Publications by authors named "Tao He"

771 Publications

A spontaneous multifunctional hydrogel vaccine amplifies the innate immune response to launch a powerful antitumor adaptive immune response.

Theranostics 2021 8;11(14):6936-6949. Epub 2021 May 8.

State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, P. R. China.

Substantial progress has been made with cancer immunotherapeutic strategies in recent years, most of which mainly rely on enhancing the T cell response. However, sufficient tumor antigen information often cannot be presented to T cells, resulting in a failed effector T cell response. The innate immune system can effectively recognize tumor antigens and then initiate an adaptive immune response. Here, we developed a spontaneous multifunctional hydrogel (NOCC-CpG/OX-M, Ncom Gel) vaccine to amplify the innate immune response and harness innate immunity to launch and maintain a powerful adaptive immune response. Ncom Gel was formed by a Schiff base reaction between CpG-modified carboxymethyl chitosan (NOCC-CpG) and partially oxidized mannan (OX-M). The effects of the Ncom Gel vaccine on DCs and macrophages and antigen-specific humoral immunity and cellular immunity were studied. Furthermore, the antitumor immune response of the Ncom Gel vaccine and its effect on the tumor microenvironment were evaluated. The Ncom Gel vaccine enhanced antigen presentation to T cells by facilitating DC uptake and maturation and inducing macrophages to a proinflammatory subtype, further leading to a T cell-mediated adaptive immune response. Moreover, the innate immune response could be amplified via the promotion of antigen-specific antibody production. The Ncom Gel vaccine reversed the tumor immune microenvironment to an inflamed phenotype and showed a significant antitumor response in a melanoma model. Our research implies the potential application of injectable hydrogels as a platform for tumor immunotherapy. The strategy also opens up a new avenue for multilayered cancer immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.58173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8171104PMC
May 2021

Cardiac Involvement in Recovered Patients From COVID-19: A Preliminary 6-Month Follow-Up Study.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 13;8:654405. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Cardiology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Accumulating evidence has revealed that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients may be complicated with myocardial injury during hospitalization. However, data regarding persistent cardiac involvement in patients who recovered from COVID-19 are limited. Our goal is to further explore the sustained impact of COVID-19 during follow-up, focusing on the cardiac involvement in the recovered patients. In this prospective observational follow-up study, we enrolled a total of 40 COVID-19 patients (20 with and 20 without cardiac injury during hospitalization) who were discharged from Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University for more than 6 months, and 27 patients (13 with and 14 without cardiac injury during hospitalization) were finally included in the analysis. Clinical information including self-reported symptoms, medications, laboratory findings, Short Form 36-item scores, 6-min walk test, clinical events, electrocardiogram assessment, echocardiography measurement, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was collected and analyzed. Among 27 patients finally included, none of patients reported any obvious cardiopulmonary symptoms at the 6-month follow-up. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of the quality of life and exercise capacity between the patients with and without cardiac injury. No significant abnormalities were detected in electrocardiogram manifestations in both groups, except for nonspecific ST-T changes, premature beats, sinus tachycardia/bradycardia, PR interval prolongation, and bundle-branch block. All patients showed normal cardiac structure and function, without any statistical differences between patients with and without cardiac injury by echocardiography. Compared with patients without cardiac injury, patients with cardiac injury exhibited a significantly higher positive proportion in late gadolinium enhancement sequences [7/13 (53.8%) vs. 1/14 (7.1%), = 0.013], accompanied by the elevation of circulating ST2 level [median (interquartile range) = 16.6 (12.1, 22.5) vs. 12.5 (9.5, 16.7); = 0.044]. Patients with cardiac injury presented higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, high-sensitivity troponin I, lactate dehydrogenase, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide than those without cardiac injury, although these indexes were within the normal range for all recovered patients at the 6-month follow-up. Among patients with cardiac injury, patients with positive late gadolinium enhancement presented higher cardiac biomarker (high-sensitivity troponin I) and inflammatory factor (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) on admission than the late gadolinium enhancement-negative subgroup. Our preliminary 6-month follow-up study with a limited number of patients revealed persistent cardiac involvement in 29.6% (8/27) of recovered patients from COVID-19 after discharge. Patients with cardiac injury during hospitalization were more prone to develop cardiac fibrosis during their recovery. Among patients with cardiac injury, those with relatively higher cardiac biomarkers and inflammatory factors on admission appeared more likely to have cardiac involvement in the convalescence phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.654405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8155269PMC
May 2021

Learning curve of robotic distal and total gastrectomy.

Br J Surg 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of General Surgery, Centre for Minimally Invasive Gastrointestinal Surgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background: This study aims to assess the learning curve of robotic distal gastrectomy (RDG) and robotic total gastrectomy (RTG) for gastric cancer.

Methods: Data on consecutive patients who underwent robotic gastrectomy for gastric cancer by five surgeons between March 2010 and August 2019 at two high-volume institutions were collected. The learning curve was determined based on the analyses of operation time and postoperative complications within 30 days. Cumulative sum analysis (CUSUM) and risk-adjusted-CUSUM (RA-CUSUM) were applied to identify the turning points (TPs).

Results: A total of 899 consecutive patients were included. The mean number of patients needed to overcome the learning curve for operation time of RDG and RTG were 22 and 20, respectively. The number of patients needed to overcome the learning curve for postoperative complications after RDG and RTG were 23 and 18, respectively. The surgical outcomes in the post-TP group were better than in the pre-TP group and improved as surgeons' experience increased. Also, increased case numbers in RDG promoted the RTG learning process.

Conclusion: The present study demonstrated a substantial influence of surgical cumulative volume on improved surgical outcomes in robotic gastrectomy. Increased experience in RDG may help surgeons to achieve proficiency faster in RTG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjs/znab152DOI Listing
May 2021

Therapeutic effect of a novel bioactive glass-ceramics on early caries lesions: a single-center, randomized controlled clinical trial.

