Publications by authors named "Taner Akar"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Genetic and Management Effects on Barley Yield and Phenology in the Mediterranean Basin.

Front Plant Sci 2021 15;12:655406. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Research Centre for Cereal and Industrial Crops, CREA - Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Foggia, Italy.

Heading time in barley is considered a key developmental stage controlling adaptation to the environment and it affects grain yield; with the combination of agronomy (planting dates) and genetics being some of the determinants of adaptation to environmental conditions in order to escape late frost, heat, and terminal drought stresses. The objectives of this study are (i) to apply a gene-based characterization of 118 barley doubled haploid recombinants for vernalization, photoperiod, and earliness per se; (ii) use such information to quantify the optimal combination of genotype/sowing date that escapes extreme weather events; and (iii) how water and nitrogen management impact on grain yield. The doubled haploid barley genotypes with different allelic combinations for vernalization, photoperiod, and earliness per se were grown in eight locations across the Mediterranean basin. This information was linked with the crop growth model parameters. The photoperiod and earliness per se alleles modify the length of the phenological cycle, and this is more evident in combination with the recessive allele of the vernalization gene VRN-H2. In hot environments such as Algeria, Syria, and Jordan, early sowing dates (October 30 and December15) would be chosen to minimize the risk of exposing barley to heat stress. To maintain higher yields in the Mediterranean basin, barley breeding activities should focus on allelic combinations that have recessive VRN-H2 and EPS2 genes, since the risk of cold stress is much lower than the one represented by heat stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.655406DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8084452PMC
April 2021

A New Virulent Race of Wheat Stripe Rust Pathogen (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) on the Resistance Gene Yr5 in Turkey.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Akdeniz University, 37502, Field Crops, Akdeniz University Faculty of Agriculture Dept. of Field Crops, Antalya, Antalya, Konyaaltı, Turkey, 07058;

The gene Yr5 in wheat has generally been known to confer resistance to Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici races worldwide. However, a few reports indicated that some isolates of the stripe rust pathogen were virulent on the wheat genotypes with Yr5 in India, Australia, and China (Nagarajan 1986; Wellings and McIntosh 1990; Zhang et al. 2020). In April 2020, a stripe rust infection was observed on Triticum spelta 'Album' (TSA), the Yr5 donor, provided by Turkey Seed Gene Bank in a wheat breeding field at the experimental station of Akdeniz University in the Antalya province of Turkey. The sample was tested on the seedlings of the Yr single-gene lines in the Avocet S (AvS) background including Yr5 near-isogenic line (AvSYr5NIL), TSA, and susceptible bread wheat variety 'Morocco' according to the procedure reported by Wan et al. (2014), and found to be highly virulent on Morocco with infection type (IT) 9 and virulent on AvSYr5NIL and TSA with IT 7. To confirm this novel finding, single-pustule isolates derived from this sample were obtained from TSA and re-tested on the differentials and TSA. The Yr5-virulent isolate yielded similar infection types on these plants further verifying previous results. The single-pustule isolates were determined to be avirulent (Avr) (IT 0 to 6) on AvSYr1NIL, AvSYr8NIL, AvSYr9NIL, AvSYr10NIL, AvSYr32NIL, and AvSYr43NIL and virulent (Vr) (IT 7 to 9) on AvSYr5NIL, AvSYr6NIL, AvSYr7NIL, AvSYr17NIL, AvSYr24NIL, AvSYr27NIL, AvSYr44NIL, AvSYrSpNIL, and TSA. The isolates were identified as a new race and temporarily named TRVR20-5 based on its Avr/Vr pattern. Furthermore, to confirm the presence of Yr5, the genomic DNA of fresh leaves of AvSYr5NIL and TSA used in the virulence testing were isolated using NucleoSpin Plant II (Macherey-Nagel, Germany) according to the manufacturer's procedure. The genomic DNA samples were amplified with the primers STS-7 (5'-GTACAATTCACCTAGAGT-3') and STS-8 (5'-GCAAGTTTTCTCCCTATT-3') (Chen et al. 2003) using a thermal cycler (T-100, BioRad, USA), and the resulting PCR products were digested with DpnII and visualized on an agarose gel. AvSYr5NIL and TSA had the fragment linked to the resistance allele (308 bp) whereas AvS and Morocco had the fragment linked to the susceptible allele (181 bp). Thus, both wheat genotypes were confirmed to carry Yr5, and the new Pst race virulent to Yr5 was confirmed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a Pst race virulent to Yr5 in Turkey, where stripe rust epidemics have occured in 2 out of every 5 years with 1-5% crop losses in over 25% of the wheat growing areas (Chen 2020). In a nutshell, monitoring the Pst races virulent to Yr5 with a potential to cause devastating epidemics worldwide is crucial due to the fact that international wheat breeding programs have been using Yr5 to develop wheat cultivars with resistance to stripe rust.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-03-21-0629-PDNDOI Listing
April 2021

