Publications by authors named "Tanushree Prasad"

54 Publications

Perceptions and understanding about mesh and hernia surgery: What do patients really think?

Surgery 2021 Jan 15. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Division of Gastrointestinal and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC. Electronic address:

Background: Surgical mesh and hernia repair have come under increasing scrutiny with large amounts of press, Internet, and social media reportage regarding ongoing mesh litigation, recalls, and patient testimonials. The aim of this study was to evaluate patient perceptions of mesh in hernia surgery.

Methods: A 16-question survey was given to patients presenting for hernia surgery at a tertiary hernia center by trained data analysts before surgeon interaction.

Results: Two hundred and two patients were surveyed. Patients believed mesh caused complications (45.1%) and reported concerns about mesh (38.2%). Those who performed their own research, females, and patients with recurrent hernias were more likely to have concerns about mesh (P ≤ 0.03). Most patients (81.7%) thought they were at average risk or less for complications; patients with recurrent hernias (versus primary hernias) and incisional hernias (compared with inguinal or umbilical hernias) had more negative outlooks on complications (all P < .05). Recovery expectations varied, but the failed repair and incisional hernia groups were more likely to expect prolonged recovery (>3 months) (all P < .05). After surgeon-directed education and a mesh education handout, all but one patient agreed to and underwent a mesh repair as indicated.

Conclusion: Patients had concerns about mesh and were aware of mesh related complications. Patients performing their own research, as well as females and recurrent hernia patients, had worse perceptions of mesh. Recurrent and incisional hernia patients had greater concerns about complications, recurrence, and recovery. Preoperative education concerning mesh and mesh choice for each operation eased patient anxiety.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2020.12.001DOI Listing
January 2021

Age and discharge modified Rankin score are associated with 90-Day functional outcome after basilar artery occlusion treated with endovascular therapy.

Interv Neuroradiol 2021 Jan 7:1591019920987040. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Emergency Medicine, Neurosciences Institute, Atrium Health, Charlotte, USA.

Introduction: Prognostic factors for functional outcome after basilar artery occlusion (BAO) treated with modern endovascular therapy (EVT) are sparse. We investigated the association between clinical characteristics, readily available imaging variables, and outcome in BAO patients treated with EVT.

Methods: Retrospective analysis from a large healthcare system's prospectively collected code stroke registry of acute BAO patients treated with EVT between January 2017-January 2020. The primary outcome measure was a favorable 90-day modified Rankin score (mRS) of 0-2.

Results: 65 patients (median age 67 years, 57% male, median NIHSS 16) met the study inclusion criteria. Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) 2 b-3 revascularization was achieved in 57/65 patients (88%) with a median time to revascularization of 445 minutes [IQR 302-840]. Ninety-day good outcome was seen in 35% (23/65) of patients. In a univariate analysis, age, history of ischemic stroke, baseline NIHSS, BAO site, and discharge mRS were associated with significant differences between the good and poor outcome groups. A multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated an independent association with 90-day good outcome and younger age (per 1-year, OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.64, 0.98) and good discharge mRS (0-2) (OR > 999.99, 95% CI 13.26, > 999.99).

Conclusions: Patients presenting with an acute BAO treated with modern EVT have a good 90-day outcome in over one-third of cases. Age and discharge mRS are independently associated with good 90-day outcome. Additional studies may focus on factors that can enhance discharge function after BAO, a novel prognostic indicator for favorable 90-day outcome in our study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1591019920987040DOI Listing
January 2021

Preoperative patient opioid education, standardization of prescriptions, and their impact on overall patient satisfaction.

Surgery 2021 Mar 27;169(3):655-659. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Division of Gastrointestinal and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC. Electronic address:

Background: The opioid epidemic has reached a crisis level in America, and many institutions are implementing new guidelines to decrease opioid prescriptions. Although these may positively impact opioid addiction, its influence on patient satisfaction is inadequately described. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of standardized patient education and postoperative opioid regimens on patient satisfaction.

Methods: General surgery patients were counselled and given educational materials preoperatively regarding postoperative pain management. Inpatient discharge prescriptions were based on milligrams of oral narcotic required 24 hours before discharge. Outpatient procedure prescriptions were standardized. Postoperatively, patients received surveys regarding pain control and satisfaction.

Results: Of the 198 patients studied, 96% agreed or strongly agreed that they were satisfied with their pain control. 92% agreed or strongly agreed they received enough medication; 7% disagreed, and 1% strongly disagreed. Educational materials were evaluated with 97% agreeing or strongly agreeing they received appropriate information concerning when and what to take. Fifty-five patients (28%) refused opioids or did not take any. Only 10 (5%) requested a refill.

Conclusion: Preoperative education and standardized postoperative narcotic prescribing can be highly effective while maintaining high patient satisfaction. Introduction across broad fields of surgery will allow uniformity for surgeons, trainees, nurses, pharmacists, and patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2020.09.013DOI Listing
March 2021

Impact of panniculectomy in complex abdominal wall reconstruction: a propensity matched analysis in 624 patients.

Surg Endosc 2020 Oct 20. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Division of Gastrointestinal and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, 1025 Morehead Medical Drive, Suite 300, Charlotte, NC, 28204, USA.

Introduction: In complex abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR), the role of concomitant panniculectomy has been debated due to concern for increased wound complications that impact outcomes; however, long-term outcomes and quality of life (QOL) have not been well described. The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcomes and QOL in patients undergoing AWR with panniculectomy utilizing 3D volumetric-based propensity match.

Methods: A prospective database from a tertiary referral hernia center was queried for patients undergoing open AWR. 3D CT volumetrics were analyzed and a propensity match comparing AWR patients with and without panniculectomy was created including subcutaneous fat volume (SFV). QOL was analyzed using the Carolinas Comfort Scale.

Results: Propensity match yielded 312 pairs, all with adequate CT imaging for volumetric analysis. The panniculectomy group had a higher BMI (p = 0.03) and were more likely female (p < 0.0001), but all other demographics and comorbidities were similar. The panniculectomy group was more likely to have undergone prior hernia repair (77% vs 64%, p < 0.001), but hernia area, SFV, and CDC wound class were similar (all p > 0.05). Requirement of component separation (61% vs 50%, p = 0.01) and mesh excision (44% vs 35%, p = 0.02) were higher in the panniculectomy group, but operative time were similar (all p ≥ 0.05). Panniculectomy patients had a higher overall wound occurrence rate (45% vs 32%, p = 0.002) which was differentiated only by a higher rate of wound breakdown (24% vs 14%, p = 0.003); all other specific wound complications were equal (all p ≥ 0.05). Hernia recurrence rates were similar (8% vs 9%, p = 0.65) with an average follow-up of 28 months. Overall QOL was equal at 2 weeks, and 1, 6, and 12 months (all p ≥ 0.05).

