Publications by authors named "Tamás Masszi"

117 Publications

Complement Overactivation and Consumption Predicts In-Hospital Mortality in SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:663187. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Internal Medicine and Haematology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.

Objectives: Uncontrolled thromboinflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus. Complement was implicated as key contributor to this process, therefore we hypothesized that markers of the complement profile, indicative for the activation state of the system, may be related to the severity and mortality of COVID-19.

Methods: In this prospective cohort study samples of 102 hospitalized and 26 outpatients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 were analyzed. Primary outcome was in-hospital, COVID-19 related mortality, and secondary outcome was COVID-19 severity as assessed by the WHO ordinal scale. Complement activity of alternative and classical pathways, its factors, regulators, and activation products were measured by hemolytic titration, turbidimetry, or enzyme-immunoassays. Clinical covariates and markers of inflammation were extracted from hospital records.

Results: Increased complement activation was characteristic for hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Complement activation was significantly associated with markers of inflammation, such as interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and ferritin. Twenty-five patients died during hospital stay due to COVID-19 related illness. Patients with uncontrolled complement activation leading to consumption of C3 and decrease of complement activity were more likely to die, than those who had complement activation without consumption. Cox models identified anaphylatoxin C3a, and C3 overactivation and consumption (ratio of C3a/C3) as predictors of in-hospital mortality [HR of 3.63 (1.55-8.45, 95% CI) and 6.1 (2.1-17.8), respectively].

Conclusion: Increased complement activation is associated with advanced disease severity of COVID-19. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection are more likely to die when the disease is accompanied by overactivation and consumption of C3. These results may provide observational evidence and further support to studies on complement inhibitory drugs for the treatment of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.663187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8027327PMC
March 2021

Treatment-free remission following frontline nilotinib in patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia: 5-year update of the ENESTfreedom trial.

Leukemia 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

University of Turin, Orbassano, Italy.

The ENESTfreedom trial assessed the feasibility of treatment-free remission (TFR) in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP) following frontline nilotinib treatment. Results for long-term outcomes after a 5-year follow-up are presented herein. Patients who had received ≥2 years of frontline nilotinib therapy and achieved MR underwent a 1-year nilotinib treatment consolidation phase before attempting TFR. At the 5-year data cut-off, 81/190 patients entering the TFR phase (42.6%) were still in TFR, with 76 (40.0%) in MR. Patients who lost major molecular response (MMR) entered a treatment re-initiation phase; 90/91 patients entering this phase (98.9%) regained MMR and 84/91 patients (92.3%) regained MR. The Kaplan-Meier estimated treatment-free survival rate at 5 years was 48.2%. No disease progression or CML-related deaths were reported. Whereas the incidence of adverse events (AEs) declined from 96 weeks following the start of TFR, an increase in AE frequency was observed for patients in the treatment re-initiation phase. Low Sokal risk score, BCR-ABL1 levels at 48 weeks of TFR and stable MR response for the first year of TFR were associated with higher TFR rates. Overall, these results support the efficacy and safety of attempting TFR following upfront nilotinib therapy of >3 years in patients with CML-CP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01205-5DOI Listing
March 2021

Health-related quality of life maintained over time in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma treated with daratumumab in combination with bortezomib and dexamethasone: results from the phase III CASTOR trial.

Br J Haematol 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Raritan, NJ, USA.

In the phase III CASTOR trial, daratumumab, bortezomib and dexamethasone (D-Vd) significantly extended progression-free survival compared with bortezomib and dexamethasone (Vd) alone in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). Here, we present patient-reported outcomes (PROs) from the CASTOR trial. PROs were assessed using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30-item (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the EuroQol 5-dimensional descriptive system questionnaire. Treatment effects through Cycle 8 were measured by a repeated measures mixed-effects model. After Cycle 8, PROs were only collected for patients in the D-Vd group who continued on daratumumab monotherapy. Compliance rates for PRO assessments were high and similar between treatment groups. Mean changes from baseline were generally similar between treatment groups for EORTC QLQ-C30 global health status (GHS), functioning and symptoms, and did not exceed 10 points for either treatment group. Subgroup analyses were consistent with the results observed in the overall population. There was no change in patients' health-related quality of life for the first eight cycles of therapy; thereafter, patients treated with daratumumab over the long-term reported improvements in GHS and pain. These results complement the significant clinical benefits observed with D-Vd in patients with RRMM and support its use in this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17321DOI Listing
February 2021

Daratumumab, bortezomib, and dexamethasone in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma: subgroup analysis of CASTOR based on cytogenetic risk.

J Hematol Oncol 2020 08 20;13(1):115. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

University Hospital of Salamanca/IBSAL/Cancer Research Center-IBMCC (USAL-CSIC), Salamanca, Spain.

Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) patients with high cytogenetic risk have poor outcomes. In CASTOR, daratumumab plus bortezomib/dexamethasone (D-Vd) prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) versus bortezomib/dexamethasone (Vd) alone and exhibited tolerability in patients with relapsed or refractory MM (RRMM).