Clin Oral Investig 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Department of oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610000, China.

Objectives: To investigate the therapeutic effect of a novel bioactive glass-ceramics (BGC) called Huaxi BGC (HX-BGC) on early caries lesions.

Materials And Methods: A total of 195 patients who meeting inclusion criteria were recruited and randomized to three groups in a 1:1:1 ratio. The patients in the treatment group received fluoride varnish which contained 5% sodium fluoride (NaF) or distilled water which contained 7.5% HX-BGC once a month for 3 months, and the control group received placebos. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) images were taken at baseline and at the 1-month and 3-month follow-ups.

Results: The three groups had similar baseline characteristics, including age, gender, and QLF parameters (ΔF, area, and ΔQ). Compared with baseline, the ΔQ values were significantly decreased in the HX-BGC and NaF groups at 1 and 3 months (p<0.005), while no statistically significant changes were found in that of the control group. After adjusting for baseline measurements, both of the 5% NaF and 7.5% HX-BGC showed a significant therapeutic effect in the treatment of initial enamel lesions at 1 month and 3 months, when compared to those receiving placebos (ΔQ, p<0.05). Moreover, the ΔQ value of the HX-BGC group decreased by a slightly more amount than that of the NaF group at 1 month (p=0.048). Similar trends were also found for the values of ΔF and area.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that HX-BGC may serve as a promising bioactive material for the treatment of early caries lesions.

Clinical Relevance: HX-BGC holds a great promise to be used as a novel bioactive material for the treatment of early caries lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-021-03993-7DOI Listing
May 2021

A Biomass-Based Integral Approach Enables Li-S Full Pouch Cells with Exceptional Power Density and Energy Density.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 May 24:e2101182. Epub 2021 May 24.

Institute of Solid State Physics, Leibniz University Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, Hannover, 30167, Germany.

Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, as part of the post-lithium-ion batteries (post-LIBs), are expected to deliver significantly higher energy densities. Their power densities, however, are today considerably worse than that of the LIBs, limiting the Li-S batteries to very few specific applications that need low power and long working time. With the rapid development of single cell components (cathode, anode, or electrolyte) in the last few years, it is expected that an integrated approach can maximize the power density without compromising the energy density in a Li-S full cell. Here, this goal is achieved by using a novel biomass porous carbon matrix (PCM) in the anode, as well as N-Co S nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the cathode. The authors' approach unlocks the potential of the electrodes and enables the Li-S full pouch cells with unprecedented power densities and energy densities (325 Wh kg and 1412 W kg , respectively). This work addresses the problem of low power densities in the current Li-S technology, thus making the Li-S batteries a strong candidate in more application scenarios.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202101182DOI Listing
May 2021

Retina Vascular Perfusion Dynamics During Exercise With and Without Face Masks in Healthy Young Adults: An OCT Angiography Study.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021 Mar;10(3):23

Eye Center, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Purpose: To determine possible impacts on retinal microvasculature in healthy young adults during exercise with a face mask, using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA).

Methods: Twenty-three healthy participants (23 eyes, 17 women and 6 men) performed the incremental continuous running test (ICRT) with different masks. OCTA of the macula and optic nerve head were performed before and after ICRT to detect changes in retinal vessel density (VD). All participants were in groups A, B, and C (before ICRT) and groups A', B', and C' (after ICRT), which comprised data from volunteers without a mask, with a surgical mask, and with an N95 mask, respectively.

Results: Before ICRT, group C showed significantly reduced VD in the superficial plexus (SP), except foveal VD, compared with group A (P < 0.05). After ICRT, groups B' and C' showed significantly shorter maximum running time, lower oxygen saturation, and lower perifoveal VD of SP compared with group A' (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Use of an N95 mask reduced VD in SP even under quiescent conditions, which might have clinical implications for protecting healthy workers and indoor manual labor workers from potential risks of retinal damage due to long-term mask use. Moreover, mask use while exercising might lead to attenuated exercise ability and lower VD in SP, which should be investigated in additional studies.

Translational Relevance: Retina vascular perfusion dynamics could be monitored in vivo by OCTA, which would be valuable to study physiologic retinal blood flow redistribution and potential impacts on retinal vascular perfusion during exercise with face masks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/tvst.10.3.23DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7991972PMC
March 2021

Axial intensity distribution of a micro-Fresnel zone plate at an arbitrary numerical aperture.

Opt Express 2021 Apr;29(8):12093-12109

The axial focus number (the number of focal spots along the axial direction) and focus intensity of a micro-Fresnel zone plate (FZP) are analyzed from deep ultraviolet to infrared using the Fourier decomposition, the vectorial angular spectrum (VAS) theory, and the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. For a low-numerical aperture (NA) micro-FZP (NA<0.1), there are multiple axial high-order foci, and the intensity of each focus decreases slowly. However, the intensity of each high-order focus decreases rapidly with NA increasing. For a relatively high-NA micro-FZP (NA>0.3), the axial high-order foci are suppressed and there is one single focus. A fast, precise, and cost-efficient additive manufacturing method, i.e. two-photon polymerization, is used to fabricate high-NA phase-type micro-FZPs. The experiment has validated the phenomenon of linear negative focal shift of a high-NA micro-FZP. This property can be particularly applied in precise measurement of micro-displacement, film thickness, micro/nano step height, and wavelength.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.419978DOI Listing
April 2021

High resolution and large sensing range liquid level measurement using phase-sensitive optic distributed sensor.