Conclusions: Despite panniculectomy patients and their hernias being more complex, concomitant panniculectomy increased wound complications but did not negatively impact infection rates or long-term outcomes. Concomitant panniculectomy should be considered in appropriate patients to avoid two procedures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-08011-7DOI Listing
October 2020

Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair in the Geriatric Population : An Assessment of Long-Term Outcomes and Quality of Life.

Am Surg 2020 Aug 28;86(8):1015-1021. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Division of Gastrointestinal and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC, USA.

Objectives: Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR) has been shown to decrease wound complications and length of stay (LOS) but results in more postoperative discomfort. The benefits of LVHR for the growing geriatric population are unclear. The aim of our study is to evaluate long-term outcomes and quality of life (QOL) after LVHR in the geriatric population.

Methods: A prospectively collected single-center database was queried for all patients who underwent LVHR (1999-2019). Age groups were defined as <40 (young), 40-64 (middle age), and ≥65 years (geriatric). QOL was assessed with the Carolinas Comfort Scale.

Results: LVHR was performed in 1181 patients, of which 13.4% were young, 61.6% middle aged, and 25.0% geriatric. Hernia defect size (64.2 ± 94.4 vs 79.9 ± 102.4 vs 84.7 ± 110.0 cm) and number of comorbidities (2.2 ± 2.1 vs 3.2 ± 2.2 vs 4.3 ± 2.2) increased with age (all < .05). LOS increased with age (2.9 ± 2.5 vs 3.8 ± 2.9 vs 5.2 ± 5.3 days, < .0001). Rates of postoperative cardiac events, pneumonia, respiratory failure, wound complication, reoperation, and death were similar ( > .05). Geriatric patients had increased rate of ileus and urinary retention (all < .05). Overall recurrence rate was 5.7% with an average follow-up of 43.5 months, with no differences in recurrence between groups ( > .05). Geriatric patients had better overall QOL at 2 weeks ( = .0008) and similar QOL at 1, 6, and 12 months.

Discussion: LVHR offers excellent results in the geriatric population. Despite having increased rates of comorbidities and larger hernia defects, which may relate to LOS, rates of complications and recurrence were similar compared with younger cohorts, with better short-term QOL.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003134820942149DOI Listing
August 2020

Impact of perforator sparing on anterior component separation outcomes in open abdominal wall reconstruction.

Surg Endosc 2020 Aug 14. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Division of Gastrointestinal and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, 1025 Morehead Medical Drive, Suite 300, Charlotte, NC, 28204, USA.

Introduction: Anterior component separation (ACS) is a well-established, highly functional technique to achieve fascial closure in complex abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR). Unfortunately, ACS is also associated with an increased risk of wound complications. Perforator sparing ACS (PS-ACS) has more recently been introduced to maintain the subcutaneous perforators derived from the deep epigastric vessels. The aim of this study is to evaluate wound-related outcomes in patients undergoing open AWR after implementation of a PS-ACS technique.

Methods: A prospectively collected database were queried for patients who underwent open AWR and an ACS from 2006 to 2018. Patients who underwent PS-ACS were compared to patients undergoing ACS using standard statistical methods. Patients undergoing concomitant panniculectomy were included in the standard ACS group.

Results: In total, 252 patients underwent ACS, with 24 (9.5%) undergoing PS-ACS. Age and specific comorbidities were similar between groups (all p > 0.05) except for the PS-ACS groups having a higher rate of prior tobacco use (45.8% vs 19.6%, p = 0.003). Mean hernia defect area was 381.6 ± 267.0 cm with 64.3% recurrent hernias, and both were similar between groups (all p > 0.05). The PS-ACS group did have more complex wounds with more Ventral Hernia Working Group Grade 3 and 4 hernias (p = 0.04). OR time and length of stay were similar between groups (all p > 0.05). Despite increased complexity, wound complication rates were much lower in the PS-ACS group (20.8% vs 46.1%, p = 0.02), and all specific wound complications were lower but not statistically different. Hernia recurrence rate was similar between PS-ACS and ACS groups (4.2% vs 7.0%, p > 0.99) with mean follow-up of 27.7 ± 26.9 months.

Conclusions: In complex AWR, preservation of the deep epigastric perforating vessels during ACS significantly lowers the rates of wound complications, despite its performance in more complex patients with an increased risk of infection. PS-ACS should be performed preferentially over a standard ACS whenever possible.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-07888-8DOI Listing
August 2020

The CELIOtomy Risk Score: An effort to minimize futile surgery with analysis of early postoperative mortality after emergency laparotomy.

Surgery 2020 10 20;168(4):676-683. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Division of Acute Care Surgery, Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC. Electronic address:

Background: Emergency surgical services often encounter patients with generalized peritonitis. Difficult perioperative decisions impact morbidity, mortality, cost, and utilization of hospital resources. The ability to preoperatively predict patient nonsurvival despite surgical intervention using clinical physiologic indicators was the aim of this study and would be helpful in counseling patients/families.

Methods: A retrospective cohort from an institutional database was queried for nontrauma patients with peritonitis undergoing emergency laparotomy from 2012 to 2016. Time to mortality after surgery was compared: early (≤72 hours) versus late (>72 hours) and no death.

Results: After 534 emergency laparotomies, there were 74 (13.9%) mortalities. Of these, death occurred early (≤72 hours) after surgery in 28 (37.8%) patients and late (>72 hours) in 46 (62.2%). Early death patients had a significantly more deranged physiology, as evidenced by higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores (mean 28.1 ± 8.4 vs 22.9 ± 8.7, P = .01), worse acute kidney injury (preoperative creatinine 3.7 ± 3.2 vs 1.9 ± 1.4, P = .001), and greater level of acidosis (pH 7.19 ± 0.12 vs 7.27 ± 0.13, P = .017). Additionally, preoperative lactate was significantly increased in patients with early mortality (6.8 ± 4.1 vs 5.1 ± 4.0, P = .045). Using logarithmic regression, a nomogram was constructed using age, Glasgow Coma Scale, lactate, creatinine, and pH. This nomogram had an area under the curve of 0.908 on receiver operator curve analysis. A score of 13 equates to greater than 50% risk of early mortality after surgery.

Conclusion: Early mortality (≤72 hours after emergency laparotomy) is associated with decreased pH, elevated creatinine, and elevated lactate. These factors combined into the nomogram constructed may assist surgical teams with patient and family discussions to prevent futile surgical interventions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2020.05.037DOI Listing
October 2020

The impact of weight change on intra-abdominal and hernia volumes.

Surgery 2020 05 6;167(5):876-882. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Department of Gastrointestinal and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC. Electronic address:

Background: Weight loss is often encouraged or required before open ventral hernia repair. This study evaluates the impact of weight change on total, intra-abdominal, subcutaneous, and hernia volume.

Methods: Patients who underwent open ventral hernia repair from 2007 to 2018 with two preoperative computed tomography scans were identified. Scans were reviewed using 3D volumetric software. Demographics, operative characteristics, and outcomes were evaluated. The impact of weight change on intra-abdominal, subcutaneous, and hernia volume was assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficients and linear regression models.

