Publications by authors named "Tammie Dewan"

11 Publications

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Optimising the process for conducting scoping reviews.

BMJ Evid Based Med 2020 Oct 21. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Paediatrics, BC Children's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Knowledge synthesis constitutes a key part of evidence-based medicine and a scoping review is a type of knowledge synthesis that maps the breadth of literature on a topic. Conducting a scoping review is resource intensive and, as a result, it can be challenging to maintain best practices throughout the process. Much of the current guidance describes a scoping review framework or broad ways to conduct a scoping review. However, little detailed guidance exists on how to complete each stage to optimise the process. We present five recommendations based on our experience when conducting a particularly challenging scoping review: (1) engage the expertise of a librarian throughout the process, (2) conduct a truly systematic search, (3) facilitate communication and collaboration, (4) explore new tools or repurpose old ones, and (5) test every stage of the process. These recommendations add to the literature by providing specific and detailed advice on each stage of a scoping review. Our intent is for these recommendations to aid other teams that are undertaking knowledge synthesis projects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjebm-2020-111452DOI Listing
October 2020

Rehabilitation therapies in Rett syndrome across the lifespan: A scoping review of human and animal studies.

J Pediatr Rehabil Med 2021 ;14(1):69-96

Departments of Clinical Neurosciences and Pediatrics, University of Calgary Cumming School of Medicine, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Purpose: To perform a scoping review of the evidence for therapeutic interventions to manage functional impairments associated with Rett syndrome (RTT) throughout the lifespan.

Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Scopus and Index to Chiropractic Literature were searched systematically up to December 2019. Two investigators independently reviewed all search results and extracted those that met the inclusion criteria. Human and animal model studies pertaining to therapies that increase functional ability or treat RTT-associated symptoms in all age groups were included. Relevant studies were grouped into intervention categories and rated using the Oxford Centre of Evidence Based Medicine Levels of Evidence. Demographics of participants, interventions, and outcomes were summarized.

Results: Ninety-one articles representing 88 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 80 were human clinical studies and eight were studies using animal models. Study designs were primarily case series and only six studies involved participants above the age of 40.

Conclusion: A small number of rigorously studied rehabilitation interventions have been published. Published studies aim to address a wide variety of functional impairments. Research regarding implementation of therapies for older patients with RTT is lacking and requires further exploration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/PRM-200683DOI Listing
January 2021

Scoping review of symptoms in children with rare, progressive, life-threatening disorders.

BMJ Support Palliat Care 2020 Mar 12;10(1):91-104. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Department of Paediatrics, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Background: Q3 conditions are progressive, metabolic, neurological or chromosomal childhood conditions without a cure. Children with these conditions face an unknown lifespan as well as unstable and uncomfortable symptoms. Clinicians and other healthcare professionals are challenged by a lack of evidence for symptom management for these conditions.

Aims: In this scoping review, we systematically identified and mapped the existing literature on symptom management for children with Q3 conditions. We focused on the most common and distressing symptoms, namely alertness, behavioural problems, bowel incontinence, breathing difficulties, constipation, feeding difficulties, sleep disturbance, temperature regulation, tone and motor problems and urinary incontinence. For children with complex health conditions, good symptom management is pertinent to ensure the highest possible quality of life.

Methods: Scoping review. Electronic database searches in Ovid MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL and a comprehensive grey literature search.

Results: We included 292 studies in our final synthesis. The most commonly reported conditions in the studies were Rett syndrome (n=69), followed by Cornelia de Lange syndrome (n=25) and tuberous sclerosis (n=16). Tone and motor problems were the most commonly investigated symptom (n=141), followed by behavioural problems (n=82) and sleep disturbance (n=62).

Conclusion: The evidence for symptom management in Q3 conditions is concentrated around a few conditions, and these studies may not be applicable to other conditions. The evidence is dispersed in the literature and difficult to access, which further challenges healthcare providers. More research needs to be done in these conditions to provide high-quality evidence for the care of these children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjspcare-2019-001943DOI Listing
March 2020

BRIGHT Coaching: A Randomized Controlled Trial on the Effectiveness of a Developmental Coach System to Empower Families of Children With Emerging Developmental Delay.

Front Pediatr 2019 7;7:332. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.