Identification of Durum Wheat Cultivars and Their Tetraploid Relatives with Low Cadmium Content.

Food Technol Biotechnol 2020 Mar;58(1):49-56

Akdeniz University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops, 07059 Antalya, Turkey.

In this study, 71 durum wheat cultivars ( Desf.), 22 emmer wheat ( L.) and 11 wild emmer ( L.) genotypes were genetically characterized to determine the alleles associated with high cadmium (Cd) content. After genotypic characterization, 14 cultivars selected among all genotypes with low and high Cd content were phenotyped by a pot experiment to verify the genotypic data. Identification of 32 durum wheat, one emmer wheat and four wild emmer genotypes showed that they have alleles associated with high Cd content, while 68 genotypes of which 39 durum wheat, 21 emmer wheat and 7 wild emmer cultivars had alleles associated with low Cd content, respectively. Moreover, phenotypic data obtained from pot experiment were similar to the molecular data. To sum up, the marker successfully classified durum wheat cultivars into either high or low accumulators and these results can be safely used in breeding programs to improve new durum wheat cultivars with alleles associated with low Cd content. Due to routine use of phosphorus fertilizers in agricultural areas and other anthropogenic factors related to Cd toxicity, new durum wheat cultivars with low Cd content should be urgently developed for safe production of macaroni or other types of wheat products for human and animal consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17113/ftb.58.01.20.6531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7365341PMC
March 2020

Identification of Durum Wheat Cultivars and Their Tetraploid Relatives with Low Cadmium Content.

Food Technol Biotechnol 2020 Mar;58(1):49-56

Akdeniz University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops, 07059 Antalya, Turkey.

In this study, 71 durum wheat cultivars ( Desf.), 22 emmer wheat ( L.) and 11 wild emmer ( L.) genotypes were genetically characterized to determine the alleles associated with high cadmium (Cd) content. After genotypic characterization, 14 cultivars selected among all genotypes with low and high Cd content were phenotyped by a pot experiment to verify the genotypic data. Identification of 32 durum wheat, one emmer wheat and four wild emmer genotypes showed that they have alleles associated with high Cd content, while 68 genotypes of which 39 durum wheat, 21 emmer wheat and 7 wild emmer cultivars had alleles associated with low Cd content, respectively. Moreover, phenotypic data obtained from pot experiment were similar to the molecular data. To sum up, the marker successfully classified durum wheat cultivars into either high or low accumulators and these results can be safely used in breeding programs to improve new durum wheat cultivars with alleles associated with low Cd content. Due to routine use of phosphorus fertilizers in agricultural areas and other anthropogenic factors related to Cd toxicity, new durum wheat cultivars with low Cd content should be urgently developed for safe production of macaroni or other types of wheat products for human and animal consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17113/ftb.58.01.20.6531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7365341PMC
March 2020

Molecular and agro-morphological characterization of ancient wheat landraces of turkey.

BMC Plant Biol 2017 Nov 14;17(Suppl 1):171. Epub 2017 Nov 14.

Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey.

Background: Turkey is one of the important gene centers for many crop species. In this research, some ancient wheats such as tetraploid and diploid hulled wheats together with hexaploid tir wheats (Triticum aestivum ssp. leucospermum Korn.) landraces mainly adapted to harsh winter conditions of Eastern Anatolian region of Turkey were characterized at agro-morphological and molecular level. Totally 50 hulled wheat population from Kastamonu, Konya and Kayseri provinces and 15 tir wheats from Kars provinces of Turkey were in-situ collected for characterization in 2013. Some quantitative and qualitative traits of each population were determined.