Results: A total of 250 patients met the criteria with a mean defect area of 155.6 ± 155.4 cm, subcutaneous volume of 6,800.0 ± 3,868.8 cm, hernia volume of 915.7 ± 1,234.5 cm, intra-abdominal volume equaling 4,250.2 ± 2,118.1 cm, and time between computed tomography scans 13.9 ± 11.0 months. Weight change was associated with change in hernia, intra-abdominal, total, and subcutaneous volume (Spearman's correlation coefficients 0.17, 0.48, 0.51, 0.45, respectively, P ≤ 0.03 all values) and not associated in hernia length, width, or area (P ≥ 0.18 all values). A Δ5 kg was significantly associated with Δintra-abdominal volume (164.1 ± 30.0 cm/Δ5 kg,P < .0001), Δtotal volume (209.9 ± 33.0 cm/Δ5 kg, P < .0001), and Δsubcutaneous volume (234.4 ± 50.8 cm/Δ5 kg, P < .0001). Per Δ5 kg, male patients had more than double the Δintra-abdominal, Δtotal, and Δsubcutaneous volume than did female patients. A weight change of 5 kg to10 kg was associated with approximately double the change in computed tomography parameters/Δ5 kg than any weight change after 10 kg. Regardless of weight change, all measured hernia parameters increased over time, with mean hernia volume of +40.6 ± 94.9 cm/mo and area of +7.8 ± 13.3 cm/mo (Spearman's correlation coefficient -0.03 to 0.07, P value 0.37-0.96).

Conclusion: Weight change is linearly correlated with intra-abdominal and subcutaneous fat gain or loss. Males show greater abdominal-related response to weight gain or loss. Hernia dimensions increase over time regardless of weight change.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2020.01.007DOI Listing
May 2020

Correction to: Impact of age on morbidity and mortality following bariatric surgery.

Surg Endosc 2020 Sep;34(9):4193

Division of Gastrointestinal & Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC, USA.

This article was updated to correct the spelling of Nicholas Dugan's first name: it is correct as displayed here.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-07390-1DOI Listing
September 2020

Male gender is an independent risk factor for patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: an MBSAQIP® database analysis.

Surg Endosc 2020 Aug 18;34(8):3574-3583. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Division of Bariatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC, 28204, USA.

Background: Male patients undergoing bariatric surgery have (historically) been considered higher risk than females. The aim of this study was to examine the disparity between genders undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) procedures and assess gender as an independent risk factor.

Methods: The MBSAQIP® Data Registry Participant User Files for 2015-2017 was reviewed for patients having primary SG and RYGB. Patients were divided into groups based on gender and procedure. Variables for major complications were grouped together, including but not limited to PE, stroke, and MI. Univariate and propensity matching analyses were performed.

Results: Of 429,664 cases, 20.58% were male. Univariate analysis demonstrated males were older (46.48 ± 11.96 vs. 43.71 ± 11.89 years, p < 0.0001), had higher BMI (46.58 ± 8.46 vs. 45.05 ± 7.75 kg/m, p < 0.0001), and had higher incidence of comorbidities. Males had higher rates of major complications (1.72 vs. 1.05%; p < 0.0001) and 30-day mortality (0.18 vs. 0.07%, p < 0.0001). Significance was maintained after subgroup analysis of SG and RYGB. Propensity matched analysis demonstrated male gender was an independent risk factor for RYGB and SG, major complications [2.21 vs. 1.7%, p < 0.0001 (RYGB), 1.12 vs. 0.89%, p < 0.0001 (SG)], and mortality [0.23 vs. 0.12%, p < 0.0001 (RYGB), 0.10 vs. 0.05%; p < 0.0001 (SG)].

Conclusion: Males continue to represent a disproportionately small percentage of bariatric surgery patients despite having no difference in obesity rates compared to females. Male gender is an independent risk factor for major post-operative complications and 30-day mortality, even after controlling for comorbidities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-019-07106-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7224103PMC
August 2020

"Death Knell" for Prophylactic Vena Cava Filters? A 20-Year Experience with a Venous Thromboembolism Guideline.

Am Surg 2019 Aug;85(8):806-812

The role of prophylactic vena cava filters (pVCFs) in trauma patients remains controversial. After 20 years of data collection and experience, we reviewed our venous thromboembolism guideline for the efficacy of pVCFs in preventing pulmonary embolism (PE). A retrospective cohort study was performed using our Level I trauma center registry from January 1997 thru December 2016. This population was then divided by the presence of pVCFs. Univariate analysis was performed comparing the incidence of PEs, deep vein thrombosis, and mortality between those with and without a pVCF. There were 35,658 patients identified, of whom 2 per cent (n = 847) received pVCFs. The PE rate was 0.4 per cent in both groups. The deep vein thrombosis rate for pVCFs was 3.9 per cent compared with 0.6 per cent in the no-VCF group ( < 0.0001). Given that there was no difference in the rates of PEs between the cohorts, the subset of patients with a PE were analyzed by their risk factors. Only ventilator days > 3 were associated with a higher risk in the no-pVCF group (0.2 1.5%, = 0.033). pVCFs did not confer benefit reducing PE rate. In addition, despite their intended purpose, pVCFs cannot eliminate PEs in high-risk trauma patients, suggesting a lack of utility for prophylaxis in this population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
August 2019

The association of penicillin allergy with outcomes after open ventral hernia repair.

Surg Endosc 2020 Sep 3;34(9):4148-4156. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Division of Gastrointestinal and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC, 28204, USA.

Background: Up to 11% of patients report a penicillin allergy (PA), with 1-2% demonstrating a true IgE mediated allergy upon testing. PA patients often receive non-beta-lactam antibiotic surgical prophylaxis (non-BLP). This study evaluates the relationship of PA to outcomes after open ventral hernia repair (OVHR).

Methods: A prospective institutional database was queried for patients undergoing OVHR. Demographics, operative characteristics, and outcomes were evaluated by the reported PA and the administration of beta-lactam prophylaxis (BLP).

Results: Allergy histories were reviewed in 1178 patients. PA was reported in 21.6% of patients, with 55.5% reporting rash or hives, 15.0% airway compromise or anaphylaxis, and 29.5% no specific reaction. BLP was administered to 76.3% of patients, including 22.1% of PA patients and 89.9% of patients without PA. PA patients were more often female (64.6% PA patients vs. 56% non-PA, p = 0.01), with higher rates of chronic steroids, MRSA, anxiety, asthma, COPD, chronic pain, and sleep apnea (p < 0.03 all values). PA patients had higher rates of contaminated cases, including mesh infection and fistula. Of the 683 clean cases, 82.1% received BLP. Of the 117 clean contaminated cases (CDC wound class 2), 82.9% received BLP, which was associated with reduced long-term readmission for hernia complications (21.5 vs. 55%, p = 0.002, OR 0.27, CI 0.09-0.83). In the 120 CDC wound class 3 and 4 patients, 65.8% received BLP. In multivariate analysis, BLP was associated with lower rates of reoperation (OR 0.31, CI 0.12-0.76) and recurrence (OR 0.32, CI 0.11-0.86). BLP was given to 22.1% of the PA patients with no adverse reactions noted.