Methods: This subgroup analysis evaluated D-Vd versus Vd in CASTOR based on cytogenetic risk, determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization and/or karyotype testing performed locally. High-risk patients had t(4;14), t(14;16), and/or del17p abnormalities. Minimal residual disease (MRD; 10 sensitivity threshold) was assessed via the clonoSEQ® assay V2.0. Of the 498 patients randomized, 40 (16%) in the D-Vd group and 35 (14%) in the Vd group were categorized as high risk.

Results: After a median follow-up of 40.0 months, D-Vd prolonged median PFS versus Vd in patients with standard (16.6 vs 6.6 months; HR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.19-0.37; P < 0.0001) and high (12.6 vs 6.2 months; HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.21-0.83; P = 0.0106) cytogenetic risk. D-Vd achieved deep responses, including higher rates of MRD negativity and sustained MRD negativity versus Vd, regardless of cytogenetic risk. The safety profile was consistent with the overall population of CASTOR.

Conclusion: These updated data reinforce the effectiveness and tolerability of daratumumab-based regimens for RRMM, regardless of cytogenetic risk status.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02136134 . Registered 12 May 2014.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-020-00948-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7439722PMC
August 2020

Quantitative Analysis and Monitoring of EZH2 Mutations Using Liquid Biopsy in Follicular Lymphoma.

Genes (Basel) 2020 07 13;11(7). Epub 2020 Jul 13.

MTA-SE Lendület Molecular Oncohematology Research Group, 1st Department of Pathology and Experimental Cancer Research, Semmelweis University, 1085 Budapest, Hungary.

Recent advances in molecular technologies enable sensitive and quantitative assessment of circulating tumor DNA, offering a noninvasive disease monitoring tool for patients with malignant disorders. Here, we demonstrated on four follicular lymphoma cases that circulating tumor DNA based mutation analysis performed by a highly sensitive droplet digital PCR method may be a valuable treatment monitoring approach in mutant follicular lymphoma. variant allele frequencies changed in parallel with the volume of metabolically active tumor sites observed on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computer tomography (PET-CT) scans. Variant allele frequencies of mutations decreased or were eliminated rapidly upon successful treatment, with treatment failure being associated with elevated variant allele frequencies. We also demonstrated spatial heterogeneity in a patient with two different mutations in distinct anatomical sites, with both mutations simultaneously detected in the liquid biopsy specimen. In summary, circulating tumor DNA based mutation analysis offers a rapid, real-time, radiation-free monitoring tool for sensitive detection of mutations deriving from different anatomical sites in follicular lymphoma patients receiving immunochemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes11070785DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7397208PMC
July 2020

Usefulness of a Novel Electrocardiographic Score to Estimate the Pre-Test Probability of Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

Am J Cardiol 2020 09 7;130:143-151. Epub 2020 Jun 7.

3rd Department of Medicine, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.

According to our experience the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) may be used to estimate the pretest probability of acute pulmonary embolism (acPE). To this end, we devised a novel ECG score (nECGs) composed of 5 known ECG criteria, best characterizing the key pathogenetic steps of acPE. A retrospective derivation cohort including 136 patients with acPE and a prospective validation cohort including 149 consecutive patients were used to devise and validate the nECGs. The latter cohort consisted of 76 patients with acPE and 73 controls presenting with characteristic symptoms of acPE, in whom the work-up ruled out acPE. We compared the diagnostic value of our nECGs with those of another ECG score (Daniel-ECG-score) and of the best prediction rules (3 Wells score and 2 Geneva score variants). The sensitivity (98.7%), negative predictive value (98%), test accuracy (84.4%) and the negative likelihood ratio (LR) (0.019) of the nECGs were superior to those of all other investigated methods. There was no between-groups difference in the positive LR. The specificity (69%) of the nECGs was inferior to those of the Daniel-ECG-score and Wells scores and did not differ or was superior to those of the Geneva score variants. The positive predictive value (77.3%) of the nECGs was superior to those of the 2 Geneva scores and did not differ from those of the other methods. In conclusion, the nECGs due to its superior sensitivity, negative predictive value, test accuracy, and negative LR estimated the pretest probability of acPE better than the Daniel-ECG-score and the prediction rules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2020.05.042DOI Listing
September 2020

c-MYC expression and maturity phenotypes are associated with outcome benefit from addition of ixazomib to lenalidomide-dexamethasone in myeloma.

Eur J Haematol 2020 Jul 15;105(1):35-46. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Hematology, University Hospital Hôtel Dieu, University of Nantes, Nantes, France.

Objectives: In the TOURMALINE-MM1 phase 3 trial in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma, ixazomib-lenalidomide-dexamethasone (IRd) showed different magnitudes of progression-free survival (PFS) benefit vs placebo-Rd according to number and type of prior therapies, with greater benefit seen in patients with >1 prior line of therapy or 1 prior line of therapy without stem cell transplantation (SCT).

Methods: RNA sequencing data were used to investigate the basis of these differences.

Results: The PFS benefit of IRd vs placebo-Rd was greater in patients with tumors expressing high c-MYC levels (median not reached vs 11.3 months; hazard ratio [HR] 0.42; 95% CI, 0.26, 0.66; P < .001) compared with in those expressing low c-MYC levels (median 20.6 vs 16.6 months; HR 0.75; 95% CI, 0.42, 1.2). Expression of c-MYC in tumors varied based on the number and type of prior therapy received, with the lowest levels observed in tumors of patients who had received 1 prior line of therapy including SCT. These tumors also had higher expression levels of CD19 and CD81.