Results: Twenty three hulled wheat population collected from Kastamonu province were distinguished into nine emmer and 14 einkorn wheats at morphological level. Additionally, Konya, Kayseri and Kars population were characterized as einkorn, emmer and tir wheat, respectively. Among the evaluated traits, protein ratios of hulled wheats were strikingly higher than registered cultivars. All the populations were also examined by molecular level by using fluorescently labelled 11 polymorphic SSRs primers. The primers exhibited 104 bands, ranging from 6 to 16 with a mean value 9.45 per loci. The clustering analysis separated the germplasm into two clusters which were also divided into two subclusters based on genetic similarity coefficient. Sixty-five population and five checks were analyzed to estimate mean number of alleles (N), expected and observed heterozygoties (He and Ho), polymorphism information content (PIC), Wright fix index (F), genetic deviation from Hardy-Weinberg expectation (Fit-Fis) and genetic variation (Fst) were determined as 9.45, 0.71, 0.07, 0.67, 0.90, 0.39, 0.87 and 0.39, respectively. A clear genetic deviation from Hardy - Weinberg expectation was observed among population in particular. These results showed considerable genetic variation among landraces rather than within population.

Conclusions: These molecular information has revealed genetically diverse einkorn, emmer wheat and tir wheat population could be used as parents for further breeding studies in both Turkey and abroad. Furthermore, the molecular analysis has also generally discriminated the germplasm into ploidy level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-017-1133-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5688393PMC
November 2017

Iatrogenic artefacts attributable to traditional cupping therapy in a shotgun fatality.

J Forensic Leg Med 2015 Oct 24;35:26-8. Epub 2015 Jun 24.

Gazi University, Medical Faculty, Department of Forensic Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Cupping is a traditional treatment method that has been used for thousands of years to diminish pain, restore appetite and improve digestion, remove tendency to faint or remove 'bad blood' from the body. The suction of the cup is created by fire or mechanical devices. This procedure may result in circular erythema, petechiae, purpura, ecchymosis, burns and may be mistaken for trauma-related ecchymosis or livor mortis. Forty-year-old male was died by shotgun injuries in the same day of the wounding. Circular ecchymoses were observed on the forehead, within the scalp of occipital region, the back of the neck, and on the back. They were defined as ecchymoses in the first examination made by a general practitioner. In the external examination during the legal autopsy superficial incisions were observed on the circular ecchymoses. The shape, localization and color of and the characteristics of incisions on the circular lesions were concluded to be caused by the dry cupping therapy and wet cupping therapy procedures. These lesions and their formation mechanisms should be well-known by the forensic medical examiners and the other medical personnel involved in the forensic medical examination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2015.06.006DOI Listing
October 2015

Elderly deaths in Ankara, Turkey.

Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2014 Sep-Oct;59(2):398-402. Epub 2014 May 29.

Gazi University School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, Besevler, Ankara, Turkey.

According to World Health Organization, the life expectancy at birth is increasing. An increase in life expectancy might result in increased morbidity and mortality in elderly. The increase in the elderly population also leads to an increase in medico-legal problems, as well. Autopsy is of high importance for determination of cause of death in clinical and forensic cases. The purpose of this study was to find out general characteristics elderly deaths by examining forensic autopsy records. Out of 7033 forensic autopsies performed between years of 2007 and 2011, 1324 were elderly deaths and were included in the scope of the study. The records of public prosecutor office, crime scene investigation and autopsy findings were examined. The majority of victims (70.6%) were male, while 29.4% were female, with a male to female ratio of 2.4/1. Victims' ages ranged between 65 and 96 years, and the mean age was 74.8 years. A great number of presented elderly deaths were due to unnatural causes, followed by natural deaths cases. Out of unnatural deaths, 63.2% were related to accidents, 23.7% were suicides, and remaining 13.1% were homicides. More than half (56.6%) of all suicidal deaths were due to hanging. Of natural deaths, the majority (82.7%) were due to cardiovascular system disease. In the presented series the cause of death was determined in 90.9% of all elderly deaths, which validates the need for a forensic autopsy. Data obtained through autopsy procedures is of high importance for death statistics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2014.05.005DOI Listing
December 2014

Elderly deaths in Ankara, Turkey.

Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2014 Sep-Oct;59(2):398-402. Epub 2014 May 29.

Gazi University School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, Besevler, Ankara, Turkey.

According to World Health Organization, the life expectancy at birth is increasing. An increase in life expectancy might result in increased morbidity and mortality in elderly. The increase in the elderly population also leads to an increase in medico-legal problems, as well. Autopsy is of high importance for determination of cause of death in clinical and forensic cases. The purpose of this study was to find out general characteristics elderly deaths by examining forensic autopsy records. Out of 7033 forensic autopsies performed between years of 2007 and 2011, 1324 were elderly deaths and were included in the scope of the study. The records of public prosecutor office, crime scene investigation and autopsy findings were examined. The majority of victims (70.6%) were male, while 29.4% were female, with a male to female ratio of 2.4/1. Victims' ages ranged between 65 and 96 years, and the mean age was 74.8 years. A great number of presented elderly deaths were due to unnatural causes, followed by natural deaths cases. Out of unnatural deaths, 63.2% were related to accidents, 23.7% were suicides, and remaining 13.1% were homicides. More than half (56.6%) of all suicidal deaths were due to hanging. Of natural deaths, the majority (82.7%) were due to cardiovascular system disease. In the presented series the cause of death was determined in 90.9% of all elderly deaths, which validates the need for a forensic autopsy. Data obtained through autopsy procedures is of high importance for death statistics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2014.05.005DOI Listing
December 2014

Six-year experience of a hospital-based child protection team in Turkey.

Turk J Pediatr 2009 Jul-Aug;51(4):336-43

Department of Pediatrics, Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

The objective of this article was to review the case series' profile followed up by the Gazi University Multidisciplinary Team for Child Protection and to describe the challenges in our child protection system. The cases referred to this team between February 2001 and January 2007 were analyzed. In addition to the clinical management, challenges encountered during follow-up due to gaps in the child protection system were reviewed. A total of 139 patients were referred to the team during the study period. Mean age for physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect were 8.9 +/- 6.2, 10.8 +/- 4.2, and 5.1 +/- 5.5 years, respectively. Sexual abuse was significantly less common while neglect was significantly more common in the 0-5 years of age group. In addition to the gaps within each link of the child protection system (medical, legal and social services) in Turkey, interagency collaboration seems to be inadequate. Hospital-based multidisciplinary teams can start such a collaboration.
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January 2010

A prospective study of serotonin transporter gene promoter (5-HTT gene linked polymorphic region) and intron 2 (variable number of tandem repeats) polymorphisms as predictors of trauma response to mild physical injury.

DNA Cell Biol 2010 Feb;29(2):71-7

1 Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of both promoter and intron polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter (5HTT) gene on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) development. For this purpose, two polymorphisms of the 5-HTT gene, which are found in the promoter (5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region) and second intron (variable number of tandem repeats) of the gene, were analyzed in 100 patients who were admitted to the Emergency Department after a mild physical trauma. None of the 5-HTT polymorphisms studied have an effect on PTSD development after a mild physical injury, but having L allele for 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region may cause milder hyperarousal symptoms in those patients who have developed PTSD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dna.2009.0936DOI Listing
February 2010

Establishment of interdisciplinary child protection teams in Turkey 2002-2006: identifying the strongest link can make a difference!

Child Abuse Negl 2009 Apr 27;33(4):247-55. Epub 2009 Mar 27.

Duzce University Medical School, Duzce, Turkey.

Objectives: The University of Iowa Child Protection Program collaborated with Turkish professionals to develop a training program on child abuse and neglect during 2002-2006 with the goals of increasing professional awareness and number of multidisciplinary teams (MDT), regional collaborations, and assessed cases. This paper summarizes the 5-year outcome.

Methods: A team of instructors evaluated needs and held training activities in Turkey annually, and provided consultation when needed. Descriptive analysis was done via Excel and SPSS software.

Results: Eighteen training activities were held with 3,570 attendees. Over the study period, the number of MDTs increased from 4 to 14. The MDTs got involved in organizing training activities in their institutions and communities. The number of medical curriculum lectures taught by MDTs to medical students/residents, conferences organized by the MDTs, and lectures to non-medical professional audiences increased significantly (R(2)=91.4%, 83.8%, and 69.2%, respectively). The number of abuse cases assessed by the MDTs increased by five times compared to pre-training period.

