Publications by authors named "Tamiris Lima Rachid"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

PPAR-α activation counters brown adipose tissue whitening: a comparative study between high-fat- and high-fructose-fed mice.

Nutrition 2020 10 6;78:110791. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Laboratory of Morphometry, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Disease, Biomedical Center, Institute of Biology, the University of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objectives: To examine the effects of a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-α) agonist treatment on interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) whitening, focusing on thermogenic, lipolysis, and lipid oxidation markers in mice fed a high-fat or high-fructose diet.

Methods: Fifty animals were randomly assigned to receive a control diet (C, 10% lipids as energy), high-fat diet (HF, 50% lipids as energy), or high-fructose diet (HFRU, 50% fructose as energy) for 12 wk. Each group was redivided to begin the 5-wk treatment, totaling five experimental groups: C, HF, HF-a, HFRU, and HFRU-a. The drug was mixed with diet at the dose of 3.5 mg/kg body mass.

Results: HF group was the heaviest group, and the HF and HFRU groups had glucose intolerance. PPAR-α activation alleviated these metabolic constraints. HF and HFRU groups had negative vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) immunostaining, but only the HF group had a pattern of lipid droplet accumulation that resembled the white adipose tissue, characterizing the whitening phenomenon. Whitening in the HF group was accompanied by decreased expression of genes related to thermogenesis, β-oxidation, and antiinflammatory effects. All of them were augmented by the PPAR-α activation in HF-a and HFRU-a groups, countering the whitening in the HF-a group. Treated groups also had a lower respiratory exchange ratio than untreated groups, suggesting that lipids were used as fuel for the enhanced thermogenesis.

Conclusions: The PPAR-α agonist countered iBAT whitening by inducing the thermogenic pathway and reducing the lipid droplet size, in addition to enhanced VEGF-A expression, adrenergic stimulus, and lipolysis in HF-fed mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2020.110791DOI Listing
October 2020

High dose of linagliptin induces thermogenic beige adipocytes in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue in diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice.

Endocrine 2019 08 3;65(2):252-262. Epub 2019 Jun 3.

Laboratory of Morphometry, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases, Biomedical Center, Institute of Biology, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Purpose: To verify whether the treatment with linagliptin induces the browning of the subcutaneous WAT (sWAT) and thermogenesis in murine diet-induced obesity (DIO) model.

Methods: Forty animals were randomly assigned to receive a control diet (C, 10% lipids as energy) or a high-fat diet (HF, 50% lipids as energy) for 10 weeks. Each group was re-divided to begin the 5-week treatment, totalizing four experimental groups: C, C-L (C plus linagliptin, 30 mg/kg body mass; BM), HF, and HF-L (HF plus linagliptin, 30 mg/kg BM). The drug was mixed with diet.

Results: HF animals showed overweight, glucose intolerance, and a greater cross-sectional area of adipocytes. The treatment with linagliptin was able to normalize the BM, restore the glucose tolerance and the cross-sectional area of adipocytes. These observations comply with the observation of UCP1-positive multilocular adipocytes in the sWAT of treated animals. Both treated groups (C-L and HF-L) showed high expression of thermogenic and type 2 cytokines genes, which agree with the enhanced body temperature and the lower respiratory exchange ratio, implying enhanced thermogenesis with the use of lipids as fuel.

Conclusions: The reduced BM, the enhanced body temperature, and the presence of positive UCP1 beige cells in the sWAT point to the activation of the browning cascade on the sWAT of linagliptin-treated mice, and hence, linagliptin could induce the thermogenic pathway as a pleiotropic effect that can have translational potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-019-01969-yDOI Listing
August 2019

GW0742 (PPAR-beta agonist) attenuates hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress by improving hepatic energy metabolism in high-fat diet fed mice.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2018 10 23;474:227-237. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Laboratory of Morphometry, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases, Biomedical Center, Institute of Biology, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and hepatic steatosis are intertwined with insulin resistance. PPARs are at the crossroads of these pathways. This study aimed to investigate the effects of GW0742 (PPAR-beta agonist) on hepatic energy metabolism and ER stress in a murine diet-induced obesity model. HF diet caused overweight, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic inflammation (increased NF-kB, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 protein expression) and favored hepatic lipogenesis, leading to ER stress, with ultrastructural and molecular alterations, ending up in proapoptotic stimulus. GW0742 rescued the overweight and the glucose tolerance, tackled hepatic inflammation and favored hepatic beta-oxidation over lipogenesis. These results comply with ER ultrastructure improvement, reducing ER stress and apoptosis in treated animals. Our results indicate that the PPAR-beta/delta activation alleviated the ER stress by improving the insulin sensitivity and maximizing the hepatic energy metabolism with a shift towards beta-oxidation. PPAR-beta/delta activation could be an essential tool to avoid the NAFLD progression and other obesity constraints.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2018.03.013DOI Listing
October 2018

Differential actions of PPAR-α and PPAR-β/δ on beige adipocyte formation: A study in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of obese male mice.