Opt Express 2021 Apr;29(8):11538-11547

Liquid level sensor with large sensing range and high-resolution is essential for the application of industry monitoring. In this work, a distributed optical fiber liquid level sensor is proposed and demonstrated based on phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry (φ-OTDR). In the basic of the thermal optic effect, the temperature change will induce the fluctuation of the effective refractive indexes of the fiber core, as well as the fluctuation of the optical path of the light transmitting in the fiber. Therefore, the φ-OTDR can detect the liquid level with a large measurement range by interrogating the phase information along the fiber due to the temperature difference between the liquid and air. Further, the scattering enhanced optical fiber (SEOF) is used as the sensing fiber to improve the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the phase signal. Moreover, a high sensitivity liquid level sensing head by wrapping the SEOF on a heat conductive cylinder is designed and optimized to improve the sensing resolution. In the experiment, the proposed distributed liquid level sensor presents a high sensitivity of 73.4 rad/mm, corresponding to a competitive liquid level resolution of 142μm based on the noise floor of 10.4 rad within 160 s. The field test validates a large sensing range of 20 cm which is limited by the cylinder length, while a potential sensing range could reach 320 m with the sensing fiber of 40 km, proving a dynamic range of 127.1 dB. The proposed liquid level sensor with large dynamic range and high sensing resolution can benefit potential application in smart industry platforms and biomedicine monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.412935DOI Listing
April 2021

Pan-cancer analysis reveals tumor-associated macrophage communication in the tumor microenvironment.

Exp Hematol Oncol 2021 May 10;10(1):31. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, China.

Background: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are abundant in the tumor microenvironment (TME). However, their contribution to the immunosuppressive status of the TME remains unclear.

Methods: We integrated single-cell sequencing and transcriptome data from different tumor types to uncover the molecular features of TAMs. In vitro experiments and prospective clinical tests confirmed the results of these analysis.

Results: We first detected intra- and inter-tumoral heterogeneities between TAM subpopulations and their functions, with CD86 TAMs playing a crucial role in tumor progression. Next, we focused on the ligand-receptor interactions between TAMs and tumor cells in different TME phenotypes and discovered that aberrant expressions of six hub genes, including FLI1, are involved in this process. A TAM-tumor cell co-culture experiment proved that FLI1 was involved in tumor cell invasion, and FLI1 also showed a unique pattern in patients. Finally, TAMs were discovered to communicate with immune and stromal cells.

Conclusion: We determined the role of TAMs in the TME by focusing on their communication pattern with other TME components. Additionally, the screening of hub genes revealed potential therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40164-021-00226-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8108336PMC
May 2021

The impact of age on anxiety in Covid-19 patients in quarantine wardwards.

Psychol Health Med 2021 May 11:1-6. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Baoding Second Hospital, Baoding, China.

This study aimed to explore which age group out of the patients in quarantine wards with novel coronavirus pneumonia is the most susceptible to anxiety. The data of 32 Covid-19 patients isolated in the quarantine wards of the second Infectious Diseases Department of Baoding Hospital and 71 Covid-19 patients in Tangshan City Infectious Disease Hospital from January 24 to March 5, 2020, a total of 103 patients, were analyzed. Among these patients, 97 isolated patients were scored with a self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) score seven days after quarantine, and the correlation between age and score was analyzed. These 97 isolated patients were then divided into three groups according to age: group A (up to 35 years old), group B (36-60 years), and group C (over 60 years). One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the scores among groups. The Q-test was used for pairwise comparison.P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.There was a negative correlation between age and SAS score in isolated Covid-19 patients, and the differences in the score among groups were statistically significant. Patients under 35 years old were more prone to anxiety when they were isolated for seven days. Isolated patients aged up to 35 years old need more attention from quarantine medical staff, communication should be strengthened, and psychological intervention from psychotherapists should be given if necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2021.1923763DOI Listing
May 2021

Gastric protein digestion of goat and cow milk infant formula and human milk under simulated infant conditions.

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2021 May 6:1-11. Epub 2021 May 6.

NIZO, Ede, The Netherlands.

The protein digestion kinetics of goat milk infant formula (GMF) is previously shown to be more comparable to that of human milk (HM) than cow milk infant formula (CMF). To evaluate whether gastric behaviour contributes to differences in protein digestion kinetics, fresh HM, a GMF and a CMF were subjected to gastric digestion simulating infant conditions. Coagulation behaviour, particle size distribution and viscosity of the digesta were evaluated. After centrifugation of the digesta, total solids and protein distribution, and protein hydrolysis in the cream, serum and pellet fraction were investigated. The GMF and CMF were in general similar with respect to physicochemical and protein breakdown properties. However, a number of notable differences in physicochemical behaviour were observed, which may contribute to faster initial protein digestion of GMF. HM behaved differently from both formulas. These differences provide new insights into the possibilities for improvement of infant formulas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2021.1921705DOI Listing
May 2021

Plasma-Derived Exosomal microRNA-130a Serves as a Noninvasive Biomarker for Diagnosis and Prognosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

J Oncol 2021 16;2021:5547911. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610000, China.

Exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) are considered as potential stable biomarkers in many types of human cancer, but investigations of plasma-derived exosomal miRNAs in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are still lacking. The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic values of exosomal miR-130a in OSCC patients. Exosomes were isolated from plasma samples which were collected from 184 OSCC patients before surgery and 196 healthy individuals. Primary OSCC and paired adjacent noncancerous tissues were also obtained from 47 OSCC patients. The expression levels of miR-130a were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results showed that the expression levels of exosomal miR-130a were significantly higher in OSCC patients than those of the healthy controls ( < 0.0001). Also, the expression of miR-130a was also significantly upregulated in OSCC tissues compared with paired adjacent noncancerous tissues ( < 0.0001). A significant positive correlation was found between exosomal miR-130a and tissue miR-130a levels. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses yielded an AUC value of 0.812 in discriminating OSCC patients from healthy controls. Furthermore, high levels of exosomal miR-130a were associated with the late T-stage (=0.024), advanced TNM stage (=0.003), and poorly differentiated OSCC (=0.013). Patients with high exosomal miR-130a expression had significantly worse 3-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). Multivariate analysis indicated that exosomal miR-130a was an independent prognostic factor for OS (=0.001) and RFS (=0.003). Our results suggest that exosomal miR-130a may serve as a promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for OSCC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5547911DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8068531PMC
April 2021

Randomized clinical trial assessing anti-gingivitis efficacy of two stannous fluoride dentifrices and zinc/arginine dentifrice.