Conclusion: PA patients had more comorbidities and complex ventral hernias. When controlling for contamination and MRSA history, BLP is associated with improved outcomes particularly in contaminated cases. PA may be a risk factor for patient complexity, and further studies are warranted to determine if allergy testing can be warranted in known or anticipated contaminated cases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-019-07183-1DOI Listing
September 2020

Outcomes specific to patient sex after open ventral hernia repair.

Surgery 2020 03 26;167(3):614-619. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Department of Gastrointestinal and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC. Electronic address:

Background: Male and female hernia patients often have different surgical history, fat distribution, and medical comorbidities. Female surgical patients seemingly experience worse outcomes after open ventral hernia repair. This study evaluates the impact of sex and the distribution of abdominal adiposity on outcomes after open ventral hernia repair.

Methods: A prospective hernia database was queried for patients from 2007 to 2018 with a computed tomography within 1 year of open ventral hernia repair. Three-dimensional volumetric analysis was performed. Demographics, abdominal fat distribution, operative characteristics, and outcomes were evaluated by sex using univariate and multivariate analysis.

Results: A total of 1,178 patients were identified, 57.8% were female. Compared with males, females had higher mean body mass index (34.8 ± 8.5 vs 31.7 ± 6.4 kg/m, P < .0001), previous abdominal operations (3.3 ± 1.5 vs 2.6 ± 1.3, P < .0001), and preoperative chronic pain (33.5 vs 26.4%, P = .009). There was no difference in history of recurrence, age, steroid use, smoking, diabetes, or hernia volume between sexes (P ≥ .17 all values). Males had larger defects (168.1 ± 148.2 vs 138.8 ± 126.8 cm, P = .001) and intra-abdominal volume (intra-abdominal fat volume; 6,279 ± 2,614 vs 4,454 ± 2,196 cm, P < .0001). Females had larger subcutaneous fat volume (subcutaneous fat volume; 7,453 ± 6,600 vs 5,708 ± 3,275 cm, P < .0001), and ratio of hernia to intra-abdominal volume (hernia volume to intra-abdominal fat volume; 0.33 ± 0.52 vs 0.22 ± 0.42, P < .0001). On univariate analysis, females had higher rates of readmission, wound complication, and intervention for pain after open ventral hernia repair (P ≤ .02 all values). On multivariate analysis, females had shorter duration of stay (-1.36 day, standard error 0.49, P = .006) with higher readmission rate (odd ratio, 1.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-2.34).

Conclusion: Female hernia patients in our population are more comorbid, with higher body mass index, thicker subcutaneous fat volume and a higher ratio of hernia volume to intra-abdominal fat volume. These differences are associated with more extensive surgical intervention, such as panniculectomy and higher rates of adverse outcomes after open ventral hernia repair. However, these differences are not fully explained by identified comorbidities and warrant further investigation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2019.11.016DOI Listing
March 2020

Impact of age on morbidity and mortality following bariatric surgery.

Surg Endosc 2020 Sep 30;34(9):4185-4192. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Division of Gastrointestinal & Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC, USA.

Background: Bariatric surgery is the most effective modality to treat obesity and obesity-related comorbidities. This study sought to utilize the MBASQIP® Data Registry to analyze the impact of age at time of surgery on outcomes following sleeve gastrectomy (SG) or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) procedures.

Methods: The MBSAQIP® Data Registry for patients undergoing SG or RYGB procedures between 2015 and 2016 was reviewed. Patients were divided into 4 age groups [18-44; 45-54; 55-64; > 65 years]. Minimal exclusions for revisional and/or emergency surgery were selected and combination variables created to classify complications as major or minor. A comorbidity index was constructed to include diabetes, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and prior cardiac surgery. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to compare age stratifications to the young adult (18-45 years) cohort.

Results: Of 301,605 cases, 279,419 cases (71.2% SG) remained after applying exclusion criteria (79.2% female, mean BMI 45.5 ± 8.1 kg/m, 8.9% insulin-dependent diabetics). Mean age was 44.7 ± 12.0 years (51.3% 18-44 years; 26.9% 45-54 years; 16.3% 55-64 years; 5.5% > 65 years). A univariate analysis demonstrated preoperative differences of lower BMI with increasing age concomitant with increasing frequency of RYGB and a higher comorbidity index (p < 0.0001 vs. 18-45 years). At age > 45 years, major complications and 30-day mortality increased independent of procedure type (p < 0.0001). A multivariate analysis controlling for comorbidity indices demonstrated increasing age (> 45 years) increased risk for major complications and mortality.

Conclusion: Overall, bariatric surgery (SG or RYGB) remains a low mortality risk procedure for all age groups. However, all age group classifications > 45 years had higher incidence of major complications and mortality compared to patients 18-45 years (despite older individuals having lower preoperative BMI) indicating delaying surgery is detrimental.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-019-07201-2DOI Listing
September 2020

Sarcopenia in Patients Undergoing Open Ventral Hernia Repair.

Am Surg 2019 Sep;85(9):985-991

Radiologic indicators of sarcopenia have been associated with adverse operative outcomes in some surgical populations. This study assesses the association of radiologic indicators of frailty with outcomes after open ventral hernia repair (OVHR). A prospective, institutional, hernia-specific database was queried for patients undergoing OVHR from 2007 to 2018 with preoperative CT. Psoas muscle cross-sectional area at L3 was measured and adjusted for height (skeletal muscle index (SMI)). L3 vertebral body density (L3 VBD) was measured. Demographics and outcomes were evaluated as related to SMI and L3 VBD. Of 1178 patients, 9.7 per cent of females and 15.8 per cent of males had sarcopenia and 11.6 per cent of females and 9.2 per cent of males had osteopenia. Neither sarcopenia nor osteopenia were associated with outcomes of wound infection, readmission, reoperation, hernia recurrence, or major complications. When examined as continuous variables or by quartile, SMI and L3 VBD were not associated with adverse outcomes, including in subsets of male or female patients, the elderly, contaminated cases, and the obese. Radiologic markers of sarcopenia and osteopenia are not associated with adverse outcomes after OVHR. Further study should examine age or other potential predictors of outcomes in this patient population, such as independent status.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
September 2019

Too big to breathe: predictors of respiratory failure and insufficiency after open ventral hernia repair.

Surg Endosc 2020 Sep 21;34(9):4131-4139. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Department of Gastrointestinal and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC, 28204, USA.

Introduction: Increased intra-abdominal pressure in open ventral hernia repair (OVHR) is hypothesized to contribute to postoperative respiratory insufficiency (RI) or failure (RF). This study examines the impact of abdominal volumes on postoperative RI in OVHR.