In preschool-aged children with, or at elevated risk for, developmental disabilities, challenges and needs arise from vulnerabilities linked to critical and newly emerging cognitive, speech, motor, behavioral, and social skills. For families, this can be a stressful period as they witness the gradual unfolding of their child's differences and await to receive care. Nationally and internationally, service delivery models during this critical period are not standardized nor are they nimble or sufficient enough, leading to long wait times, service gaps and duplications. Given these struggles, there is a need to examine whether "health coaching", a structured educational program that is deliverable by different and more accessible means, can be effective in empowering families, by delivering information, providing social supports, and decreasing the demands on the overwhelmed health and developmental services. The primary objective is to evaluate the feasibility and the effectiveness of a coaching intervention (in comparison to usual and locally available care), for parents of children with emerging developmental delays. A multi-centered pragmatic randomized controlled trial design will be used. Families will be recruited from a representative sample of those awaiting publicly-funded regional child health services for children with developmental delays in four Canadian provinces. The target sample size is 392 families with children aged 1.5 to 4.5 years at recruitment date. Families will be randomly assigned to receive either the BRIGHT Coaching intervention (coach supported, hardcopy and online self-managed educational resources: 14 sessions, 2 sessions every 4 weeks for 6-9 months) or usual care that is locally available. In addition to the feasibility and acceptability measures, outcomes related to family empowerment, parental satisfaction and efficacy with caregiver competency will be evaluated at baseline, post-treatment (8 months), and follow-up (12 months). This manuscript presents the background information, design, description of the interventions and of the protocol for the randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of BRIGHT Coaching intervention for families of children with emerging developmental delays. ClinicalTrials.gov, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health #NCT03880383, 03/15/2019. Retrospectively registered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2019.00332DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6694748PMC
August 2019

Missense Variants in the Histone Acetyltransferase Complex Component Gene TRRAP Cause Autism and Syndromic Intellectual Disability.

Authors:
Benjamin Cogné Sophie Ehresmann Eliane Beauregard-Lacroix Justine Rousseau Thomas Besnard Thomas Garcia Slavé Petrovski Shiri Avni Kirsty McWalter Patrick R Blackburn Stephan J Sanders Kévin Uguen Jacqueline Harris Julie S Cohen Moira Blyth Anna Lehman Jonathan Berg Mindy H Li Usha Kini Shelagh Joss Charlotte von der Lippe Christopher T Gordon Jennifer B Humberson Laurie Robak Daryl A Scott Vernon R Sutton Cara M Skraban Jennifer J Johnston Annapurna Poduri Magnus Nordenskjöld Vandana Shashi Erica H Gerkes Ernie M H F Bongers Christian Gilissen Yuri A Zarate Malin Kvarnung Kevin P Lally Peggy A Kulch Brina Daniels Andres Hernandez-Garcia Nicholas Stong Julie McGaughran Kyle Retterer Kristian Tveten Jennifer Sullivan Madeleine R Geisheker Asbjorg Stray-Pedersen Jennifer M Tarpinian Eric W Klee Julie C Sapp Jacob Zyskind Øystein L Holla Emma Bedoukian Francesca Filippini Anne Guimier Arnaud Picard Øyvind L Busk Jaya Punetha Rolph Pfundt Anna Lindstrand Ann Nordgren Fayth Kalb Megha Desai Ashley Harmon Ebanks Shalini N Jhangiani Tammie Dewan Zeynep H Coban Akdemir Aida Telegrafi Elaine H Zackai Amber Begtrup Xiaofei Song Annick Toutain Ingrid M Wentzensen Sylvie Odent Dominique Bonneau Xénia Latypova Wallid Deb Sylvia Redon Frédéric Bilan Marine Legendre Caitlin Troyer Kerri Whitlock Oana Caluseriu Marine I Murphree Pavel N Pichurin Katherine Agre Ralitza Gavrilova Tuula Rinne Meredith Park Catherine Shain Erin L Heinzen Rui Xiao Jeanne Amiel Stanislas Lyonnet Bertrand Isidor Leslie G Biesecker Dan Lowenstein Jennifer E Posey Anne-Sophie Denommé-Pichon Claude Férec Xiang-Jiao Yang Jill A Rosenfeld Brigitte Gilbert-Dussardier Séverine Audebert-Bellanger Richard Redon Holly A F Stessman Christoffer Nellaker Yaping Yang James R Lupski David B Goldstein Evan E Eichler Francois Bolduc Stéphane Bézieau Sébastien Küry Philippe M Campeau

Am J Hum Genet 2019 03 28;104(3):530-541. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine Research Centre, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC H3T 1C5, Canada; Department of Pediatrics, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC H3T1J4, Canada. Electronic address:

Acetylation of the lysine residues in histones and other DNA-binding proteins plays a major role in regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. This process is controlled by histone acetyltransferases (HATs/KATs) found in multiprotein complexes that are recruited to chromatin by the scaffolding subunit transformation/transcription domain-associated protein (TRRAP). TRRAP is evolutionarily conserved and is among the top five genes intolerant to missense variation. Through an international collaboration, 17 distinct de novo or apparently de novo variants were identified in TRRAP in 24 individuals. A strong genotype-phenotype correlation was observed with two distinct clinical spectra. The first is a complex, multi-systemic syndrome associated with various malformations of the brain, heart, kidneys, and genitourinary system and characterized by a wide range of intellectual functioning; a number of affected individuals have intellectual disability (ID) and markedly impaired basic life functions. Individuals with this phenotype had missense variants clustering around the c.3127G>A p.(Ala1043Thr) variant identified in five individuals. The second spectrum manifested with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or ID and epilepsy. Facial dysmorphism was seen in both groups and included upslanted palpebral fissures, epicanthus, telecanthus, a wide nasal bridge and ridge, a broad and smooth philtrum, and a thin upper lip. RNA sequencing analysis of skin fibroblasts derived from affected individuals skin fibroblasts showed significant changes in the expression of several genes implicated in neuronal function and ion transport. Thus, we describe here the clinical spectrum associated with TRRAP pathogenic missense variants, and we suggest a genotype-phenotype correlation useful for clinical evaluation of the pathogenicity of the variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.01.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6407527PMC
March 2019

Exome Sequencing and the Management of Neurometabolic Disorders.

N Engl J Med 2016 Jun 25;374(23):2246-55. Epub 2016 May 25.

From the Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics (M.T.-G., C. Shyr, X.C.Y., L.-H.Z., J.J.Y.L., B.I.D., I.G., W.W.W., C.D.K.), the Departments of Medical Genetics (M.T.-G., C. Shyr, C.J.R., X.C.Y., J.J.Y.L., L.A., J.M.F., S.L., M.M., M.I.V.A., A.M.L., W.W.W.), Pediatrics (C.J.R., G.A.H., R.S., L.-H.Z., A.P.B., B.I.D., M.B.C., M.D., T.D., J.D., A. Michoulas, D.M., J.R., K.R.S., K.S., S.E.T., John Wu, S.S.-I., C.D.K.), and Pathology and Laboratory Medicine (B.R., P.E., H.V., G.S.), the Child and Family Research Institute (M.T.-G., C. Shyr, C.J.R., G.A.H., X.C.Y., A.P.B., J.J.Y.L., B.I.D., L.A., M.B.C., M.D., J.D., J.M.F., I.G., S.L., M.M., D.M., J.R., K.R.S., K.S., S.E.T., M.I.V.A., John Wu, P.E., A.M.L., H.V., S.S.-I., G.S., W.W.W., C.D.K.), and the Division of Endocrinology, Adult Metabolic Diseases Clinic (A. Mattman, S. Sirrs), University of British Columbia, and the Divisions of Biochemical Diseases (G.A.H., R.S., B.S., S.S.-I., C.D.K.), Pediatric Neurology (M.B.C., M.D., A. Michoulas, K.S.), Pediatric Nephrology (J.D.), Pediatric Endocrinology (D.M.), and Immunology (S.E.T.) and the Division of Hematology, Oncology and Transplantation, Michael Cuccione Childhood Cancer Research Program (J.R., K.R.S., John Wu), BC Children's Hospital, Vancouver, the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto (J.C.), the Department of Biological and Computing Sciences, University of Alberta (R.M., D.W.), and the National Institute for Nanotechnology (D.W.), Edmonton, AB, and the Department of Biomedical Physiology and Kinesiology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC (M. Abdelsayed, P.R.) - all in Canada; the Division of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (M. Alfadhel); the Division of Metabolism and Children's Research Center, University Children's Hospital Zurich, Zurich (M.R.B., P.B.), and the Departmen

Background: Whole-exome sequencing has transformed gene discovery and diagnosis in rare diseases. Translation into disease-modifying treatments is challenging, particularly for intellectual developmental disorder. However, the exception is inborn errors of metabolism, since many of these disorders are responsive to therapy that targets pathophysiological features at the molecular or cellular level.

Methods: To uncover the genetic basis of potentially treatable inborn errors of metabolism, we combined deep clinical phenotyping (the comprehensive characterization of the discrete components of a patient's clinical and biochemical phenotype) with whole-exome sequencing analysis through a semiautomated bioinformatics pipeline in consecutively enrolled patients with intellectual developmental disorder and unexplained metabolic phenotypes.

Results: We performed whole-exome sequencing on samples obtained from 47 probands. Of these patients, 6 were excluded, including 1 who withdrew from the study. The remaining 41 probands had been born to predominantly nonconsanguineous parents of European descent. In 37 probands, we identified variants in 2 genes newly implicated in disease, 9 candidate genes, 22 known genes with newly identified phenotypes, and 9 genes with expected phenotypes; in most of the genes, the variants were classified as either pathogenic or probably pathogenic. Complex phenotypes of patients in five families were explained by coexisting monogenic conditions. We obtained a diagnosis in 28 of 41 probands (68%) who were evaluated. A test of a targeted intervention was performed in 18 patients (44%).