Conclusions: A culturally competent training program had a positive impact on professional attitudes and behaviors toward recognition and management of child abuse and neglect in Turkey. The need to partner with policy makers to revise current law in favor of a greater human services orientation became clear.

Practice Implications: Pioneers in developing countries may benefit from collaborating with culturally competent instructors from countries with more developed child protection systems to develop training programs so that professional development can improve recognition and management of child abuse and neglect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2008.12.008DOI Listing
April 2009

Establishment of interdisciplinary child protection teams in Turkey 2002-2006: identifying the strongest link can make a difference!

Child Abuse Negl 2009 Apr 27;33(4):247-55. Epub 2009 Mar 27.

Duzce University Medical School, Duzce, Turkey.

Objectives: The University of Iowa Child Protection Program collaborated with Turkish professionals to develop a training program on child abuse and neglect during 2002-2006 with the goals of increasing professional awareness and number of multidisciplinary teams (MDT), regional collaborations, and assessed cases. This paper summarizes the 5-year outcome.

Methods: A team of instructors evaluated needs and held training activities in Turkey annually, and provided consultation when needed. Descriptive analysis was done via Excel and SPSS software.

Results: Eighteen training activities were held with 3,570 attendees. Over the study period, the number of MDTs increased from 4 to 14. The MDTs got involved in organizing training activities in their institutions and communities. The number of medical curriculum lectures taught by MDTs to medical students/residents, conferences organized by the MDTs, and lectures to non-medical professional audiences increased significantly (R(2)=91.4%, 83.8%, and 69.2%, respectively). The number of abuse cases assessed by the MDTs increased by five times compared to pre-training period.

Conclusions: A culturally competent training program had a positive impact on professional attitudes and behaviors toward recognition and management of child abuse and neglect in Turkey. The need to partner with policy makers to revise current law in favor of a greater human services orientation became clear.

Practice Implications: Pioneers in developing countries may benefit from collaborating with culturally competent instructors from countries with more developed child protection systems to develop training programs so that professional development can improve recognition and management of child abuse and neglect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2008.12.008DOI Listing
April 2009

The analysis of hormones and enzymes extracted from endocrine glands of the neck region in deaths due to hanging.

Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2008 Mar;29(1):49-54

Department of Forensic Medicine, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey.

Our study was designed to determine whether the hormone and enzyme levels that we have mentioned in serum specimens can be used in postmortem examinations of the cases of hanging or not. Our research includes the postmortem results of the thyroid tissue pathologic examinations, serum levels of triiodothyronine (fT3), thyroxine (fT4), thyrotropin (TSH), thyroglobulin, parathormone (PTH), calcitonin, and amylase in cases of death due to hanging. The mean of fT3 and thyroglobulin levels were higher in hanging cases than those of sudden death cases. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). In our study, we obtained data demonstrating that high postmortem levels of free T3 and thyroglobulin may be indicators of vital reaction in hanging cases. In such cases of death, it seems that applying pressure on the neck region where the thyroid gland is located causes the leakage of thyroglobulin as well as fT3, the active form of the thyroid hormone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAF.0b013e31815b4c80DOI Listing
March 2008

The analysis of hormones and enzymes extracted from endocrine glands of the neck region in deaths due to hanging.

Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2008 Mar;29(1):49-54

Department of Forensic Medicine, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey.

Our study was designed to determine whether the hormone and enzyme levels that we have mentioned in serum specimens can be used in postmortem examinations of the cases of hanging or not. Our research includes the postmortem results of the thyroid tissue pathologic examinations, serum levels of triiodothyronine (fT3), thyroxine (fT4), thyrotropin (TSH), thyroglobulin, parathormone (PTH), calcitonin, and amylase in cases of death due to hanging. The mean of fT3 and thyroglobulin levels were higher in hanging cases than those of sudden death cases. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). In our study, we obtained data demonstrating that high postmortem levels of free T3 and thyroglobulin may be indicators of vital reaction in hanging cases. In such cases of death, it seems that applying pressure on the neck region where the thyroid gland is located causes the leakage of thyroglobulin as well as fT3, the active form of the thyroid hormone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAF.0b013e31815b4c80DOI Listing
March 2008