Methods: OVHR patients with preoperative CT scans were identified. 3D volumetric software measured hernia volume (HV), subcutaneous volume (SQV), and intra-abdominal volume (IAV). The ratio of hernia to intra-abdominal volume (HV:IAV) was calculated. A principal component analysis was performed to create new component variables for collinear volume and hernia variables.

Results: There were 1178 OVHR patients with preoperative CT scans. Demographics included a mean BMI of 34.2 ± 7.7 kg/m, age of 58.5 ± 12.4 years, and 57.8% were female. RI occurred in 8.3% of patients, including 4.0% requiring > 24 h respiratory support with ezPAP, CPAP, or biPAP (RI), and 4.3% requiring intubation (RF). Patients who developed RI had a higher BMI (33.8 ± 7.5 vs. 38.2 ± 9.1 kg/m, p < 0.0001), older age (58.1 ± 12.5 vs. 62.8 ± 10.4 years, p = 0.0001), larger defects (140.9 ± 128.4 vs. 254.0 ± 173.9 cm, p < 0.0001), HV (865.8 ± 1200.0 vs. 2005.6 ± 1791.7 cm, p < 0.0001), and HV:IAV (0.26 ± 0.45 vs. 0.53 ± 0.58, p < 0.0001). Three PC variables accounted for 85% of variance: hernia volume PC consists primarily of HV (61.8%), ratio HV:IAV (57.7%), and defect size (50.1%) and accounts for 38.3% variance. Extra-abdominal volume PC consists primarily of SQV (63.7%) and BMI (60.8%) and accounts for 32.5% variance. Intra-abdominal volume PC is primarily IAV (75.8%) and accounts for 14.9% variance. In multivariate analysis, predictors of RI included asthma and COPD (OR 4.04, CI 1.82-8.96), hernia PC (OR 1.47, CI 1.48-1.98), EAV PC (OR 1.24, CI 1.04-1.48), increased age (OR 1.04, CI 1.01-1.06), and diabetes (OR 1.8, CI 1.11-2.91). Component separation, fascial closure, contamination, and panniculectomy were not associated with RI.

Conclusion: The impact of defect size, BMI, HV, SQV, IAV, and HV:IAV on respiratory insufficiency after OVHR is collinear. Patients with large defects and a large ratio of HV:IAV (greater than 0.5) are also at significantly increased risk of RI after OVHR. While BMI impacts these parameters, it is not directly predictive of postoperative RI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-019-07181-3DOI Listing
September 2020

The use of component separation during abdominal wall reconstruction in contaminated fields: A case-control analysis.

Am J Surg 2019 12 11;218(6):1096-1101. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Component separation technique (CST) allows fascial medialization during abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR). Wound contamination increases the incidence of wound complications, which multiplies the incidence of repair failure. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of CST on AWR outcomes in contaminated fields in comparison to those operations without CST.

Methods: A prospective, single institution hernia database was queried for patients undergoing AWR with CST and contamination. A case control cohort was identified using propensity score matching.

Results: There were 286 CSTs performed in contaminated cases. After propensity score matching, 61 CSTs were compared to 61 No-CSTs. These groups were matched by defect area (CST:287.1 ± 150.4 vs No-CST:277.6 ± 218.4 cm, p = 0.156), BMI (32.0 ± 7.0 vs 32.2 ± 6.0 kg/m, p = 0.767), diabetes (26.2% vs 32.8%, p = 0.427), and panniculectomy (52.5% vs 36.1%, p = 0.068). Groups had similar rates of wound complications (42.6% vs 40.7%, p = 0.829) and recurrence (4.9% vs 13.1%, p = 0.114).

Conclusions: The use of CST in the face of contamination is not associated with an increase in wound complications, mesh complications, or recurrence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2019.10.019DOI Listing
December 2019

Use of computed tomography volumetric measurements to predict operative techniques in paraesophageal hernia repair.

Surg Endosc 2020 Apr 12;34(4):1785-1794. Epub 2019 Aug 12.

Division of Gastrointestinal and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, 1025 Morehead Medical Drive, Suite 300, Charlotte, NC, 28204, USA.

Background: Despite advances in diagnostic imaging capabilities, little information exists concerning the impact of physical dimensions of a paraesophageal hernia (PEH) on intraoperative decision making. The authors hypothesized that computerized volumetric analysis and multidimensional visualization to measure hiatal defect area (HDA) and intrathoracic hernia sac volume (HSV) would correlate to operative findings and required surgical techniques performed.

Methods: Using volumetric analysis software (Aquarius iNtuition, TeraRecon, Inc), HDA and HSV were measured in PEH patients with preoperative computerized tomography (CT) scans, and used to predict the likelihood of intraoperative variables. Multidimensional rotation of images enabled visualization of the entire hiatal defect in a plane mimicking the surgeon's view during repair. The intrathoracic hernia sac was outlined producing volume measurements based on a summation of exact dimensions.

Results: A total of 213 PEHR patients had preoperative CT imaging, with 14.1% performed emergently. Primary cruroplasty was performed in 89.2%, salvage gastropexy in 10.3%, and diaphragmatic relaxing incisions in 4.2%. Median HDA was 25.7 cm (IQR17.8-35.6 cm); median HSV was 365.0 cm (IQR150.0-611.0 cm). Incremental 5 cm increase in HDA was associated with greater likelihood of presenting emergently (OR 1.27; 95%CI 1.124-1.428, p = 0.0001), incarceration (OR 1.27; 1.074-1.499, p = 0.005), gastric volvulus (OR 1.13; 1.021-1.248, p = 0.02), and requiring either relaxing incision (OR 1.43; 1.203-1.709, p < 0.0001) or salvage gastropexy (OR 1.13; 1.001-1.274, p = 0.04). Similarly, HSV increases of 100 cm were associated with 23% greater likelihood of emergent repair (CI 1.121-1.353, p < 0.0001), and were more likely to require a relaxing incision (OR 1.18; 1.043-1.339, p = 0.009) or salvage gastropexy (1.19; 1.083-1.312, p = 0.0003).

Conclusions: Utilization of CT volumetric measurements is a valuable adjunct in preoperative planning, allowing the surgeon to anticipate complexity of repair and operative approach, as incremental increases in HSV by 100 cm and HDA by 5 cm are more likely to require complex techniques or bailout procedures and/or present emergently.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-019-06930-8DOI Listing
April 2020

Twelve years of component separation technique in abdominal wall reconstruction.

Surgery 2019 10 27;166(4):435-444. Epub 2019 Jul 27.

Gastrointestinal and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC. Electronic address:

Background: Component separation technique involves incision of abdominal muscle and its aponeurosis, which generates a myofascial advancement flap to assist with fascial closure in abdominal wall reconstructions. This tissue mobilization allows for musculo-fascial approximation of much larger abdominal wall defects than would otherwise be possible. With extensive tissue mobilization, however, there is concern for significant wound and systemic complications.

Methods: A prospective, single institution hernia database was queried for patients undergoing component separation from January 2006 to May 2018. Emergency operations were excluded. Anterior component separation (external oblique release with posterior rectus sheath release) and posterior component separation (transversus abdominus release and posterior rectus sheath release) were examined.

