Publications by authors named "Tamiko Konishi"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Immunomodulation by imiquimod in patients with high-risk primary melanoma.

J Invest Dermatol 2012 Jan 18;132(1):163-9. Epub 2011 Aug 18.

Division of Dermatology, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California 90502, USA.

Imiquimod is a synthetic Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist approved for the topical treatment of actinic keratoses, superficial basal cell carcinoma, and genital warts. Imiquimod leads to an 80-100% cure rate of lentigo maligna; however, studies of invasive melanoma are lacking. We conducted a pilot study to characterize the local, regional, and systemic immune responses induced by imiquimod in patients with high-risk melanoma. After treatment of the primary melanoma biopsy site with placebo or imiquimod cream, we measured immune responses in the treated skin, sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), and peripheral blood. Treatment of primary melanomas with 5% imiquimod cream was associated with an increase in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the skin, and CD4+ T cells in the SLN. Most of the CD8+ T cells in the skin were CD25 negative. We could not detect any increases in CD8+ T cells specifically recognizing HLA-A(*)0201-restricted melanoma epitopes in the peripheral blood. The findings from this small pilot study demonstrate that topical imiquimod treatment results in enhanced local and regional T-cell numbers in both the skin and SLN. Further research into TLR7 immunomodulating pathways as a basis for effective immunotherapy against melanoma in conjunction with surgery is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jid.2011.247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3229834PMC
January 2012

ADH1B*1, ADH1C*2, DRD2 (-141C Ins), and 5-HTTLPR are associated with alcoholism in Mexican American men living in Los Angeles.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2004 Aug;28(8):1145-52

Department of Psychiatry, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA, USA.

Background: The aim of the present study was to use a candidate gene approach to identify the genetic risk factors for alcoholism in Mexican Americans residing in the Los Angeles area. The genes selected include alcohol metabolizing genes and neurotransmitter genes, which have been shown in the literature to be associated with alcoholism in other ethnic groups.

Methods: Thirteen allelic variants from seven genes were evaluated for their role in alcoholism using alcoholic (n = 200) and nonalcoholic (n = 251) Mexican Americans. Those polymorphic sites include alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1B, ADH1C), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1) TaqI, DraI, RsaI, dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) TaqI A, B, intron 6, exon 7, -141C Ins/Del, serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR), and GABAA receptor beta3 subunit (GABRbeta3).

Results: The results demonstrate that Mexican Americans have extremely low allele frequency for both ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 and a relatively high frequency of ADH1C*2 and CYP2E1 c2 alleles. ADH1B*1, ADH1C*2, DRD2 (-141C Ins), and 5-HTTLPR were associated with alcoholism in Mexican Americans (p < 0.05). DRD2 Ins was associated with alcoholism in those alcoholics who carried the ADH1B*2 or ADH1C*1 protective alleles (p = 0.032 in genotype level and p = 0.015 in allele level). DRD2 TaqI A and B alleles were associated with early age of onset for drinking (p = 0.016 for TaqI A1 and p = 0.049 for TaqI B1 allele).

Conclusions: Together, the data reveal unique genetic patterns in Mexican Americans that may be in part responsible for the heightened risk for alcoholism and alcohol-associated health problems in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.alc.0000134231.48395.42DOI Listing
August 2004

Polymorphisms of the dopamine D2 receptor, serotonin transporter, and GABA(A) receptor beta(3) subunit genes and alcoholism in Mexican-Americans.

Alcohol 2004 Jan;32(1):45-52

Department of Psychiatry, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90509, USA.

The etiology of alcohol dependence is a complex interaction of psychosocial and biologic factors. To study the impact of genetic factors that play an important role in an individual's vulnerability to alcohol abuse and dependence, we examined the genetic variations of the major neurotransmitter genes, including the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) TaqI A, B, and -141C insertion/deletion (Ins/Del) polymorphisms, the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), and the gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(A)) receptor beta(3) subunit gene (GABRbeta3), for 130 Mexican-American alcoholic men and 251 nonalcoholic control subjects (105 men and 146 women). The genotype frequency for the DRD2 -141C Ins/Del allele was significantly different between alcoholic and control subjects (P=.007). The frequency of the 5-HTTLPR short (S) allele was significantly higher in alcoholic individuals (61.5%) than in nonalcoholic control subjects (52.8%; P=.021). When smokers were excluded from both control and alcoholic groups, the association between the DRD2 -141C Ins allele, as well as between the 5-HTTLPR S allele, and alcoholism became significant at both genotypic and allelic levels. No positive association was found between alcoholism and the DRD2 TaqI A or B, or the GABRbeta3, genotype. Our findings indicate that the DRD2 -141C Ins allele and the 5-HTTLPR S allele are genetic risk factors for alcoholism in Mexican-Americans, and that smoking modulates the association between genetic risk factors and alcoholism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.alcohol.2003.11.002DOI Listing
January 2004

Cytochrome P450 genes are differentially expressed in female and male hepatocyte retinoid X receptor alpha-deficient mice.

Endocrinology 2003 Jun;144(6):2311-8

Department of Pathology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14642, USA.

