory activity, and expected post-translational phosphorylation, which were not found in Escherichia coli (E. coli) expressed form. Furthermore, we successfully applied the novel system to identify mBin1b interacting proteins, explaining Bin1b in a better way. These results suggest that the novel lentiviral system is a powerful approach to produce correct post-translational processed β-defensins with bioactivities and is useful to identify their interacting proteins. This study has laid the foundation for future studies to characterize function and mechanism of novel β-defensins. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/biot.202100023DOI Listing
May 2021

The whole profiling and competing endogenous RNA network analyses of noncoding RNAs in adipose-derived stem cells from diabetic, old, and young patients.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 May 29;12(1):313. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Hand Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1277 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan, 430022, China.

Background: Mesenchymal stem cells including adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have a considerable potential in the field of translational medicine. Unfortunately, multiple factors (e.g., older age, co-existing diabetes, and obesity) may impair cellular function, which hinders the overall effectiveness of autologous stem cell therapy. Noncoding RNAs-including microRNAs (miRNAs), long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs)-have been shown to play important roles in stem cell biology. However, the overall diabetes-related and aging-related expression patterns and interactions of these RNAs in ASCs remain unknown.

Method: The phenotypes and functions of ASCs isolated from diabetic (D-ASCs), old (O-ASCs), and young (Y-ASCs) donors were evaluated by in vitro assays. We conducted high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) in these ASCs to identify the differentially expressed (DE) RNAs. Gene ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) analyses were performed to investigate mRNAs with significant differences among groups. The lncRNA- or circRNA-associated competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) networks were constructed based on bioinformatics analyses and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results. The miR-145-5p mimics were transfected into O-ASCs and verified by PCR.

Results: ASCs from diabetic and old donors showed inferior migration ability and increased cellular senescence. Furthermore, O-ASCs have decreased capacities for promoting endothelial cell angiogenesis and fibroblast migration, compared with Y-ASCs. The DE miRNAs, mRNAs, lncRNAs, and circRNAs were successfully identified by RNA-seq in O-ASCs vs. Y-ASCs and D-ASCs vs. O-ASCs. GO and KEGG analyses demonstrated that DE mRNAs were significantly enriched in aging and cell senescence terms separately. PPI networks revealed critical DE mRNAs in the above groups. RNAs with high fold changes and low p values were validated by PCR. ceRNA networks were constructed based on bioinformatics analyses and validated RNAs. Additionally, the lncRNA RAET1E-AS1-miR-145-5p-WNT11/BMPER axis was validated by PCR and correlation analyses. Finally, the overexpression of miR-145-5p was found to rejuvenate O-ASCs phenotype and augment the functionality of these cells.

Conclusion: Our research may provide insights regarding the underlying mechanisms of ASC dysfunction; it may also offer novel targets for restoring therapeutic properties in ASCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02388-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8164820PMC
May 2021

MicroRNA-124-3p inhibits the differentiation of precartilaginous stem cells into nucleus pulposus-like cells via targeting FSTL1.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jul 4;22(1):725. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Orthopedics, Wuxi People's Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214000, P.R. China.

MicroRNA (miRNA/miR)-124-3p has been extensively studied in tumor biology and stem cells. However, little is known regarding its functional roles in the differentiation of precartilaginous stem cells (PSCs) into nucleus pulposus-like cells (NPLCs). In the present study, using miRNA microarray screening, it was demonstrated that the miRNA expression profiles differed between rat primary PSCs and TGF-β1-induced differentiated NPLCs, and that miR-124-3p was significantly differentially expressed during the differentiation of PSCs to NPLCs. Furthermore, RT-qPCR analysis verified that miR-124-3p expression was decreased during PSC differentiation, with the lowest levels being detected at the later stages. Subsequent experiments revealed that miR-124-3p overexpression significantly decreased the expression of the extracellular matrix proteins, aggrecan and collagen type II, which was accompanied by a significant decrease in follistatin-related protein 1 (FSTL1) expression levels. Moreover, bioinformatics analysis indicated that FSTL1 was a potential target of miR-124-3p, which was additionally verified using luciferase reporter assays. Taken together, these data revealed a specific regulatory pathway of miR-124-3p, which negatively regulated its target gene, FSTL1, during the differentiation of PSCs to NPLCs, and suggested a functional role for miR-124-3p in the differentiation of PSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8120511PMC
July 2021

New views on ultrasonography in high-flow priapism, with typical cases.