Conclusions: PFS analyses suggest that lenalidomide and ixazomib target tumors with different levels of c-MYC, CD19, and CD81 expression, thus providing a potential rationale for the differential benefits observed in the TOURMALINE-MM1 study. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as: NCT01564537.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7317705PMC
July 2020

Long-term efficacy and safety of ruxolitinib versus best available therapy in polycythaemia vera (RESPONSE): 5-year follow up of a phase 3 study.

Lancet Haematol 2020 Mar 23;7(3):e226-e237. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Polycythaemia vera is a myeloproliferative neoplasm characterised by excessive proliferation of erythroid, myeloid, and megakaryocytic components in the bone marrow due to mutations in the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) gene. Ruxolitinib, a JAK 1 and JAK 2 inhibitor, showed superiority over best available therapy in a phase 2 study in patients with polycythaemia vera who were resistant to or intolerant of hydroxyurea. We aimed to compare the long-term safety and efficacy of ruxolitinib with best available therapy in patients with polycythaemia vera who were resistant to or intolerant of hydroxyurea.

Methods: We report the 5-year results for a randomised, open-label, phase 3 study (RESPONSE) that enrolled patients at 109 sites across North America, South America, Europe, and the Asia-Pacific region. Patients (18 years or older) with polycythaemia vera who were resistant to or intolerant of hydroxyurea were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive either ruxolitinib or best available therapy. Patients randomly assigned to the ruxolitinib group received the drug orally at a starting dose of 10 mg twice a day. Single-agent best available therapy comprised hydroxyurea, interferon or pegylated interferon, pipobroman, anagrelide, approved immunomodulators, or observation without pharmacological treatment. The primary endpoint, composite response (patients who achieved both haematocrit control without phlebotomy and 35% or more reduction from baseline in spleen volume) at 32 weeeks was previously reported. Patients receiving best available therapy could cross over to ruxolitinib after week 32. We assessed the durability of primary composite response, complete haematological remission, overall clinicohaematological response, overall survival, patient-reported outcomes, and safety after 5-years of follow-up. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01243944.

Findings: We enrolled patients between Oct 27, 2010, and Feb 13, 2013, and the study concluded on Feb 9, 2018. Of 342 individuals screened for eligibility, 222 patients were randomly assigned to receive ruxolitinib (n=110, 50%) or best available therapy (n=112, 50%). The median time since polycythaemia vera diagnosis was 8·2 years (IQR 3·9-12·3) in the ruxolitinib group and 9·3 years (4·9-13·8) in the best available therapy group. 98 (88%) of 112 patients initially randomly assigned to best available therapy crossed over to receive ruxolitinib and no patient remained on best available therapy after 80 weeks of study. Among 25 primary responders in the ruxolitinib group, six had progressed at the time of final analysis. At 5 years, the probability of maintaining primary composite response was 74% (95% CI 51-88). The probability of maintaining complete haematological remission was 55% (95% CI 32-73) and the probability of maintaining overall clinicohaematological responses was 67% (54-77). In the intention-to-treat analysis not accounting for crossover, the probability of survival at 5 years was 91·9% (84·4-95·9) with ruxolitinib therapy and 91·0% (82·8-95·4) with best available therapy. Anaemia was the most common adverse event in patients receiving ruxolitinib (rates per 100 patient-years of exposure were 8·9 for ruxolitinib and 8·8 for the crossover population), though most anaemia events were mild to moderate in severity (grade 1 or 2 anaemia rates per 100 patient-years of exposure were 8·0 for ruxolitinib and 8·2 for the crossover population). Non-haematological adverse events were generally lower with long-term ruxolitinib treatment than with best available therapy. Thromboembolic events were lower in the ruxolitinib group than the best available therapy group. There were two on-treatment deaths in the ruxolitinib group. One of these deaths was due to gastric adenocarcinoma, which was assessed by the investigator as related to ruxolitinib treatment.

Interpretation: We showed that ruxolitinib is a safe and effective long-term treatment option for patients with polycythaemia vera who are resistant to or intolerant of hydroxyurea. Taken together, ruxolitinib treatment offers the first widely approved therapeutic alternative for this post-hydroxyurea patient population.

Funding: Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(19)30207-8DOI Listing
March 2020

[Epidemiology of early infections after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. ].

Orv Hetil 2020 Jan;161(3):103-109

Országos Hematológiai és Infektológiai Intézet, Hematológiai Osztály, Dél-pesti Centrumkórház Budapest, Albert Flórián út 5-7., 1097.