PLoS One 2018 19;13(1):e0191365. Epub 2018 Jan 19.

Laboratory of Morphometry, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases, Biomedical Center, Institute of Biology, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Background And Aims: Obesity compromises adipocyte physiology. PPARs are essential to adipocyte plasticity, but its isolated role in the browning phenomenon is not clear. This study aimed to examine whether activation of PPAR-α or PPAR-β/δ could induce beige cell depots in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice.

Material And Methods: Sixty animals were randomly assigned to receive a control diet (C, 10% lipids) or a high-fat diet (HF, 50% lipids) for ten weeks. Then each group was re-divided to begin the treatments that lasted 4 weeks, totalizing six groups: C, C-α (C plus PPAR-α agonist, 2.5 mg/kg BM), C-β (C plus PPAR-β/δ agonist, 1 mg/kg BM), HF, HF-α (HF plus PPAR-α agonist), HF-β (HF plus PPAR-β/δ agonist).

Results: HF animals presented with overweight, glucose intolerance and subcutaneous white adipocyte hypertrophy. Both treatments significantly attenuated these parameters. Browning, verified by UCP1 positive beige cells and enhanced body temperature, was just observed in PPAR-α treated groups. PPAR-α agonism also elicited an enhanced gene expression of the thermogenesis effector UCP1, the beige-selective gene TMEM26 and the PRDM16, an essential gene for brown-like phenotype maintenance in the beige adipocytes when compared to their counterparts. The enhanced CIDEA and the reduced UCP1 gene levels might justify the white phenotype predominance after the treatment with the PPAR-β/δ agonist.

Conclusions: This work provides evidence that the PPAR-β/δ agonist ameliorated metabolic disorders through enhanced beta-oxidation and better tolerance to glucose, whereas the PPAR-α agonism was confirmed as a promising therapeutic target for treating metabolic diseases via beige cell induction and enhanced thermogenesis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0191365PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5774787PMC
March 2018

Anti-obesogenic effects of WY14643 (PPAR-alpha agonist): Hepatic mitochondrial enhancement and suppressed lipogenic pathway in diet-induced obese mice.

Biochimie 2017 Sep 12;140:106-116. Epub 2017 Jul 12.

Laboratory of Morphometry, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Disease, Biomedical Center, Institute of Biology, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) presents with growing prevalence worldwide, though its pharmacological treatment remains to be established. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a PPAR-alpha agonist on liver tissue structure, ultrastructure, and metabolism, focusing on gene and protein expression of de novo lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis pathways, in diet-induced obese mice. Male C57BL/6 mice (three months old) received a control diet (C, 10% of lipids, n = 10) or a high-fat diet (HFD, 50% of lipids, n = 10) for ten weeks. These groups were subdivided to receive the treatment (n = 5 per group): C, C-alpha (PPAR-alpha agonist, 2.5 mg/kg/day mixed in the control diet), HFD and HFD-alpha group (PPAR-alpha agonist, 2.5 mg/kg/day mixed in the HFD). The effects were compared with biometrical, biochemical, molecular biology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. HFD showed greater body mass (BM) and insulinemia than C, both of which were tackled by the treatment in the HFD-alpha group. Increased hepatic protein expression of glucose-6-phosphatase, CHREBP and gene expression of PEPCK in HFD points to increased gluconeogenesis. Treatment rescued these parameters in the HFD-alpha group, eliciting a reduced hepatic glucose output, confirmed by the smaller GLUT2 expression in HFD-alpha than in HFD. Conversely, favored de novo lipogenesis was found in the HFD group by the increased expression of PPAR-gamma, and its target gene SREBP-1, FAS and GK when compared to C. The treatment yielded a marked reduction in the expression of all lipogenic factors. TEM analyses showed a greater numerical density of mitochondria per area of tissue in treated than in untreated groups, suggesting an increase in beta-oxidation and the consequent NAFLD control. PPAR-alpha activation reduced BM and treated insulin resistance (IR) and NAFLD by increasing the number of mitochondria and reducing hepatic gluconeogenesis and de novo lipogenesis protein and gene expressions in a murine obesity model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2017.07.003DOI Listing
September 2017

AT1 receptor antagonist induces thermogenic beige adipocytes in the inguinal white adipose tissue of obese mice.