Asian J Androl 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116011, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/aja.aja_28_21DOI Listing
May 2021

Preventive electroacupuncture ameliorates D-galactose-induced Alzheimer's disease-like inflammation and memory deficits, probably via modulating the microbiota-gut-brain axis.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2021 Mar;24(3):341-348

College of Acupuncture and Orthopedics, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Objectives: We aimed to observe the effects of preventive electroacupuncture (EA) on the microbiota-gut-brain axis and spatial learning and memory deficits and to investigate the possible mechanism using D-galactose (D-gal)-induced aging rats.

Materials And Methods: D-gal was intraperitoneally injected to establish the aging model. We used Morris water maze to detect spatial learning and memory function of rats. RT-PCR was applied to test targeted gut microbes. The expression of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway proteins were detected by Western blotting. ELISA was employed to evaluate the level of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), diamine oxidase (DAO) and S-100β. Additionally, we observed ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1 (Iba-1) expression in the hippocampal CA1 area by immunofluorescence.

Results: Morris water maze test showed decreased mean escape latency and increased target quadrant time after EA treatment. The gut microbiota composition has been modified in EA treated rats. Molecular examination indicated that expression of ZO-1 was improved and the the concentration of LPS in blood and hippocampus were reduced in EA treated rats. Further, we observed an inhibition of activated microglia and TLR4/NF-κB pathway in EA groups.

Conclusion: Preventive EA may alleviate the impairments of the microbiota-gut-brain axis and spatial learning and memory in aging, and the mechanism may be related to the inhibition of TLR4/NF-kB signaling pathway. The combination of acupoints GV20 and ST36 can enhance the therapeutic effect in aging rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/ijbms.2021.49147.11256DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8087854PMC
March 2021

[Study on anti-hyperlipidemia effect of Linderae Radix via regulating reverse cholesterol transport].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Apr;46(7):1795-1802

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University Hangzhou 310053, China.

This article aims to investigate the ameliorative effect of Linderae Radix ethanol extract on hyperlipidemia rats induced by high-fat diet and to explore its possible mechanism from the perspective of reverse cholesterol transport(RCT). SD rats were divided into normal group, model group, atorvastatin group, Linderae Radix ethanol extract(LREE) of high, medium, low dose groups. Except for the normal group, the other groups were fed with a high-fat diet to establish hyperlipidemia rat models; the normal group and the model group were given pure water, while each administration group was given corresponding drugs by gavage once a day for five weeks. Serum total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol(HDL-c), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol(LDL-c), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) levels were measured by automatic blood biochemistry analyzer; the contents of TC, TG, total bile acid(TBA) in liver and TC and TBA in feces of rats were detected by enzyme colorimetry. HE staining was used to observe the liver tissue lesions; immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of ATP-binding cassette G8(ABCG8) in small intestine; Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma/aerfa(PPARγ/α), liver X receptor-α(LXRα), ATP-binding cassette A1(ABCA1) pathway protein and scavenger receptor class B type Ⅰ(SR-BⅠ) in liver. The results showed that LREE could effectively reduce serum and liver TC, TG levels, serum LDL-c levels and AST activity, and increase HDL-c levels, but did not significant improve ALT activity and liver index; HE staining results showed that LREE could reduce liver lipid deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. In addition, LREE also increased the contents of fecal TC and TBA, and up-regulated the protein expressions of ABCG8 in small intestine and PPARγ/α, SR-BⅠ, LXRα, and ABCA1 in liver. LREE served as a positive role on hyperlipidemia model rats induced by high-fat diet, which might be related to the regulation of RCT, the promotion of the conversion of cholesterol to the liver and bile acids, and the intestinal excretion of cholesterol and bile acids. RCT regulation might be a potential mechanism of LREE against hyperlipidemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20200104.401DOI Listing
April 2021

Neonatal screening and genotype-phenotype correlation of hyperphenylalaninemia in the Chinese population.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 May 12;16(1):214. Epub 2021 May 12.