Am J Dent 2021 Apr;34(2):110-115

Faculty of Dental Medicine of the Hebrew University and Hadassah University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.

Purpose: To evaluate the anti-gingivitis efficacy of two bioavailable stannous fluoride (SnF2) dentifrices versus a zinc/arginine dentifrice and a negative control dentifrice, and to compare the plaque control benefits.

Methods: This was a single-center, randomized, controlled, four-treatment, parallel-group, double-blind, 3-month clinical trial. Healthy adult subjects with gingivitis were randomly assigned to one of four different dentifrice treatment groups: SnF2 dentifrice A, SnF2 (1,100 ppm F) + sodium fluoride (350 ppm F) + sodium hexametaphosphate (Procter & Gamble); SnF2 dentifrice B, SnF2 (1,100 ppm F) + sodium fluoride (350 ppm F) + citrate (Procter & Gamble); Zn/Arg dentifrice, zinc/arginine + sodium fluoride (1,450 ppm F) (Colgate-Palmolive); negative control dentifrice, sodium monofluoro-phosphate (1,000 ppm F) + sodium fluoride (450 ppm F) (Colgate-Palmolive). Subjects brushed with their assigned treatment dentifrice and an assigned manual toothbrush (Oral-B Indicator) for 1 minute, twice daily, for the duration of the study. Gingivitis was assessed at Baseline and at Weeks 2, 4 and 12 by calculating the total number of gingival bleeding sites using the Gingival Bleeding Index, and plaque was assessed at Baseline and at Week 12 using the Turesky Modified Quigley-Hein Index. A repeated measures model was carried out across Weeks 2, 4, and 12 to determine bleeding efficacy (total number of bleeding sites). An ANCOVA with baseline plaque as the covariate was used to evaluate plaque efficacy at Week 12.

Results: 161 subjects were randomized (mean age= 38.8 years). 154 subjects completed the study and 153 had evaluable data at Week 12. The mean (SD) number of Baseline bleeding sites overall was 78.74 (31.16) with no significant difference between groups (P= 0.537). SnF2 dentifrice A significantly reduced the number of bleeding sites relative to the negative control dentifrice at Weeks 2, 4 and 12 by 15.4%, 13.7% and 17.2%, respectively. SnF2 dentifrice B significantly reduced the number of bleeding sites relative to the negative control dentifrice at Week 4 by 13.9% (P= 0.041). Relative to the Zn/Arg dentifrice, SnF2 dentifrice A produced significantly greater reductions in gingival bleeding sites at Weeks 2, 4 and 12 by 23.4%, 17.2% and 20.9%, respectively (P≤ 0.007). SnF2 dentifrice B produced significantly greater bleeding reductions versus the Zn/Arg dentifrice at Weeks 4 and 12 by 17.4% and 14.4%, respectively (P≤ 0.035). The Zn/Arg dentifrice did not differ significantly in the number of bleeding sites (P≥ 0.127) or plaque (P= 0.175) relative to the negative control dentifrice. Both SnF2 dentifrices significantly reduced plaque levels (P≤ 0.029) relative to both negative control dentifrice and Zn/Arg dentifrice at Week 12. All dentifrices were well tolerated.

Clinical Significance: Two different SnF2 dentifrices showed significantly reduced gingival bleeding and plaque levels relative to a Zn/arginine dentifrice.
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April 2021

A clinical study to assess the gingivitis reduction efficacy of a novel stannous-containing fluoride dentifrice.

Am J Dent 2021 Apr;34(2):87-90

Procter & Gamble, Beijing Innovation Center, Beijing, China.

Purpose: To assess the gingivitis reduction efficacy of a novel stannous-containing fluoride dentifrice relative to a negative control.

Methods: 100 generally healthy adults with 10 or more gingival bleeding sites based on the Mazza Modification of the Papillary Bleeding Index (Mazza GI) were enrolled into a 2-week randomized, controlled, double-blind, single-center, two-treatment, parallel group clinical study. The subjects were randomly assigned to the stannous-containing dentifrice group (experimental group) or the sodium fluoride dentifrice group (negative control group). An oral examination and Mazza GI examination were conducted at Baseline, Day 3 and Week 2 post-baseline by a qualified dental examiner.

Results: 98 subjects completed the study. The experimental group provided a significant reduction in Mazza GI scores and number of bleeding sites relative to baseline at Day 3 and Week 2 (P< 0.0001). The negative control did not provide significant reductions versus baseline for either measure at either timepoint (P> 0.3). At Day 3, the experimental group provided a statistically significant reduction of Mazza GI scores and number of bleeding sites compared with the negative control group (P< 0.0001). At Week 2, the experimental group showed 24.11% lower Mazza GI scores and 54.81% fewer bleeding sites than the negative control group (P< 0.0001).

Clinical Significance: The results demonstrated that the novel stannous-containing fluoride dentifrice had a superior anti-gingivitis effect compared to the sodium fluoride negative control dentifrice, which was evident as quickly as 3 days after use and further improved after 2 weeks of usage.
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April 2021

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Complicated with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Case Rep Cardiol 2021 11;2021:6633085. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Cardiology, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan 610072, China.

A 32-year-old female with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) for more than 7 years, and long-term treatment with cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine, methotrexate, and tacrolimus, later found to be combined with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) for one year. The patient denied a family history of cardiomyopathy and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Echocardiography suggested that uneven thickening of the left ventricle (LV), mainly in the lower middle segment. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) showed that the walls of the left ventricular (LV) were significantly thickened, as about 21 mm, mainly in the middle and lower segments. Genetic tests showed no known or suspected pathogenic variations were found and no significant enhancement in CMR, so secondary HCM was diagnosed clinically. After symptomatic treatment, the patient was discharged, and long-term follow-up was conducted. The diagnosis of HCM, which combined with SLE or second to usage of tacrolimus, was based on symptoms, echocardiography, and CMR; no endomyocardial biopsies were performed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6633085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8055423PMC
April 2021

Fc-GDF15 glyco-engineering and receptor binding affinity optimization for body weight regulation.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 26;11(1):8921. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

BioMedicine Design, Pfizer Inc., 610 N Main Street, Cambridge, MA, USA.

