Publications by authors named "Tanawan Kongmalai"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A rare case of ectopic ACTH syndrome caused by primary renal neuroendocrine tumor.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2021 Apr 12;2021. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine.

Summary: Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion is responsible for 5-15% of Cushing's syndrome (CS). Neuroendocrine tumor (NET) is a common cause of ectopic ACTH syndrome (EAS). However, primary renal NET is exceedingly rare. Fewer than 100 cases have been reported and only a few cases presented with CS. Because of its rarity and lack of long-term follow-up data, clinical manifestations, biological behavior and prognosis are not well understood. Here, we report the case of a 51-year-old man who presented with clinical and laboratory findings compatible with EAS. CT scan revealed a lesion of uncertain nature at the lower pole of the left kidney. Octreotide scan found a filling defect at the lower pole of left kidney. It was difficult to determine if this finding was the true etiology or an incidental finding. Unfortunately, the patient's clinical status rapidly deteriorated with limited medical treatment. The patient underwent left nephrectomy and left adrenalectomy. Histopathological examination confirmed NET with oncocytic features. Immunohistochemistry staining was positive for ACTH. The patient's condition gradually improved. Additionally, glucocorticoid replacement was required only 6 months during a gradual recovery of hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis achieved approximately three years after tumor removal. Although extremely rare, primary renal NET should be considered as a cause of EAS particularly in a patient with rapid clinical deterioration. Thorough investigation, early diagnosis and careful management are crucial to reduce morbidity and mortality.

Learning Points: Primary renal NET is an extremely rare cause of ectopic ACTH syndrome. Ectopic ACTH syndrome has a rapid onset with severe clinical manifestations. In this case, the patient's condition deteriorated rapidly, resulting from severe hypercortisolism. Resection of the tumor is the most effective treatment. Localization of ectopic ACTH-secreting tumors is very challenging. Multimodality imaging including CT, MRI, octreotide scan, and positron emission tomography plays a crucial role in identifying the tumors. However, each imaging modality has limitations.
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April 2021

The effect of temperature on the stability of PCSK-9 monoclonal antibody: an experimental study.

Lipids Health Dis 2021 Feb 25;20(1):21. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, 2 Wanglang Road, Bangkoknoi, Bangkok, 10700, Thailand.

Background: PCSK9 monoclonal antibody lowers plasma PCSK9 and LDL-cholesterol levels. The manufacturers recommend drug storage at 2-8 °C, and not above 25 °C. This study aimed to investigate drug stability at various temperatures that this drug could be exposed to during medication handling and transportation in tropical countries.

Methods: Alirocumab and evolocumab were tested in 3 study conditions: room temperature (RT), cooler device with cold pack, and freeze-thaw for 9 and 18 h. Heated drugs were used as negative control. Free plasma PCSK9 levels from 9 hyperlipidemia subjects were measured with ELISA.

Results: Average subject age was 49.2 ± 18.4 years. Percent PCSK9 inhibition significantly declined in heated drugs compared to baseline. Average RT during the study period was 30.4 ±2.6 °C. Change in percent PCSK9 inhibition of PCSK9 mAb at RT from baseline was - 5.8 ± 4.4% (P = 0.005) and - 11.0 ± 8.9% (P = 0.006) for alirocumab at 9 h and 18 h, and - 9.7 ± 11.8% (P = 0.04) and - 15.1 ± 14.3% (P = 0.01) for evolocumab at 9 and 18 h, respectively. In contrast, there were no significant changes in percent PCSK9 inhibition from baseline when PCSK9 mAb was stored in a cooler. In freeze-thaw condition, changes in percent PCSK9 inhibition from baseline to 9 and 18 h were - 5.2 ± 2.9% (P = 0.001) and - 2.6 ± 4.9% (P = 0.16) for alirocumab, and - 1.8 ± 4.2% (P = 0.24) and 0.4 ± 6.1% (P = 0.83) for evolocumab.

Conclusion: Proper drug storage according to manufacturer's recommendation is essential. Drug storage at RT in tropical climate for longer than 9 h significantly decreased drug efficacy; however, storage in a cooler device with cold pack for up to 18 h is safe.
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February 2021

The Effect of Temperature on the Stability of In-Use Insulin Pens.

Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2019 Oct 21. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Improper storage of insulin could decrease its potency. Manufacturers recommend that in-use insulin pens should be kept at between 25-30°C, but room temperature in tropical countries often exceeds this range. This study investigates the effect of temperature on the stability of basal insulin in cartridges 28 days after opening.

Methods: Four different basal insulins were evaluated. Five opened pens of each insulin type were included for each of three storage conditions and 5 unopened insulin pens of each type were stored in the refrigerator as a control. The opened pens were stored for 28 days in either a refrigerator (2-8 °C), at room temperature, or in an incubator (37 °C). Each day insulin pens were mixed 20 times and 2 units were discarded to mimic daily usage. Insulin quantity was evaluated using an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography assay.

Results: The average room temperature during the study period was 29.7 °C. After 28 days, the percentage amount of insulin stored at refrigerator, room temperature or incubator, compared with control was 99.0, 99.7, 101.1% for long-acting insulin; 97.4, 97.2, 99.0% for NPH-1; 101.4, 101.5, 100.7% for NPH-2; and 98.7, 97.8, 98.5% for NPH-3. There were no statistically significant differences. However, we observed a trend toward different stability between clear insulin analog and turbid NPH insulin.

Conclusions: Temperature as high as 37°C and cyclic temperature,had no effect on the stability of in-use insulin pen.
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October 2019