To study the functional role of retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha) in hepatocytes, hepatocyte RXRalpha-deficient mice have been established. Characterization has been performed on male mice. In this paper, we show that the expression of CYP450 genes is differentially expressed in male and female hepatocyte RXRalpha-deficient mice; male mice have reduced expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) CYP4A, CYP3A, and CYP2B mRNAs, but females do not exhibit such phenotypes. To examine the hormonal effects on this sexual dimorphic phenotype, male and female mice were subjected to 17beta-estradiol and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment, respectively, and then the expression of the CYP450 genes was studied. Estradiol had no effect on protecting the hepatocyte RXRalpha-deficient mice from reduced expression of the CYP450 genes. In contrast, DHT induced hepatocyte RXRalpha-deficient female mice, but not wild-type female mice, to have the reduced expression of CYP450 mRNAs. In addition, castration prevented the mutant male mice from exhibiting reduced expression of CYP450 mRNAs. wild-type and mutant mouse livers from both genders express androgen receptors (ARs). By transient transfection, DHT-AR could inhibit RXRalpha-mediated transcription. Furthermore, by transfection and coimmunoprecipitation, RXR can interact with AR in vivo. These data suggest that testosterone has a negative impact on retinoid signaling when the level of RXRalpha is low, which may in turn reduce the expression of the CYP450 genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2002-0129DOI Listing
June 2003

The ADH3*2 and CYP2E1 c2 alleles increase the risk of alcoholism in Mexican American men.

Exp Mol Pathol 2003 Apr;74(2):183-9

Department of Pathology, Harbor-UCLA Research and Education Institute, Torrance, CA 90509, USA.

To identify the association between the polymorphisms of genes encoding alcohol metabolizing enzymes and alcoholism, the alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2), alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) genes were studied in 101 male Mexican American alcoholics. One hundred and four Mexican American nonalcoholic males served as controls. The allele frequency of ADH2*2 (4.3%) and ALDH2*2 (0%), which are considered as protective alleles against alcohol drinking, is very low in Mexican Americans and no association is found between these alleles and alcohol dependence. A strong association was found between ADH3 genotype and alcoholism; the percentage of subjects who carry the ADH3*2 allele was significantly higher in alcoholics (64.4%) than controls (50%). Association was also found between the CYP2E1 RsaI c2 allele and alcohol dependence; the percentage of subjects who carry the RsaI c2 allele was significantly higher in alcoholics (34.7%) than in nonalcoholics (22.1%). The subjects whose alcohol drinking onset age is younger than 25 have much higher CYP2E1 c2 allele frequency than those whose alcohol drinking onset age is older than 25 (22.1% vs 15.7%). Among 101 alcoholics, only 18 subjects carry neither ADH3*2 nor CYP2E1 c2 alleles. For those subjects who have an ADH*1/*1 background, a strong association is found between CYP2E1 RsaI/DraI genotype and alcoholism; the CYP2E1 RsaI c2 and DraI C allele frequencies are much higher in alcoholics than in nonalcoholics (26.4% vs 9.6% for c2 and 27.8% vs 13.5% for C allele). Taken together, ADH3*2 and CYP2E1 c2/C alleles might independently contribute to the development of alcoholism in Mexican American men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0014-4800(03)00006-6DOI Listing
April 2003

Hepatocyte retinoid X receptor-alpha-deficient mice have reduced food intake, increased body weight, and improved glucose tolerance.

Endocrinology 2003 Feb;144(2):605-11

Department of Pathology, Harbor-University of California, Los Angeles Medical Center, Torrance, California 90509, USA.

Hepatocyte retinoid X receptor (RXR)alpha-deficient mice and wild-type mice were fed either a regular or a high-saturated-fat diet for 12 wk to study the functional role of hepatocyte RXRalpha in fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism. Food intake was significantly reduced in hepatocyte RXRalpha-deficient mice when either diet was used. The amount of food intake was negatively associated with serum leptin level. Although mutant mice ate less, body weight and fat content were significantly higher in mutant than wild-type mice. Examination of the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha target genes indicated that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha-mediated pathway was compromised in the mutant mice, which, in turn, might affect fatty-acid metabolism and result in increased body weight and fat content. Although mutant mice were obese, they demonstrated the same degree of insulin sensitivity and the same level of serum insulin as the wild-type mice. However, these mutant mice have improved glucose tolerance. To explore a mechanism that may be responsible for the improved glucose tolerance, serum IGF-I level was examined. Serum IGF-1 level was significantly increased in mutant mice compared with wild-type mice. Taken together, hepatocyte RXRalpha deficiency increases leptin level and reduces food intake. Those mice also develop obesity, with an unexpected improvement of glucose tolerance. The result also suggests that an increase in serum IGF-I level might be one of the mechanisms leading to improved glucose tolerance in hepatocyte RXRalpha-deficient mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2002-221003DOI Listing
February 2003

The role of hepatocyte RXR alpha in xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptor-mediated pathways.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2002 Feb;15(1):89-96

Department of Pathology, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, 1000 West Carson Street, Torrance, CA 90509, USA.

Nuclear receptors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) cross talk and serve as xenobiotic sensors to form a safety net against the toxic effects of harmful substances. Retinoid x receptor alpha (RXRalpha) dimerizes with CAR and PXR. In order to analyze the role of RXRalpha in these xeno-sensor-mediated pathways, hepatocyte RXRalpha-deficient mice were challenged by CAR and PXR ligands including androstanol, 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP), and pregnenolone 16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN). We demonstrate that hepatocyte RXRalpha deficiency prevents TCPOBOP-induced hepatomegaly and morphological changes. We also show that in vivo the cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes including CYP2A5, CYP2B10, CYP3A1, but not CYP2E1 and CYP2D6, are the RXRalpha target genes. Androstanol, TCPOBOP, and PCN can differentially regulate the expression of these CYP450 genes. In addition, the most active peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPARalpha) ligand, Wy14,643, also regulates some of the xeno-sensor target genes such as CYP2A5 and CYP2B10 in vivo. Thus, the ligands of different nuclear receptors can regulate common CYP450 genes and hepatocyte RXRalpha is essential for xenobiotic metabolism in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0928-0987(01)00211-1DOI Listing
February 2002