Results: Of the 775 component separation, 33.4% included anterior component separation and 66.6% posterior component separation. Mean age was 58.8 ± 11.5 years, mean body mass index was 33.6 ± 7.1 (kg/m), and 27.9% of patients were diabetic. Hernias were large (280.0 ± 220.9 cm) and often complex (recurrent: 62.6%, incarcerated: 41.5%, concomitant panniculectomy: 39.1%, and contaminated: 37.0%). Defect size was larger in anterior component separation group compared with posterior component separation (379.5 ± 265.2 vs 230.0 ± 175.0 cm, P < .001). There was a 35.1% wound complication rate with 32 recurrences (4.1%) during a mean follow-up of 23.3 ± 25.1 months. Complete fascial closure and lack of wound complications significantly improved outcomes (P < .01). Patients undergoing anterior component separation demonstrated more wound complications (42.9% vs 31.2%, P < .001) and recurrences (7.0% vs 2.7%, P = .005). In multivariate analysis, anterior component separation was associated with increased risk of wound complications (odds ratio 1.660; confidence interval, 1.125-2.450), but not recurrence (odds ratio 2.95; confidence interval, 0.72-12.19). Since 2013, prehabilitation and perforator sparing techniques reduced anterior component separation wound complications to 19.6% (P = .008).

Conclusion: Both anterior component separation and posterior component separation are associated with low recurrence rates, but anterior component separation is associated with higher wound complications. Prehabilitation and operative techniques improve outcomes of component separation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2019.05.043DOI Listing
October 2019

Mesh reinforcement of paraesophageal hernia repair: Trends and outcomes from a national database.

Surgery 2019 11 6;166(5):879-885. Epub 2019 Jul 6.

Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC. Electronic address:

Background: Placement of paraesophageal type of "mesh" in paraesophageal hernia repair is controversial. This study examines the trends and outcomes of mesh placement in paraesophageal hernia repair.

Methods: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program was queried for patients who underwent paraesophageal hernia repair with or without mesh (2010-2017). Demographics, operative approach, and outcomes were compared over time.

Results: Of 25,801, most paraesophageal hernia repair cases were elective (89.3%), without mesh (61.9%), and performed laparoscopically (91.3%).When compared with open paraesophageal hernia repair patients, the patients undergoing laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair had lesser rates of reoperation, readmission, mortality, overall complications and major complications (2.7% vs 4.8%, 6.2% vs 9.6%, 0.6% vs 2.9%, 7.1% vs 21.3%, 3.8% vs 11.1%, respectively; all P < .0001). Mesh placement was more common in laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair (38.9 vs 29.7, P < .0001) than opern paraesophageal hernia repair. During 2010-2017, mesh placement decreased from 46.2% to 35.2% of laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair (P < .0001). Operative times for laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair decreased over time, and laparoscpic paraesophageal hernia repair without mesh was consistently less (with mesh: 176.0 ± 71.0 to 149.9 ± 72.5 min, without mesh: 148.6 ± 71.4 to 134.6 ± 70.4). We observed no changes in comorbidities or adverse outcomes over time. Using multivariate analysis to control for potential confounding factors, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was associated most strongly with adverse outcomes, including mortality (OR 2.53, CI 1.55-4.14), any complications (OR 1.80, CI 1.51-2.16), major complications (OR 1.80, CI 1.51-2.16), readmission (OR 1.63, CI 1.33-1.99) and reoperation (OR 1.49, CI 1.10-2.02). Mesh placement was not associated with adverse outcomes.

Conclusion: The placement of mesh during laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair is not associated with adverse outcomes. Use of mesh with laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair is decreasing with no apparent adverse impact on short-term patient outcomes. Further research is needed to investigate patient factors not captured by this national database, such as characteristics of the hernia, patient symptoms, and hernia recurrence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2019.05.014DOI Listing
November 2019

Three-dimensional hernia analysis: the impact of size on surgical outcomes.

Surg Endosc 2020 Apr 24;34(4):1795-1801. Epub 2019 Jun 24.

Department of Gastrointestinal and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, 1025 Morehead Medical Drive, Suite 300, Charlotte, NC, 28204, USA.

Introduction: BMI and hernia defect size are strongly associated with outcomes after open ventral hernia repair (OVHR). The impact of abdominal subcutaneous fat (SQV), intra-abdominal volume (IAV), hernia volume (HV), and ratio of HV to intra-abdominal volume (HV:IAV, representing visceral eventration) is less clearly elucidated. This study examines the interaction of multiple markers of adiposity and hernia size in OVHR.

Methods: OVHR with preoperative CT scans were identified. 3D volumetric software measured HV, SQV, IAV, and HV:IAV was calculated. A principal component analysis was performed to create new component variables for collinear variables. Hernia PC was composed primarily of hernia dimensions, EAV (extra-abdominal volume PC) included SQV and BMI, and IAV PC included IAV.

Results: A total of 1178 OVHR patients had a preoperative CT scan. Their demographics included a mean age of 58.5 ± 12.4 years, BMI of 34.2 ± 7.7 kg/m, and 57.8% were female. The mean defect area was 150.8 ± 136.7 cm, and 66.0% were recurrent, Patients had mean SQV of 6719.4 ± 3563.9 cm, HV of 966.9 ± 1303.5 cm, IAV of 4250.2 ± 2118.1 cm, and a HV:IAV of 0.29 ± 0.46. In multivariate analysis, Hernia PC was associated with panniculectomy (OR 1.52, CI 1.37-1.69) and component separation (OR 1.34, CI 1.21-1.49) and was negatively associated with fascial closure (OR 0.78, CI 0.69-0.88). Hernia PC was also associated with reoperation, readmission, and development of wound complications (OR 1.18, CI 1.08-1.30; OR 1.15, CI 1.04-1.27; OR 1.28, CI 1.16-1.41, respectively). EAV PC was associated with performance of a panniculectomy (OR 1.33, CI 1.20-1.48), readmission (OR 1.18, CI 1.06-1.32), and wound complications (OR 1.41, CI 1.27-1.57). IAV PC was not associated with adverse outcomes.

Conclusion: Values of hernia area, volume, IAV, HV:IAV, BMI, and SQV are collinear markers of patient obesity and hernia proportions. They are distinct enough to be represented by three principal component variables, indicating more nuanced discrete influences on variability of surgical outcomes other than BMI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-019-06931-7DOI Listing
April 2020

The impact of component separation technique versus no component separation technique on complications and quality of life in the repair of large ventral hernias.

Surg Endosc 2020 02 19;34(2):981-987. Epub 2019 Jun 19.

Division of Gastrointestinal and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Carolinas Hernia Center, Carolinas Medical Center, 1025 Morehead Medical Drive, Suite 300, Charlotte, NC, 28204, USA.

Background: Component Separation (CST) typically involves incision of one or more fascial planes to generate myofascial advancement flaps to assist with fascial closure in ventral hernia repair (VHR). The aim of this study was to compare peri-operative outcomes and quality of life (QOL) after CST versus patients without CST (No-CST) in large, preperitoneal VHR (PPVHR).