GDF15 is a distant TGF-β family member that induces anorexia and weight loss. Due to its function, GDF15 has attracted attention as a potential therapeutic for the treatment of obesity and its associated metabolic diseases. However, the pharmacokinetic and physicochemical properties of GDF15 present several challenges for its development as a therapeutic, including a short half-life, high aggregation propensity, and protease susceptibility in serum. Here, we report the design, characterization and optimization of GDF15 in an Fc-fusion protein format with improved therapeutic properties. Using a structure-based engineering approach, we combined knob-into-hole Fc technology and N-linked glycosylation site mutagenesis for half-life extension, improved solubility and protease resistance. In addition, we identified a set of mutations at the receptor binding site of GDF15 that show increased GFRAL binding affinity and led to significant half-life extension. We also identified a single point mutation that increases p-ERK signaling activity and results in improved weight loss efficacy in vivo. Taken together, our findings allowed us to develop GDF15 in a new therapeutic format that demonstrates better efficacy and potential for improved manufacturability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87959-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8076310PMC
April 2021

Krüppel-like factor 7 protects retinal ganglion cells and promotes functional preservation via activating the Akt pathway after retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Exp Eye Res 2021 Jun 21;207:108587. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Eye Center, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, 238 Jiefang Road, Wuhan, 430060, Hubei Province, China. Electronic address:

Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Krüppel-like factor 7 (KLF7) on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and retinal function after retinal ischemia-reperfusion (RIR) injury in mice.

Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were intravitreally injected with recombinant adeno-associated vectors (rAAV-KLF7-EGFP or rAAV-EGFP), and subsequently used to induce RIR injury. Retinal cryosections were used to access the efficacy of virus transfection, 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after rAAV-KLF7-EGFP transfer. RGCs survival rate was observed and quantified by immunofluorescent staining, 7 days after RIR injury. Meanwhile, electroretinogram (ERG) and optomotor response were used to evaluate the electrophysiological functions and visual acuity. Apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL staining 1 day after RIR injury. Expression of KLF7, Akt, phospho-Akt, Bcl-2, and Bax were further detected by western blot to excavate the underlying mechanism.

Results: The transfection efficiency of rAAV-KLF7-EGFP was increased in a time-dependent manner, and the number of EGFP-positive cells was increased significantly 3 weeks after rAAV-KLF7-EGFP transfer. RGCs survival rates, amplitudes of ERG a-, b-wave, Ops, PhNR, and visual acuity of mice were decreased after RIR injury. With the increase of light intensity, the amplitudes of scotopic ERG a- and b-wave were gradually increased while the incubation period was gradually shortened. RGCs survival rates, amplitudes of ERG a-, b-wave, Ops, PhNR, and visual acuity of mice were increased after rAAV-KLF7-EGFP transfer. The protein level of KLF7 was up-regulated after rAAV-KLF7-EGFP transfer. Up-regulation of KLF7 significantly inhibited cells apoptosis, increased phospho-Akt and Bcl-2 expression, and decreased Bax expression. There were no significant changes in Akt expression.

Conclusion: Overexpression of KLF7 can not only prevent the loss of RGCs, but also preserve the electrophysiological function. In addition, overexpression of KLF7 can ameliorate the retinal dysfunction after RIR injury, and ultimately improve the visual acuity of mice. The activation of Akt pathway and the suppression of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway contribute to the neuroprotection of KLF7.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2021.108587DOI Listing
June 2021

Highly Enantioselective Synthesis of Pyrroloindolones and Pyrroloquinolinones via an -Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Cascade Reaction.

Org Lett 2021 May 23;23(9):3777-3781. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

In this work, the NHC-catalyzed Michael/Mannich/lactamization cascade reaction of enals with either indole-2-carboxaldehyde-derived aldimines or indole-7-carboxaldehyde-derived aldimines is described. This protocol enables the rapid assembly of optically active pyrroloindolones and pyrroloquinolinones derivatives under mild conditions with high yields, excellent enantioselectivities, and a broad substrate scope.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c01203DOI Listing
May 2021

A nontoxic dose of chrysotile can malignantly transform Met-5A cells, in which microRNA-28 has inhibitory effects.

J Appl Toxicol 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

School of Public Health, Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou, China.

Chrysotile, which is classified as a class I carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), has extensive application in the industry and can lead to lung or other cancers. However, whether chrysotile causes malignant mesothelioma and its molecular mechanism remain debatable. Thus, this study aimed to demonstrate the mesothelioma-inducing potential of chrysotile at the mesothelial cellular level and the function of microRNA-28 in malignantly transformed mesothelial MeT-5A cells. MeT-5A cells malignantly transformed by a nontoxic dose of chrysotile were named Asb-T, and miR-28 expression was downregulated in Asb-T cells. Restoration of miR-28 expression inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of Asb-T cells. We verified that IMPDH is a putative target of miR-28. The expression of IMPDH was significantly higher in Asb-T MeT-5A cells than in control cells, whereas the opposite trend was observed with miR-28 overexpression. Additionally, inhibition of IMPDH had similar effects as miR-28 overexpression. After miR-28 was elevated or IMPDH was inhibited, Ras activation was reduced, and its downstream pathways (the Erk and Akt signalling pathways) were inhibited. Surprisingly, the content of miR-28 in the blood of mesothelioma patients was higher than that in control subjects. Overall, nontoxic doses of chrysotile can cause malignant transformation of MeT-5A cells. Moreover, miR-28 inhibits the proliferation, migration and invasion of Asb-T MeT-5A cells, negatively regulates the expression of IMPDH through the Ras signalling pathway and may be an important therapeutic target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jat.4174DOI Listing
April 2021

Drug-coated balloon angioplasty versus balloon angioplasty for treating patients with in-stent restenosis in the femoropopliteal artery: A meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(16):e25599

Department of Geriatrics, Wuhan Central Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: The introduction of endovascular surgery has led to frequent stent use, although in-stent restenosis (ISR) remains a challenging issue. Drug-coated balloon (DCB) and conventional balloon angioplasty (BA) are common endovascular procedures for addressing ISR in the femoropopliteal artery. However, there is controversy regarding which procedure provides the greatest benefit to patients.