Genetic Medicine Center, Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital, Women's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 123 Tianfei St., Qinhuai District, Nanjing, 210004, People's Republic of China.

Background: Hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) is the most common amino acid metabolic disease involving phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH, OMIM*612,349) deficiency or coenzyme tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficiency. Patients with severe HPA often have a difficult life. Early diagnosis of HPA before the development of symptoms is possible via neonatal screening, facilitating appropriate treatment and reducing mortality and disability rates. This study revealed the prevalence, mutational and phenotypic spectrum, and prognosis of HPA by neonatal screening from January 2001 to September 2020 in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China.

Methods: Through a retrospective analysis of the information available in the neonatal screening database, the clinical presentations, laboratory data, molecular characteristics and treatment follow-up data of HPA patients detected by neonatal screening were evaluated.

Results: We diagnosed 181 patients with HPA from 1 to 957 newborns, giving an incidence of 1:6873. Among these patients, 177 were identified as PAH deficient and four patients were BH4 deficient. The average current age of the patients was 6.38 years old. The most common mutations of PAH were c.728 C > A/ p.Arg243Gln (13.83 %), c.158G > A/ p.Arg53His (9.57 %), c.611 A > G/ p.Tyr204Cys (7.44 %), and c.721 C > T/ p.Arg241Cys (6.38 %).

Conclusions: This study revealed the prevalence, phenotype-genotype, and prognosis of HPA in China and contributes to the updating of PAHD data for China and worldwide. Our study not only expanded the spectrum of phenotypes and genotype but also provided a valuable tool for improved genetic counseling and management of future cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-021-01846-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8114530PMC
May 2021

EMDS-5: Environmental Microorganism image dataset Fifth Version for multiple image analysis tasks.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(5):e0250631. Epub 2021 May 12.

School of Control Engineering, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu, China.

Environmental Microorganism Data Set Fifth Version (EMDS-5) is a microscopic image dataset including original Environmental Microorganism (EM) images and two sets of Ground Truth (GT) images. The GT image sets include a single-object GT image set and a multi-object GT image set. EMDS-5 has 21 types of EMs, each of which contains 20 original EM images, 20 single-object GT images and 20 multi-object GT images. EMDS-5 can realize to evaluate image preprocessing, image segmentation, feature extraction, image classification and image retrieval functions. In order to prove the effectiveness of EMDS-5, for each function, we select the most representative algorithms and price indicators for testing and evaluation. The image preprocessing functions contain two parts: image denoising and image edge detection. Image denoising uses nine kinds of filters to denoise 13 kinds of noises, respectively. In the aspect of edge detection, six edge detection operators are used to detect the edges of the images, and two evaluation indicators, peak-signal to noise ratio and mean structural similarity, are used for evaluation. Image segmentation includes single-object image segmentation and multi-object image segmentation. Six methods are used for single-object image segmentation, while k-means and U-net are used for multi-object segmentation. We extract nine features from the images in EMDS-5 and use the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier for testing. In terms of image classification, we select the VGG16 feature to test SVM, k-Nearest Neighbors, Random Forests. We test two types of retrieval approaches: texture feature retrieval and deep learning feature retrieval. We select the last layer of features of VGG16 network and ResNet50 network as feature vectors. We use mean average precision as the evaluation index for retrieval. EMDS-5 is available at the URL:https://github.com/NEUZihan/EMDS-5.git.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0250631PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8116046PMC
May 2021