Methods: A prospective, single institution hernia study examined all patients undergoing PPVHR with synthetic mesh. Emergency and contaminated operations were excluded. A case-control cohort was identified using propensity score matching for CST and No-CST. QOL was assessed using the Carolinas Comfort Scale.

Results: The algorithm matched 113 CST cases to 113 No-CST cases. The groups (CST vs No-CST) were similar regarding age, BMI, diabetes, smoking, defect size, mesh size, and follow-up. In univariate analysis, there was no difference in recurrence between the CST and no-CST groups (0.9% vs 0.9%, p = 1.0) or mesh infection (0.9% vs 0.0%, p = 1.0). CST did have more wound complications (29.2% vs 16.1%, p = 0.019). When controlling for panniculectomy and diabetes with multivariate logistic regression, CST continued to have had an increased risk for wound complications (OR 2.27, CI 1.16-4.47). QOL was routinely assessed. The groups were similar pre-operatively with 76.3% of CST patients and 77.8% of No-CST patients having pain (p = 1.0). At 1, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months post-operatively, the groups had equal QOL.

Conclusion: The use of CST versus No-CST in the repair of large VHs results in an increased risk of wound complications but does not increase the hernia recurrence rate. In the largest QOL comparative study to date, CST's generation of myofascial advancement flaps does not negatively impact patient QOL in the repair of large ventral hernias in the short or long term.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-019-06892-xDOI Listing
February 2020

The impact of abnormal BMI on surgical complications after pediatric colorectal surgery.

J Pediatr Surg 2019 Nov 3;54(11):2300-2304. Epub 2019 May 3.

Division of Pediatric Surgery, Levine Children's Hospital, 1900 Randolph Rd, #210, Charlotte, NC 28207.

Background/purpose: While childhood obesity is a growing problem, the implications of BMI on elective pediatric surgery remains poorly described. This study evaluates the impact of obesity on surgical outcomes after elective colorectal procedures.

Methods: Children ages 2-18 years undergoing elective colorectal surgery for IBD were identified from the NSQIP-Pediatric database. Patients were classified as underweight (UW), normal weight (NW), overweight (OW) and obese (OB) based on their age- and sex-adjusted BMI. Postoperative complications were compared between cohorts.

Results: 858 patients (14.8% UW, 64.3% NW, 13.1% OW, 7.8% OB) were identified, with overall complications occurring in 15.3% and SSI in 10.1%. Obese/overweight patients had higher rates of deep incisional SSI (4.5%OB, 4.5%OW, 0%NW, p=0.002) and superficial wound disruption (5.4%OB, 5.8%OW, 1.6%NW, p=0.04). Incremental increase in BMI by 1.0kg/m was associated with 4.3% increased likelihood of developing deep incisional SSI and 2.3% increase of superficial wound disruption. Obese/overweight children also had increased incidence of septic shock and UTI, as well as longer operative times, days of mechanical ventilation and LOS.

Conclusions: Increasing BMI was associated with increased wound complications in IBD patients undergoing elective intestinal surgery. Preoperative optimization and weight loss strategies may potentially reduce SSI and other infectious complications.

Level Of Evidence: III.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2019.04.020DOI Listing
November 2019

Outcomes of open abdomen versus primary closure following emergent laparotomy for suspected secondary peritonitis: A propensity-matched analysis.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2019 09;87(3):623-629

From the Division of Gastrointestinal and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC (A.M.K., L.N.C., M.B-G., T.P., B.T.H., B.R.D., K.R.K.).

Background: Optimal management following index laparotomy is poorly defined in secondary peritonitis patients. Although "open abdomen" (OA), or temporary abdominal closure with planned relaparotomy, is used to reassess bowel viability or severity of contamination, recent studies demonstrate comparable morbidity and mortality with primary abdominal closure (PC). This study evaluates differences between OA and PC following emergent laparotomy.

Methods: Using the Premier database at a quaternary care center (2012-2016), nontrauma patients with secondary peritonitis requiring emergent laparotomy were identified (N = 534). Propensity matching for PC (n = 331; 62%) or OA (n = 203; 38%) was performed using variables: Mannheim Peritonitis Index, lactate, and vasopressor requirement. One hundred eleven closely matched pairs (PC:OA) were compared.

Results: Five hundred thirty-four patients (55.0% female; mean age, 59.6 ± 15.5 years) underwent emergent laparotomy. Of the OA patients, 136 (67.0%) had one relaparotomy, while 67 (33.0%) underwent multiple reoperations. Compared to daytime cases, laparotomies performed overnight (6 pm-6 am) had more temporary closures with OA (42.8% OA vs. 57.2% PC, p = 0.04). When assessing by surgeon type, PC was performed in 78.7% of laparotomies by surgical subspecialties compared to 56.7% (p < 0.0001) of acute care surgeons. After propensity matching, OA patients had increased postoperative complications (71.2% vs. 41.4%, p < 0.0001), mortality (22.5% vs. 11.7%, p = 0.006), and longer median length of stay (13 vs. 9 days, p = 0.0001).

Conclusion: Open abdomen was performed in 38.0% of patients, with one-third of those requiring multiple reoperations. Complications, mortality rates, and costs associated with OA were significantly increased when compared to PC. Given these findings, future studies are needed to determine appropriate indications for OA.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic/care management, level IV.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000002345DOI Listing
September 2019

Comparison of Outcomes After Partial Versus Complete Mesh Excision.

Ann Surg 2020 07;272(1):177-182

Division of Gastrointestinal and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC.

Objective: Evaluate outcomes of patients undergoing mesh explantation following partial mesh excision (PME) and complete mesh excision (CME).

Background: Ventral hernia repair (VHR) with mesh remains one of the most commonly performed procedures worldwide. Management of previously placed mesh during reexploration remains unclear. Studies describing PME as a feasible alternative have been limited.

Methods: The AHSQC registry was queried for VHR patients who underwent mesh excision. Variables used for propensity-matching included age, BMI, race, diabetes, COPD, OR time>2 hours, immunosuppressants, smoking, active infection, ASA class, elective case, wound classification, and history of abdominal wall infection.

Results: A total of 1904 VHR patients underwent excision of prior mesh. After propensity matching, complications were significantly higher (35% vs 29%, P = 0.01) after PME, including SSI/SSO, SSOPI, and reoperation. No differences were observed in patients with clean wounds, however in clean-contaminated, PME more frequently resulted in SSOPI (24% vs 9%, P = 0.02). In mesh infection/fistulas, higher rates of SSOPI (46% vs 24%, P = 0.04) and reoperation (21% vs 6%, P = 0.03) were seen after PME. Odds-ratio analysis showed increased likelihood of SSOPI (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.05-2.14; P = 0.023) and reoperation (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.13-4.10; P = 0.015) with PME.