Endocrine 2017 Mar 23;55(3):786-798. Epub 2016 Dec 23.

Laboratory of Morphometry, Metabolism and Cardiovascular disease, Biomedical Centre, Institute of Biology, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Purpose: To evaluate whether losartan is able to induce beige adipocytes formation, focusing on the thermogenic gene expression and adipocyte remodeling in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice.

Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice received a control diet (10% energy as lipids) or a high-fat diet (50% energy as lipids) for 10 weeks, followed by a 5-week treatment with losartan: control group, control-losartan group (10 mg/Kg/day), high-fat group and high-fat-losartan group (10 mg/Kg/day). Biochemical, morphometrical, stereological and molecular approaches were used to evaluate the outcomes.

Results: The high-fat diet elicited overweight, insulin resistance and adipocyte hypertrophy in the high-fat group, all of which losartan rescued in the high-fat-losartan group. These effects comply with the induction of beige adipocytes within the inguinal fat pads in high-fat-losartan group as they exhibited the greatest energy expenditure among the groups along with the presence uncoupling protein 1 positive multilocular adipocytes with enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha and PR domain containing 16 mRNA levels, indicating a significant potential for mitochondrial biogenesis and adaptive thermogenesis.

Conclusions: Our results show compelling evidence that losartan countered diet-induced obesity in mice by enhancing energy expenditure through beige adipocytes induction. Reduced body mass, increased insulin sensitivity, decreased adipocyte size and marked expression of uncoupling protein 1 by ectopic multilocular adipocytes support these findings. The use of losartan as a coadjutant medicine to tackle obesity and its related disorders merits further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-016-1213-1DOI Listing
March 2017

PPAR-α agonist elicits metabolically active brown adipocytes and weight loss in diet-induced obese mice.

Cell Biochem Funct 2015 Jun 11;33(4):249-56. Epub 2015 May 11.

Laboratory of Morphometry, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases, Biomedical Center, Institute of Biology, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Obesity is considered a public health problem worldwide. Fenofibrate, a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) agonist, elicits weight loss in animal models. This study aimed to examine the effects of fenofibrate on energy expenditure, body mass (BM) and gene expression of thermogenic factors in brown adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a standard chow (SC; 10% lipids) diet or a high-fat (HF; 50% lipids) diet for 10 weeks. Afterwards, groups were subdivided as SC, SC-F, HF and HF-F (n = 10, each). Treatment with fenofibrate (100 mg kg(-1) BM mixed into the diet) lasted 5 weeks. Treated groups had reduced final BM compared with their counterparts (p < 0·05), explained by the increase in energy expenditure, CO2 production and O2 consumption after treatment with fenofibrate (p < 0·05). Similarly, genes involved in thermogenesis as PPAR-α, PPAR-γ coactivator 1α, nuclear respiratory factor 1, mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16), β-3 adrenergic receptor (β3-AR), bone morphogenetic protein 8B and uncoupling protein 1 were significantly expressed in brown adipocytes after the treatment (p < 0·05). All observations ensure that selective PPAR-α agonist can induce thermogenesis by increasing energy expenditure and enhancing the expression of genes involved in the thermogenic pathway. These results suggest fenofibrate as a coadjutant drug for the treatment of obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbf.3111DOI Listing
June 2015

Fenofibrate (PPARalpha agonist) induces beige cell formation in subcutaneous white adipose tissue from diet-induced male obese mice.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2015 Feb 7;402:86-94. Epub 2015 Jan 7.

Laboratory of Morphometry, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases, Biomedical Center, Institute of Biology, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Browning is characterized by the formation of beige/brite fat depots in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT). This study aimed to examine whether the chronic activation of PPARalpha by fenofibrate could induce beige cell depots in the sWAT of diet-induced obese mice. High-fat fed animals presented overweight, insulin resistance and displayed adverse sWAT remodeling. Fenofibrate significantly attenuated these parameters. Treated groups demonstrated active UCP-1 beige cell clusters within sWAT, confirmed through higher gene expression of PPARalpha, PPARbeta, PGC1alpha, BMP8B, UCP-1, PRDM16 and irisin in treated groups. PPARalpha activation seems to be pivotal to trigger browning through irisin induction and UCP-1 transcription, indicating that fenofibrate increased the expression of genes typical of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in the sWAT, characterizing the formation of beige cells. These findings put forward a possible role of PPARalpha as a promising therapeutic for metabolic diseases via beige cell induction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2014.12.027DOI Listing
February 2015
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