Methods: The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched for prospective controlled trials that compared DCB and BA for patients with ISR in the femoropopliteal artery. The study has been approved by Ethics Committee of Wuhan Central Hospital.

Results: The meta-analysis included 6 prospective trials with 541 patients. We found that DCB use was associated with significant reductions in binary restenosis at 6 months (relative risk [RR]: 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.33-0.63; P < .00001), binary restenosis at 1 year (RR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.34-0.57; P < .00001), target lesion revascularization (TLR) at 6 months (RR: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.20-0.65; P = .0006), and TLR at 1 year (RR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.27-0.54; P < .00001). The DCB group also had significantly better clinical improvement (RR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.13-1.71; P = .002), although we did not detect inter-group differences in terms of death, target vessel thrombosis, or ipsilateral amputation. The brand of DCB may a cause of heterogeneity.

Conclusion: Relative to BA, DCB use increases the durability of treatment for ISR in the femoropopliteal artery, based on significant reductions in binary restenosis and TLR at 6-12 months after the procedure. Furthermore, DCB use was associated with better clinical improvement. However, additional randomized controlled trials are needed to validate these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078449PMC
April 2021

Hydrogel from acellular porcine adipose tissue promotes survival of adipose tissue transplantation.

Biomed Mater 2021 Apr 30;16(4). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Breast Surgery, Clinical Research Center for Breast, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China.

Lipofilling is a popular technique for soft tissue augmentation, limited by unpredictable graft survival. This study aimed at exploring the effect of hydrogel from acellular porcine adipose tissue (HAPA) on angiogenesis and survival of adipose tissue used for lipofilling. The effect of HAPA on adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) proliferation, adipogenic differentiation, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion were evaluated in hypoxia and normoxia. For thestudy, adipose tissue with phosphate buffered saline, ADSCs, and HAPA (with or without ADSCs) were co-injected subcutaneously into nude mice. HAPA-ADSCs mixture (tissue engineering adipose tissue) was also grafted. Gross observation, volume measurement, and ultrasound observation were assessed. For histological assessment, hematoxylin and eosin, perilipin, cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31), Ki67, and transferase-mediated d-UTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) staining were performed. HAPA improved ADSCs proliferation, VEGF secretion, and adipogenic differentiation under normoxia and hypoxia conditionsstudy. For thestudy, HAPA showed improved volume retention and angiogenesis, and reduced cell apoptosis when compared to ADSCs-assisted lipofilling and pure lipofilling. In conclusion, HAPA could maintain ADSCs viability and improve cell resistant to hypoxia and might be a promising biomaterial to assist lipofilling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-605X/abf982DOI Listing
April 2021

Employment of Artificial Intelligence Based on Routine Laboratory Results for the Early Diagnosis of Multiple Myeloma.

Front Oncol 2021 29;11:608191. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Haematology Department of Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Objective: In order to enhance the detection rate of multiple myeloma and execute an early and more precise disease management, an artificial intelligence assistant diagnosis system is developed.

Methods: 4,187 routine blood and biochemical examination records were collected from Shengjing Hospital affiliated to China Medical University from January 2010 to January 2020, which include 1,741 records of multiple myeloma (MM) and 2,446 records of non-myeloma (infectious diseases, rheumatic immune system diseases, hepatic diseases and renal diseases). The data set was split into training and test subsets with the ratio of 4:1 while connecting hemoglobin, serum creatinine, serum calcium, immunoglobulin (A, G and M), albumin, total protein, and the ratio of albumin to globulin data. An early assistant diagnostic model of MM was established by Gradient Boosting Decision Tree (GBDT), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Deep Neural Networks (DNN), and Random Forest (RF). Out team calculated the precision and recall of the system. The performance of the diagnostic model was evaluated by using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.

Results: By designing the features properly, the typical machine learning algorithms SVM, DNN, RF and GBDT all performed well. GBDT had the highest precision (92.9%), recall (90.0%) and F1 score (0.915) for the myeloma group. The maximized area under the ROC (AUROC) was calculated, and the results of GBDT (AUC: 0.975; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.963-0.986) outperformed that of SVM, DNN and RF.

Conclusion: The model established by artificial intelligence derived from routine laboratory results can accurately diagnose MM, which can boost the rate of early diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.608191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8039367PMC
March 2021

Technical note: multi-alleles at the DYS385ab locus with high frequency in a Han Chinese population from southwestern China.

Int J Legal Med 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Laboratory of Forensic DNA, the Judicial Authentication Center, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, 646000, Sichuan, China.

Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) markers have been widely used in forensic applications and usually show monoallelic or diallelic genotypic patterns at certain double-copied loci. In this study, we have found 13 samples among 703 males with multi-alleles at the DYS385ab locus, including one with five mutant alleles, nine with four, and three with three. The frequency of abnormal DYS385ab genotypes was 1.85% (13/703), which is very high in the Han Chinese population. The percentage of samples with diallelic patterns at DYS385ab was higher than that of monoallelic patterns (80.23% vs. 17.92%). Additionally, the percentage of samples with tetra-allelic patterns at DYS385ab was higher than that of tri-allelic patterns (1.28% vs. 0.43%), suggesting that there are possibly two copies with duplicated events happening frequently on the Y chromosome. Interestingly, the peak height of allele 13 was two to three-folds higher than that of other alleles. The allele 18 peak height was also two-fold higher than others, which could potentially be explained by a duplication event mechanism. We also found that tri-allelic genotypes for alleles 13, 17, and 20, tetra-allelic genotypes for alleles 13, 14, 19, and 20, and tetra-allelic genotypes for alleles 12, 13, 19 and 21 were more common than others. Furthermore, all 13 samples had multi-alleles containing allele 13, implying a founder effect in this particular Chinese-specific ethnic group. Taken together, this study provides new information for this population and will be useful for paternal lineage identification, kinship analysis, and family relationship reconstruction using Y-STR forensic DNA analysis methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00414-021-02592-1DOI Listing
April 2021

Adsorption characteristics of methylene blue by a dye-degrading and extracellular polymeric substance -producing strain.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 7;288:112446. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Biology and the Environment, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, 210037, China; School of Environmental Science, Nanjing XiaoZhuang University, Nanjing, 211171, China. Electronic address:

Biosorption of dye by microbes and the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were of great environmental significance, especially for the dye-degrading and EPS-producing strain. Previous studies were mainly focused on the adsorption capacities and regeneration properties of pure culture, few were on the biosorption of dyes by the dye-degraders and the contributions of EPS on adsorption. In this study, a dye-degrading and EPS-producing strain i.e., Klebsiella oxytoca was used to evaluate its removal capacity to methylene blue. The maximum adsorption capacity (q) by the strain was calculated as 145 mg g, which is superior to many reported bio-adsorbents and some synthetic materials. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results suggested that CO, -NH and P-OH groups were involved in the adsorption. High pressure steam sterilization (HPSS) increased the hydrophilicity of cell wall but did not significantly change the cell structure. Compared with the dead resting cell (DRC), the relative higher q obtained by live resting cell (LRC) possibly due to the loss of some cell structure during the HPSS process. Adsorption experiments by EPS-free LRC, confocal laser microscope and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy results confirmed that the EPS played a role in the adsorption of MB dye. The adsorption characteristics of the dye-degrader and the contributions of EPS on adsorption were investigated in detail in this study. The results were benefit for better understanding of the interaction mechanisms between the dye molecules and cells that before the biodegradation process, which were of great significance for the practical usage of residual sludge on removal of dyes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112446DOI Listing
June 2021

Effects of inorganic and organic selenium sources on the growth performance of broilers in China: A meta-analysis.

Open Life Sci 2021 20;16(1):31-38. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Plant Quarantine, College of Life Science, Jiamusi University, Jiamusi, China.

This study aims to investigate the effects of different selenium (Se) sources on the growth performance of Chinese broilers and provide a scientific rationale for adding Se additives to broiler feed. Relevant studies that meet standard inclusion criteria were identified and extracted from China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang and Chinese Scientific Journal (VIP) databases. A total of 9 studies with 539 subjects were included. A meta-analysis was performed with STATA15.0 to estimate the combined standardized mean difference (SMD) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Heterogeneity test of articles was examined by Q-test, and the results showed that values of feed conversion ratio, average daily gain (ADG), and average daily intake were all less than 0.05, suggesting a strong heterogeneity among the selected literature. Therefore, the random effect model is selected to calculate the SMD of the three indexes. The combined SMDs (95% CI) of feed:gain, ADG, and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were -0.39 (-1.03, 0.25), 0.26 (-0.29, 0.81), and -1.45 (-3.09, 0.20), respectively, and the values were all less than 0.05. This study shows that the absolute differences in the growth performance (feed:gain, ADG, and ADFI) of broilers fed with either organic or inorganic Se supplements at the same dose were quite small. The values of Egger's test were 0.770, 0.089, and 0.426, respectively, for the above indexes, showing no significant publication bias. Sensitivity analysis ensured the stability and reliability of the results. In summary, the effects of organic and inorganic Se in feed on the growth performance of broilers are statistically equal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/biol-2021-0007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7874554PMC
January 2021

Assessment of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants for the management of left ventricular thrombus.

Clin Cardiol 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Although several studies have assessed the effect of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) relative to that of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in patients with left ventricular thrombus, the results remain controversial. Herein, a meta-analysis was performed to compare the effectiveness and safety of NOACs versus VKAs for the treatment of left ventricular thrombus. We systematically searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed and Embase databases until November 2020 for studies that compared the effects of NOACs versus VKAs in patients with left ventricular thrombus. The treatment effects were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and pooled by a random-effects model. Seven retrospective studies involving 865 patients with left ventricular thrombus (266 NOAC and 599 VKA users) were included. The pooled analysis suggested no difference in the rate of thrombus resolution between the NOAC and VKA groups (OR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.61-1.13). There were also no differences in the rates of stroke or systemic embolism (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.20-1.97), bleeding events (OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.37-1.45), or all-cause death (OR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.50-1.69) between patients treated with NOACs and those treated with VKAs. In addition, the rates of thrombus resolution, stroke or systemic embolism, bleeding events, and all-cause death between NOAC- and warfarin-treated patients were also similar. Our current evidence suggested that NOAC and VKA users had similar rates of thrombus resolution and clinical outcomes among patients with left ventricular thrombus. Further large-scale prospective studies should confirm our results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clc.23553DOI Listing
April 2021

Integrating non-targeted metabolomics and toxicology networks to study the mechanism of Esculentoside A-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2021 Mar 31:e22761. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Liangxiang Town, Fangshan District, Beijing, China.