Autologous hemopoietic stem cell transplantation remains a promising therapy in certain malignant and non-malignant conditions. The procedure, however, will increase the risk of complications, most notably early and late infections. To analyze the frequency and spectrum of pathogens in early (<+100 days) post-transplant infections and to evaluate risk factors for mortality. Prospectively collected data from 699 patients undergoing autologous hemopoietic stem cell transplantation between 2007 and 2014 at our center were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. The median age of 699 patients was 56 (interquartile range: 43-62) years, 54% (376) were male. 25 patients have been transferred to other centers and 19 patients were lost to follow up. Neutropenic fever occurred in 69.8% (488) of patients. In addition, 102 infectious episodes in 96 patients were identified. Most commonly bacteremia occurred (49 episodes) with a median onset of 7 (5-11) days. The majority (33/49) of bacteremias have been observed during the pre-engraftment period. Their incidence proved to be higher in patients with malignant lymphoma compared to individuals with plasma cell disorders (p = 0.0005, OR: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.49-3.99). 12 episodes of viral infections and 8 cases of proven or probable invasive mycoses have been identified. Among the 655 patients with complete follow up, 16 in-hospital deaths (2.4%) occurred, 8 of them were associated with infections. Survival was adversely affected by early infections (p = 0.0001). In autologous stem cell transplantation, microbiologically unconfirmed neutropenic fever is common. Documented early bacteremia, however, is infrequent. Lymphoma patients have a significantly higher chance to develop bloodstream infections compared to individuals with plasma cell disorders. Early infections decrease the chance of survival; thus, an effective prophylaxis and therapy remains of paramount importance. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(3): 103-109.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/650.2020.31638DOI Listing
January 2020

Coexistence of aortic valve stenosis and cardiac amyloidosis: echocardiographic and clinical significance.

Cardiovasc Ultrasound 2019 Dec 26;17(1):32. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

3rd Department of Internal Medicine, Semmelweis University, Kútvölgyi 4, Budapest, 1125, Hungary.

Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction are common echocardiographic features of both aortic valve stenosis (AS) and cardiac amyloidosis (CA). These two different entities therefore may mask each other. From recent years, there is a growing body of evidence about the relatively high incidence of wild-type transthyretin (wtTTR) amyloidosis in AS, but there are scarce data on the prevalence of AS in CA, particularly in AL-type amyloidosis. The echocardiographic approach to these patients is not obvious, and not evidence based. We aimed to study the prevalence, severity, and type of AS in patients with CA and also to evaluate the potential of echocardiography in the diagnostic process.

Methods: Between January 2009 and January 2019, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical and echocardiographic data, and the echocardiographic work up of 55 consecutive CA patients.

Results: 80% of our CA patients had AL amyloidosis. We identified 5 patients (9%) with moderate to severe AS: two with moderate AS and three with low-flow, low-grade AS (LFLG AS). Further analysis of the latter three patients with dobutamine stress echocardiography revealed pseudo-severe LFLG AS in two, and true-severe AS in one patient.

Conclusion: The prevalence of moderate to severe AS is 9% in our population of CA patients, the majority of whom have AL amyloidosis. Dobutamine echocardiography seems to be appropriate for the further characterization of patients with LFLG AS, even with normal ejection fraction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12947-019-0182-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6933734PMC
December 2019

Insights on Multiple Myeloma Treatment Strategies.

Hemasphere 2019 Feb 27;3(1):e163. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Hematology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

The introduction of new agents and management strategies over the past decade has resulted in a major step change in treatment outcomes with deepening responses and increased survival for patients with multiple myeloma. In daily clinical practice, healthcare professionals are now faced with challenges including, optimal treatment sequencing and changing treatment goals. In light of this, a group of experts met to discuss diagnostic and treatment guidelines, examine current clinical practice, and consider how new clinical trial data may be integrated into the management of multiple myeloma in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HS9.0000000000000163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6745941PMC
February 2019

Identification of the best-suited donor for generating virus-specific T cells.

Vox Sang 2020 Jan 30;115(1):18-26. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Third Department of Internal Medicine, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.

Background And Objectives: Administration of virus-specific T cells (VSTs) is a viable antiviral treatment strategy after allogeneic HSCT, even if conventional therapies fail. Third-party donors are often chosen for the generation of the VST product. The eligibility of the donor has to be tested in a rigorous donor screening procedure, since the isolation technology only targets pre-existing VSTs.

Materials And Methods: In a period of 3 years, we performed 32 VST treatments for 28 patients. Targeting four different viruses, 284 healthy individuals underwent 417 donor screening procedures. VSTs were counted by flow cytometry detecting interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) producing T cells. Generation of the VSTs was performed from leukapheresis products in a fully automated and closed system using magnetic cell separation.

Results: The mean circulating VST frequencies ranged from 0·006% to 0·328%. The average yield of viable VSTs in the product was 1·83·10 cells, while the average VST dose calculated for the patient's body weight was 4·63·10 /kg. The mean purity - percentage of VSTs within the T cells - of all T-cell products was 62·9%. Correlation was identified between the frequency of the VSTs in the peripheral blood of the donor and the VST numbers of the end product; the strongest correlation was seen for CMV.

Conclusion: This paper focuses on the T-cell donors, highlighting some key points on the donor selection process. Based on the findings in connection with the CMV therapies, peripheral VST seems to be the best predictor of the VST content of the final product administered to the patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vox.12857DOI Listing
January 2020

Treosulfan or busulfan plus fludarabine as conditioning treatment before allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplantation for older patients with acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome (MC-FludT.14/L): a randomised, non-inferiority, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Haematol 2020 Jan 9;7(1):e28-e39. Epub 2019 Oct 9.