Conclusions: Deep phenotyping and whole-exome sequencing in 41 probands with intellectual developmental disorder and unexplained metabolic abnormalities led to a diagnosis in 68%, the identification of 11 candidate genes newly implicated in neurometabolic disease, and a change in treatment beyond genetic counseling in 44%. (Funded by BC Children's Hospital Foundation and others.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1515792DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4983272PMC
June 2016

NANS-mediated synthesis of sialic acid is required for brain and skeletal development.

Nat Genet 2016 07 23;48(7):777-84. Epub 2016 May 23.

Centre for Molecular Diseases, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

We identified biallelic mutations in NANS, the gene encoding the synthase for N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuNAc; sialic acid), in nine individuals with infantile-onset severe developmental delay and skeletal dysplasia. Patient body fluids showed an elevation in N-acetyl-D-mannosamine levels, and patient-derived fibroblasts had reduced NANS activity and were unable to incorporate sialic acid precursors into sialylated glycoproteins. Knockdown of nansa in zebrafish embryos resulted in abnormal skeletal development, and exogenously added sialic acid partially rescued the skeletal phenotype. Thus, NANS-mediated synthesis of sialic acid is required for early brain development and skeletal growth. Normal sialylation of plasma proteins was observed in spite of NANS deficiency. Exploration of endogenous synthesis, nutritional absorption, and rescue pathways for sialic acid in different tissues and developmental phases is warranted to design therapeutic strategies to counteract NANS deficiency and to shed light on sialic acid metabolism and its implications for human nutrition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.3578DOI Listing
July 2016

Children with medical complexity in Canada.

Paediatr Child Health 2013 Dec;18(10):518-22

Division of Pediatric Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto; ; Institute of Health Policy, Management & Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto; ; CanChild Center for Childhood Disability Research, Hamilton, Ontario.

The burden of chronic disease is placing pressure on the Canadian health care system. A small but important chronic disease population is children with medical complexity, defined as individuals with: high family-identified needs; complex chronic disease necessitating specialized care; functional disability; and high health care utilization. These patients present a challenge to community providers who are expected to provide holistic care and manage complex issues, often with a paucity of services and supports. Alternative models of care may address the complex needs of this population. In addition, strategies can be implemented in community practices that may assist with the care of children with medical complexity such as collaborative care, engagement of key workers, focus on goal-directed care and use of care plans. The paediatric community should engage in health care reform discussions focused on chronic disease to ensure that the complex needs of these children are met.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3907346PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pch/18.10.518DOI Listing
December 2013

The prognosis of childhood headache: a 20-year follow-up.

Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2005 Dec;159(12):1157-60

Division of Pediatric Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Background: Headaches affect most children and rank third among illness-related causes of school absenteeism. Although the short-term outcome for most children appears favorable, few studies have reported long-term outcome.

Objective: To evaluate the long-term prognosis of childhood headaches 20 years after initial diagnosis in a cohort of Atlantic Canadian children who had headaches diagnosed in 1983.

Methods: Ninety-five patients with headaches who consulted 1 of the authors in 1983 were previously studied in 1993. The 77 patients contacted in 1993 were followed up in 2003. A standardized interview protocol was used.

Results: Sixty (78%) of 77 patients responded (60 of the 95 of the original cohort). At 20-year follow-up, 16 (27%) were headache free, 20 (33%) had tension-type headaches, 10 (17%) had migraine, and 14 (23%) had migraine and tension-type headaches. Having more than 1 headache type was more prevalent than at diagnosis or initial follow-up (P<.001), and headache type varied across time. Of those with headaches at follow-up, 80% (35/44) described their headaches as moderate or severe, although an improvement in headaches was reported by 29 (66%). Tension-type headaches were more likely than migraine to remit (P<.04). Headache severity at diagnosis was predictive of headache outcome at 20 years. During the month before follow-up, nonprescription medications were used by 31 (70%) of those with ongoing headaches, and prescription medications were used by 6 (14%). However, 20 (45%) believed that nonpharmacological methods were most effective. Medication use increased during the 10 years since last follow-up. No patient used selective serotonin receptor agonists (triptans).

Conclusions: Twenty years after diagnosis of pediatric headache, most patients continue to have headache, although the headache classification often changes across time. Most patients report moderate or severe headache and increasingly choose to care for their headaches pharmacologically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.159.12.1157DOI Listing
December 2005