Esculentoside A (EsA) is a kind of triterpenoid saponins from the root tuber of Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. It has extensive medicinal activity, such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, immune regulation, and cell proliferation inhibition. However, some researches suggested that EsA can cause hepatotoxicity, whose mechanism is not precise. To ensure the safety and reliability in the clinical use of Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., it is necessary to establish a rapid and accurate method to evaluate the toxicity, analyze and verify the toxicity mechanism of EsA. Therefore, this research explored the mechanism of hepatotoxicity induced by EsA in rats and analyzed endogenous metabolites' changes in rat plasma by combining network toxicology with non-targeted metabolomics. We obtained 58 critical targets of EsA induced hepatotoxicity in rats based on the strategy of network toxicology, including albumin, mitogen-activated protein kinase 1, Caspase-3, etc. Many important pathways were obtained by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis, such as HIF-1 signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway, IL-17 signaling pathway, and other concerning pathways. Sixteen biomarkers, including 5-hydroxykynurenamine, N-acetylserotonin, palmitic acid, etc., were screened from rat plasma using Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS), mainly involve Glycerophospholipid metabolism, Tryptophan metabolism, and other metabolic pathways. Further analysis showed that EsA may induce liver injury by activating oxidative stress and energy metabolism disorders, triggering inflammation and apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbt.22761DOI Listing
March 2021

Comparing the 7th and 8th editions of UICC/AJCC staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the IMRT era.

BMC Cancer 2021 Mar 30;21(1):327. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Head and Neck Oncology, Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, and the Department of Radiation Oncology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 37 Guo Xue Alley, Chengdu, Sichuan, PR China.

Background: To compare the prognostic value of 7th and 8th editions of the Union for International Cancer Control/American Joint Committee on Cancer (UICC/AJCC) staging system for patients with nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy and simultaneous integrated boost- intensity-modulated radiation therapy (SIB-IMRT).

Methods: Patients with NPC (n = 300) who received SIB-IMRT were included. Survival by T-classification, N-classification, and stage group of each staging system was assessed.

Results: For T-classification, nonsignificant difference was observed between T1 and T3 and between T2 and T3 disease (P = 0.066 and 0.106, respectively) for overall survival (OS) in the 7th staging system, whereas all these differences were significant in the 8th staging system (all P < 0.05). The survival curves for disease-free survival (DFS) and locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS) in both staging systems were similar, except for the comparison of T2 and T4 disease for LRRFS (P = 0.070 for 7th edition; P = 0.011 for 8th edition). For N-classification, significant differences were observed between N2 and N3 diseases after revision (P = 0.046 and P = 0.043 for OS and DFS, respectively). For staging system, no significant difference was observed between IVA and IVB of 7th edition.

Conclusion: The 8th AJCC staging system appeared to have superior prognosis value in the SIB-IMRT era compared with the 7th edition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-08036-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8011200PMC
March 2021

Pre-Procedural COVID-19 Nasopharyngeal Swab Has Good Concordance with Bronchoalveolar Lavage in Patients at Low Risk for Viral Infection.

Respiration 2021 30;100(6):510-514. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Section of Interventional Pulmonology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has drastically affected hospital and operating room (OR) workflow around the world as well as trainee education. Many institutions have instituted mandatory preoperative SARS-CoV-2 PCR nasopharyngeal swab (NS) testing in patients who are low risk for COVID-19 prior to elective cases. This method, however, is challenging as the sensitivity, specificity, and overall reliability of testing remains unclear.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the concordance of a negative NS in low risk preoperative patients with lower airway bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens obtained from the same patients.

Methods: We prospectively sent intraoperative lower airway BAL samples collected within 48 h of a negative mandatory preoperative NS for SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing. All adult patients undergoing a scheduled bronchoscopic procedure for any reason were enrolled, including elective and nonelective cases.

Results: One-hundred eighty-nine patients were included. All BAL specimens were negative for SARS-CoV-2 indicative of 100% concordance between testing modalities.

Conclusions: These results are promising and suggest that preoperative nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 testing provides adequate screening to rule out active COVID-19 infection prior to OR cases in a population characterized as low risk by negative symptom screening. This information can be used for both pre-procedural screening and when reintroducing trainees into the workforce.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000514928DOI Listing
March 2021

Adipogenesis in Biomaterials Without Cell Seeds: Current Status and Perspectives.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 8;9:647149. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Breast Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

For cosmetic and reconstructive purposes in the setting of small-volume adipose tissue damage due to aging, traumatic defects, oncological resections, and degenerative diseases, the current strategies for soft tissue replacement involve autologous fat grafts and tissue fillers with synthetic, bioactive, or tissue-engineered materials. However, they all have drawbacks such as volume shrinkage and foreign-body responses. Aiming to regenerate bioactive vascularized adipose tissue on biomaterial scaffolds, adipose tissue engineering (ATE) has emerged as a suitable substitute for soft tissue repair. The essential components of ATE include scaffolds as support, cells as raw materials for fat formation, and a tolerant local environment to allow regeneration to occur. The commonly loaded seeding cells are adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), which are expected to induce stable and predictable adipose tissue formation. However, defects in stem cell enrichment, such as donor-site sacrifice, limit their wide application. As a promising alternative approach, cell-free bioactive scaffolds recruit endogenous cells for adipogenesis. In biomaterials without cell seeds, the key to sufficient adipogenesis relies on the recruitment of endogenous host cells and continuous induction of cell homing to scaffolds. Regeneration, rather than repair, is the fundamental dominance of an optimal mature product. To induce adipogenesis, many researchers have focused on the mechanical and biochemical properties of scaffolds. In addition, efforts to regulate an angiogenic and adipogenic microenvironment in cell-free settings involve integrating growth factors or extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins onto bioactive scaffolds. Despite the theoretical feasibility and encouraging results in animal models, few of the reported cell-free biomaterials have been tested in humans, and failures of decellularized adipose tissues in adipogenesis have also been reported. In these cases, the most likely reason was the lack of supporting vasculature. This review summarizes the current status of biomaterials without cell seeds. Related mechanisms and influencing factors of adipogenesis in cell-free biomaterials, dilemma in the development of biomaterials, and future perspectives are also addressed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.647149DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7982583PMC
March 2021