Department of Haematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland; Faculty of Medicine, University of Rzeszow, Rzeszow, Poland.

Background: Further improvement of preparative regimens before allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an unmet medical need for the growing number of older or comorbid patients with acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of conditioning with treosulfan plus fludarabine compared with reduced-intensity busulfan plus fludarabine in this population.

Methods: We did an open-label, randomised, non-inferiority, phase 3 trial in 31 transplantation centres in France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and Poland. Eligible patients were 18-70 years, had acute myeloid leukaemia in first or consecutive complete haematological remission (blast counts <5% in bone marrow) or myelodysplastic syndrome (blast counts <20% in bone marrow), Karnofsky index of 60% or higher, and were indicated for allogeneic HSCT but considered at an increased risk for standard myeloablative preparative regimens based on age (≥50 years), an HSCT-specific comorbidity index of more than 2, or both. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either intravenous 10 g/m treosulfan daily applied as a 2-h infusion for 3 days (days -4 to -2) or 0·8 mg/kg busulfan applied as a 2-h infusion at 6-h intervals on days -4 and -3. Both groups received 30 mg/m intravenous fludarabine daily for 5 days (days -6 to -2). The primary outcome was event-free survival 2 years after HSCT. The non-inferiority margin was a hazard ratio (HR) of 1·3. Efficacy was assessed in all patients who received treatment and completed transplantation, and safety in all patients who received treatment. The study is registered with EudraCT (2008-002356-18) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00822393).

Findings: Between June 13, 2013, and May 3, 2016, 476 patients were enrolled (240 in the busulfan group received treatment and transplantation, and in the treosulfan group 221 received treatment and 220 transplanation). At the second preplanned interim analysis (Nov 9, 2016), the primary endpoint was met and trial was stopped. Here we present the final confirmatory analysis (data cutoff May 31, 2017). Median follow-up was 15·4 months (IQR 8·8-23·6) for patients treated with treosulfan and 17·4 months (6·3-23·4) for those treated with busulfan. 2-year event-free survival was 64·0% (95% CI 56·0-70·9) in the treosulfan group and 50·4% (42·8-57·5) in the busulfan group (HR 0·65 [95% CI 0·47-0·90]; p<0·0001 for non-inferiority, p=0·0051 for superiority). The most frequently reported grade 3 or higher adverse events were abnormal blood chemistry results (33 [15%] of 221 patients in the treosulfan group vs 35 [15%] of 240 patients in the busulfan group) and gastrointestinal disorders (24 [11%] patients vs 39 [16%] patients). Serious adverse events were reported for 18 (8%) patients in the treosulfan group and 17 (7%) patients in the busulfan group. Causes of deaths were generally transplantation-related.

Interpretation: Treosulfan was non-inferior to busulfan when used in combination with fludarabine as a conditioning regimen for allogeneic HSCT for older or comorbid patients with acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. The improved outcomes in patients treated with the treosulfan-fludarabine regimen suggest its potential to become a standard preparative regimen in this population.

Funding: medac GmbH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(19)30157-7DOI Listing
January 2020

Analysis of data collected in the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) Registry on a cohort of lymphoma patients receiving plerixafor.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 03 30;55(3):613-622. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Plerixafor + granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is administered to patients with lymphoma who are poor mobilizers of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in Europe. This international, multicenter, non-interventional registry study (NCT01362972) evaluated long-term follow-up of patients with lymphoma who received plerixafor for HSC mobilization versus other mobilization methods. Propensity score matching was conducted to balance baseline characteristics between comparison groups. The following mobilization regimens were compared: G-CSF + plerixafor (G + P) versus G-CSF alone; G + P versus G-CSF + chemotherapy (G + C); and G-CSF + plerixafor + chemotherapy (G + P + C) versus G + C. The primary outcomes were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR). Overall, 313/3749 (8.3%) eligible patients were mobilized with plerixafor-containing regimens. After propensity score matching, 70 versus 36 patients were matched in the G + P versus G-CSF alone cohort, 124 versus 124 in the G + P versus G + C cohort, and 130 versus 130 in the G + P + C versus G + C cohort. For both PFS and OS, the upper bound of confidence interval for the hazard ratio was >1.3 for all comparisons, implying that non-inferiority was not demonstrated. No major differences in PFS, OS, and CIR were observed between the plerixafor and comparison groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0693-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7051902PMC
March 2020

Results from a multicenter, noninterventional registry study for multiple myeloma patients who received stem cell mobilization regimens with and without plerixafor.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 02 18;55(2):356-366. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

University Hospital, Hamburg, Germany.