Conclusions: With over 350,000 VHR performed annually and increasing mesh use, guidelines for management of mesh during reexploration are needed. This analysis of a multicenter hernia database demonstrates significantly increased postoperative complications in PME patients with clean-contaminated wounds and mesh infections/fistulas, however showed similar outcomes in those with clean wounds.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000003198DOI Listing
July 2020

Emergent Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repairs.

J Surg Res 2018 12 2;232:497-502. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

Division of Gastrointestinal and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina. Electronic address:

Background: Emergent repairs of incarcerated and strangulated ventral hernia repairs (VHR) are associated with higher perioperative morbidity and mortality than those repaired electively. Despite increasing utilization of minimally invasive techniques in elective repairs, the role for laparoscopy in emergent VHR is not well defined, and its feasibility has been demonstrated only in single center studies.

Methods: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database (2009-2016) was queried for emergent VHR. Laparoscopic and open techniques were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses.

Results: A total of 11,075 patients who underwent emergent ventral and incisional hernia repairs were identified: 85.5% open ventral hernia repair (OVHR), 14.5% laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR). Patients who underwent emergent OVHRs were older, more comorbid, and more likely to be septic at the time of surgery than those undergoing emergent LVHRs. Emergent OVHR patients were more likely to have minor complications (22.1% versus 11.0%; OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.069-2.834). After controlling for confounding variables, LVHR and OVHR had similar outcomes, with the exception of higher rates of superficial surgical site infection in OVHR (5.0% versus 1.8%; odd's ratio (OR) 2.7; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.176-6.138). Following multivariate analysis, laparoscopic approach demonstrated similar outcomes in major complications, reoperation, and 30-d mortality compared to open repairs. However, when controlling for other confounding factors, LVHR had reduced length of stay compared to OVHR (6.7 versus 4.0 d; 1.6 d longer, standard error 0.77, P < 0.03).

Conclusions: Emergent LVHR is associated with fewer superficial surgical site infection and shorter length of stay than OVHR but no difference in major complications, reoperation or 30-d mortality is associated with LVHR in the emergency setting.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2018.07.034DOI Listing
December 2018

Deciding on Optimal Approach for Ventral Hernia Repair: Laparoscopic or Open.

J Am Coll Surg 2019 01 22;228(1):54-65. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Division of Gastrointestinal and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC. Electronic address:

Background: The decision to perform laparoscopic or open ventral hernia repair (VHR) is multifactorial. This study evaluates the impact of operative approach, BMI, and hernia size on outcomes after VHR.

Study Design: The International Hernia Mesh Registry was queried for VHR (2007-2017). A predictive algorithm was constructed, factoring the impact of BMI, hernia size, age, sex, diabetes, and operative approach on outcomes.

Results: Of the 1,906 VHRs, 58.8% were performed open, patient mean age was 54.9 ± 13.5 years, BMI was 31.2 ± 6.8 kg/m, and defect area was 44.8 ± 88.1 cm. Patients undergoing open VHRs were more likely to have an infection develop (3.1% vs 0.3%; p < 0.0001), but less likely to have a seroma develop (6.8% vs 15.3%; p < 0.0001) at mean follow-up 23.2 ± 12.0 months. With multivariate regression controlling for confounding variables, patients undergoing laparoscopic VHR had increased risk of seroma (odds ratio [OR] 1.78; 95% CI 1.05 to 3.03), a decreased risk of infection (OR 0.05; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.42), and had worse quality of life at 1, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively compared with patients undergoing open repair. Recurrent hernias were associated with subsequent recurrence (OR 2.69; 95% CI 1.24 to 5.81) and need for reoperation (OR 4.93; 95% CI 2.24 to 10.87). Multivariate predictive models demonstrated independent predictors of infection, including open approach, recurrent hernias, and low ratio of BMI to defect size.

Conclusions: Ideal outcomes are dependent on both patient and operative factors. Open repair in thin patients with large defects should be considered due to reduced complications and improved quality of life. Laparoscopic repair in obese patients and recurrent hernias can decrease the associated risk of infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2018.09.004DOI Listing
January 2019

Epiphrenic Diverticulum: 20-Year Single-Institution Experience.

Am Surg 2018 Jul;84(7):1159-1163

Epiphrenic diverticula are pulsion-type outpouchings of the distal esophagus associated with motility disorders. They can present with chronic symptoms of dysphagia, regurgitation, reflux, and aspiration. A prospectively collected surgical outcomes database was queried for patients who underwent surgical treatment of epiphrenic diverticula at a single institution between August 1997 and August 2018. Patient demographics, presenting symptoms, operative intervention, and perioperative data were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-seven patients with a symptomatic epiphrenic diverticulum were identified. Abnormal esophageal motility was diagnosed in 16 patients (59.2%), most commonly achalasia (29.6%). All patients had a minimally invasive (26 laparoscopic, one thoracoscopic) diverticulectomy with no conversions to open required. Concurrent myotomy was performed in 88.9 per cent patients and anti-reflux procedure in 85.2 per cent patients. There was minimal morbidity with no esophageal leaks, mortalities, or recurrent diverticula noted after 35.8 months of follow-up. Dysphagia was the most common persistent symptom and occurred in 11.1 per cent; overall resolution of symptoms was achieved with surgery in 89.9 per cent of patients. As minimally invasive techniques have advanced, laparoscopic diverticulectomy seems to be an excellent surgical approach for symptomatic epiphrenic diverticula. Long-term resolution of symptoms was achieved in most patients, with a very low complication rate.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
July 2018

One More Time: Redo Paraesophageal Hernia Repair Results in Safe, Durable Outcomes Compared with Primary Repairs.

Am Surg 2018 Jul;84(7):1138-1145

The incidence and causes of failed paraesophageal hernia repairs (PEHR) remain poorly understood. Our study aimed to evaluate long-term clinical outcomes after reoperative fundoplication as compared with initial PEHR. A prospectively maintained institutional hernia-specific database was queried for PEHR between 2008 and 2017. Patients with prior history of PEHR were categorized as "redo" paraesophageal hernia (RPEH). Primary outcomes included postoperative morbidity, mortality, symptom resolution, and hernia recurrence. A total of 402 patients underwent minimally invasive PEHR (Initial PEH = 305, RPEH = 97). Redo PEHR had more prevalent preoperative nausea/vomiting (50.6% vs 34.1%, P < 0.007) and weight loss (24.1% vs 13.5%, P < 0.02). RPEH had had longer mean operative time (256.4 ± 91.2 vs 190.3 ± 59.9 minutes, P < 0.0001) and higher rate of conversion to open (10.3% vs 0.67%, P < 0.0001); however, no difference was noted in postoperative complications, hernia recurrence, or mortality between cohorts. Laparoscopic revision of prior PEHR in symptomatic patients can be safely performed with favorable outcomes compared with initial PEHR. Despite redo procedures seeming to be more technically demanding (as noted by longer operative time and higher conversion rates), outcomes are similar and overall resolution of symptoms is achieved in most patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
July 2018