Plerixafor plus granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhances the mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for collection and subsequent autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). This international, multicenter, noninterventional registry study (NCT01362972), evaluated long-term outcomes for MM patients who received plerixafor versus other mobilization regimens. The comparisons were: G-CSF + plerixafor (G-CSF + P) versus G-CSF-; G-CSF + P versus G-CSF + chemotherapy (G-CSF + C); and G-CSF + P + C versus G-CSF + C. Propensity score matching was used to balance groups. Primary outcome measures were progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) after transplantation. After propensity matching, 77 versus 41 patients in the G-CSF + P versus G-CSF cohorts, 129 versus 129 in the G-CSF + P versus G-CSF + C cohorts, and 117 versus 117 in the G-CSF + P + C versus G-CSF + C cohorts were matched, respectively. Propensity score matching resulted in a smaller sample size and imbalances were not completely overcome. For both PFS and OS, the upper limits of the hazard ratio 95% confidence intervals exceeded prespecified boundaries; noninferiority was not demonstrated. CIR rates were higher in the plerixafor cohorts. G-CSF + P remains an option for the mobilization of HSCs in poor mobilizers with MM with no substantial differences in PFS, OS, and CIR in comparison with other regimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0676-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6995780PMC
February 2020

Investigation of TGFB1 -1347C>T variant as a biomarker after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 01 16;55(1):215-223. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Central Hospital of Southern Pest National Institute of Hematology and Infectious Diseases, Budapest, Hungary.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a potentially curative therapeutic option for malignant hematopoietic diseases. Cytokines including transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) play a pivotal role in immune reconstruction, and the development of graft versus host disease (GvHD) or infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of TGFB1 gene -1347C>T variant in the outcome of HSCT in a cohort of 409 adult recipient-donor pairs. TGFB1 variant was analysed from genomic DNA with LightCycler hybridisation probe method. In case of myeloablative conditioning, donor TGFB1 genotype correlated with overall survival (60-month OS for CC: 62.1 ± 4.8%; CT: 46.8 ± 4.8%; TT: 35.6 ± 9.3%; p = 0.032), which was independent of age, donor type and GvHD prophylaxis in multivariate analysis (HR:2.35, 95%CI:1.35-4.10, p = 0.003). The cumulative incidence of acute GvHD grade III-IV [CC:10%; CT:17%; TT:24%], and non-relapse mortality was higher in TT-carriers (24-month NRM: CC:24%; CT:26%; TT:46%, p = 0.035). We did not find any association between recipient TGFB1 -1347C>T polymorphism and HSCT outcome. Our results suggest that donor TGFB1 -1347C>T may exert an adverse influence on the outcome of myeloablative conditioning transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0656-4DOI Listing
January 2020

Real-world data on the efficacy and safety of daratumumab treatment in Hungarian relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma patients.

Int J Hematol 2019 Nov 7;110(5):559-565. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

Department of Hematology, Institute for Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98., 4032, Debrecen, Hungary.

Daratumumab is a human anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody used in the treatment of refractory and relapsed multiple myeloma. We investigated the efficacy and safety of daratumumab therapy in a real-world setting. Ninety-nine Hungarian patients were included; 48 received monotherapy, while lenalidomide and bortezomib combinations were administered in 29 and 19 cases, respectively. Overall response rate was assessable in 88 patients, with 12 complete, 10 very good partial, 34 partial, and seven minor responses. At a median duration of follow-up of 18.6 months, median progression-free survival (PFS) among all patients was 17.0 months. These values were inferior in the bortezomib combination and monotherapy groups. Patients with early-stage disease (ISS1) had better survival results than those with stage 2 or 3 myeloma (p = 0.009). Heavily pretreated patients had inferior PFS compared to those with 1-3 therapies (p = 0.035). Patients with impaired renal function had PFS results comparable with those having no kidney involvement. There were 10 fatal infections, and the most frequent adverse events were mild infusion-associated reactions and hematologic toxicities. Our results confirm that daratumumab is an effective treatment option for relapsed/refractory MM with an acceptable safety profile in patients with normal and impaired renal function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-019-02715-wDOI Listing
November 2019

Donor KIR2DS1 reduces the risk of transplant related mortality in HLA-C2 positive young recipients with hematological malignancies treated by myeloablative conditioning.

PLoS One 2019 25;14(6):e0218945. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

Department of Haematology and Stem Cell Transplantation, South-Pest Central Hospital-National Institute of Haematology and Infectology, Budapest, Hungary.

Background: Recognition of HLA-C2 group alleles on recipient cells by activating killer immunoglobulin like receptors, KIR2DS1 on donor natural killer cells may lead to increased graft-versus-leukemia effect or immunomodulation in patients treated by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) influencing disease free and overall survival (OS).

Objective: In the present study, 314 consecutive, allo-HSCT recipient and donor pairs were included with retrospective donor KIR-genotyping and clinical parameters analyzes.

Results: After a median follow-up of 23.6 months, recipients with HLA-C2 group allele (rC2) showed improved (p = 0.046) OS if transplanted with KIR2DS1 positive donors (d2DS1) compared to those without one or both of this genetic attribute. Within the myeloablative conditioning (MAC) subgroup (n = 227), rC2 homozygous+d2DS1 patients (n = 14) showed a 5 years OS of 93% followed by rC2 heterozygous+d2DS1 patients (n = 48, 65%) compared to rC2 and/or d2DS1 negatives (47%, p = 0.018). Multivariate analyses indicated rC2+d2DS1 positivity as an independent predictor of OS (HR:0.47, 0.26-0.86, p = 0.014) besides donor type, presence of CMV-reactivation or chemoresistant disease. Among MAC-treated patients, the combined rC2+d2DS1 presence was associated with a markedly decreased cumulative incidence of transplant related mortality (p = 0.0045).

Conclusion: The combination of rC2+d2DS1 may be a favorable genetic constellation in allo-HSCT with MAC potentially reducing transplant related mortality.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0218945PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6592561PMC
February 2020

Impact of primary disease on outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for transformed secondary acute leukaemia.

Br J Haematol 2019 05 28;185(4):725-732. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Hôpital St. Louis, Paris, France.

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) and chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML) can progress to secondary acute myeloid leukaemia (sAML). We compared the outcome of 4214 sAML patients who received allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) from an unrelated (62%) or human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling donor (38%) according the underlying disease: MDS (n = 3541), CMML (n = 251) or MPN (n = 422). After a median follow up of 46·5 months, the estimated 3-year progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for the entire group was 36% (34-37%) and 41% (40-43%), respectively. The cumulative incidence of relapse and non-relapse mortality (NRM) was 37% (35-39%) and 27% (26-29%), respectively. In a multivariable analysis for OS, besides age (P < 0·001), unrelated donor (P = 0·011), cytomegalovirus ± constellation (P = 0·007), Karnofsky index ≤ 80 (P < 0·001), remission status (P < 0·001), peripheral blood as stem cell source (P = 0·009), sAML from MPN (P = 0·003) remained a significant factor in comparison to sAML from MDS, while worse outcome of sAML from CMML did not reach statistical significance (P = 0·06). This large registry study demonstrates a major impact of the underlying disease on outcome of sAML after allo-HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15819DOI Listing
May 2019

Randomized Phase III Study of Alisertib or Investigator's Choice (Selected Single Agent) in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma.

J Clin Oncol 2019 03 1;37(8):613-623. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

27 University of Washington, Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Seattle, WA.

Purpose: The aim of this open-label, first-in-setting, randomized phase III trial was to evaluate the efficacy of alisertib, an investigational Aurora A kinase inhibitor, in patients with relapsed/refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL).

Patients And Methods: Adult patients with relapsed/refractory PTCL-one or more prior therapy-were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive oral alisertib 50 mg two times per day (days 1 to 7; 21-day cycle) or investigator-selected single-agent comparator, including intravenous pralatrexate 30 mg/m (once per week for 6 weeks; 7-week cycle), or intravenous gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m or intravenous romidepsin 14 mg/m (days 1, 8, and 15; 28-day cycle). Tumor tissue (disease subtype) and imaging were assessed by independent central review. Primary outcomes were overall response rate and progression-free survival (PFS). Two interim analyses and one final analysis were planned.

Results: Between May 2012 and October 2014, 271 patients were randomly assigned (alisertib, n = 138; comparator, n = 133). Enrollment was stopped early on the recommendation of the independent data monitoring committee as a result of the low probability of alisertib achieving PFS superiority with full enrollment. Centrally assessed overall response rate was 33% for alisertib and 45% for the comparator arm (odds ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.33 to 1.08). Median PFS was 115 days for alisertib and 104 days for the comparator arm (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.637 to 1.178). The most common adverse events were anemia (53% of alisertib-treated patients v 34% of comparator-treated patients) and neutropenia (47% v 31%, respectively). A lower percentage of patients who received alisertib (9%) compared with the comparator (14%) experienced events that led to study drug discontinuation. Of 26 on-study deaths, five were considered treatment related (alisertib, n = 3 of 11; comparator, n = 2 of 15). Two-year overall survival was 35% for each arm.

Conclusion: In patients with relapsed/refractory PTCL, alisertib was not statistically significantly superior to the comparator arm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.18.00899DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6494247PMC
March 2019

Calreticulin mutation specific CAL2 immunohistochemistry accurately identifies rare calreticulin mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

Pathology 2019 Apr 31;51(3):301-307. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

MTA-SE Momentum Molecular Oncohematology Research Group, Semmelweis University, 1st Department of Pathology and Experimental Cancer Research, Budapest, Hungary. Electronic address:

Mutations of the multifunctional protein calreticulin (CALR) are recognised as one of the main driver alterations involved in the pathogenesis of Philadelphia negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (Ph MPN) and also represent a major diagnostic criterion in the most recent World Health Organization classification of myeloid neoplasms. Nowadays, quantitative assessment of the driver mutations is gaining importance, as recent studies demonstrated the clinical relevance of the mutation load reflecting the size of the mutant clone. Here, we performed for the first time a manual and automated quantitative assessment of the CALR mutation load at protein level using CAL2, a recently developed CALR mutation specific monoclonal antibody, on a cohort of 117 patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) or primary myelofibrosis (PMF) and compared the CALR protein mutation loads with the CALR mutation load values established by a molecular assay. Eighteen different CALR mutations were detected in the cohort of the 91 CALR mutant cases. Mutation loads of the CALR mutations were between 13% and 94% with mean value in PMF cases significantly higher than ET cases (49.94 vs 41.09; t-test, p=0.004). Cases without CALR mutation (n=26) showed no or only minimal labelling with the CAL2 antibody, while all 18 different types of CALR mutations were associated with CAL2 labelling. The CALR mutation load showed a significant correlation (p=0.03) with the occurrence of major thrombotic events, with higher mutation load in patients presenting with these complications. We report a 100% concordance between the mutation status determined by immunohistochemistry and the CALR molecular assay, and we extend the applicability of this approach to 16 rare CALR mutations previously not analysed at protein level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pathol.2018.11.007DOI Listing
April 2019

Skin-homing CD8 T cells preferentially express GPI-anchored peptidase inhibitor 16, an inhibitor of cathepsin K.

Eur J Immunol 2018 12 9;48(12):1944-1957. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Genetics, Cell and Immunobiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.

This study sought to identify novel CD8 T cell homing markers by studying acute graft versus host disease (aGvHD), typically involving increased T cell homing to the skin and gut. FACS-sorted skin-homing (CD8β /CLA ), gut-homing (CD8β /integrinβ7 ), and reference (CD8β /CLA /integrinβ7 ) T cells were compared in patients affected by cutaneous and/or gastrointestinal aGVHD. Microarray analysis, qPCR, and flow cytometry revealed increased expression of peptidase inhibitor 16 (PI16) in skin-homing CD8 T cells. Robust association of PI16 with skin homing was confirmed in all types of aGvHD and in healthy controls, too. PI16 was not observed on CLA leukocytes other than T cells. Induction of PI16 expression on skin-homing T cells occurred independently of vitamin D3. Among skin-homing T cells, PI16 expression was most pronounced in memory-like CD45RO /CD127 /CD25 /CD69 /granzyme B cells. PI16 was confined to the plasma membrane, was GPI-anchored, and was lost upon restimulation of memory CD8 T cells. Loss of PI16 occurred by downregulation of PI16 transcription, and not by Phospholipase C (PLC)- or Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-mediated shedding, or by protein recycling. Inhibitor screening and pull-down experiments confirmed that PI16 inhibits cathepsin K, but may not bind to other skin proteases. These data link PI16 to skin-homing CD8 T cells, and raise the possibility that PI16 may regulate cutaneous cathepsin K.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.201847552DOI Listing
December 2018

Five-year PFS from the AETHERA trial of brentuximab vedotin for Hodgkin lymphoma at high risk of progression or relapse.

Blood 2018 12 28;132(25):2639-2642. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Department of Hematology and Blood and Marrow Transplant, Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.

The phase 3 AETHERA trial established brentuximab vedotin (BV) as a consolidative treatment option for adult patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) at high risk of relapse or progression after autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (auto-HSCT). Results showed that BV significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) vs placebo plus best supportive care alone. At 5-year follow-up, BV continued to provide patients with sustained PFS benefit; 5-year PFS was 59% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51-66) with BV vs 41% (95% CI, 33-49) with placebo (hazard ratio [HR], 0.521; 95% CI, 0.379-0.717). Similarly, patients with ≥2 risk factors in the BV arm experienced significantly higher PFS at 5 years than patients in the placebo arm (HR, 0.424; 95% CI, 0.302-0.596). Upfront consolidation with BV significantly delayed time to second subsequent therapy, an indicator of ongoing disease control, vs placebo. Peripheral neuropathy, the most common adverse event in patients receiving BV, continued to improve and/or resolve in 90% of patients. In summary, consolidation with BV in adult patients with cHL at high risk of relapse or progression after auto-HSCT confers a sustained PFS benefit and is safe and well tolerated. Physicians should consider each patient's HL risk factor profile when making treatment decisions. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01100502.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2018-07-861641DOI Listing
December 2018

Daratumumab plus bortezomib and dexamethasone bortezomib and dexamethasone in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma: updated analysis of CASTOR.

Haematologica 2018 12 20;103(12):2079-2087. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

University Hospital of Salamanca/IBSAL, Spain.

Daratumumab, a CD38 human monoclonal antibody, demonstrated significant clinical activity in combination with bortezomib and dexamethasone bortezomib and dexamethasone alone in the primary analysis of CASTOR, a phase 3 study in relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma. A analysis based on treatment history and longer follow up is presented. After 19.4 (range: 0-27.7) months of median follow up, daratumumab plus bortezomib and dexamethasone prolonged progression-free survival (median: 16.7 7.1 months; hazard ratio, 0.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.39; <0.0001) and improved the overall response rate (83.8% 63.2%; <0.0001) compared with bortezomib and dexamethasone alone. The progression-free survival benefit of daratumumab plus bortezomib and dexamethasone was most apparent in patients with 1 prior line of therapy (median: not reached 7.9 months; hazard ratio, 0.19; 95% con fidence interval, 0.12-0.29; <0.0001). Daratumumab plus bortezomib and dexamethasone was also superior to bortezomib and dexamethasone alone in subgroups based on prior treatment exposure (bortezomib, thalidomide, or lenalidomide), lenalidomide-refractory status, time since last therapy (≤12, >12, ≤6, or >6 months), or cytogenetic risk. Minimal residual disease-negative rates were >2.5-fold higher with daratumumab across subgroups. The safety profile of daratumumab plus bortezomib and dexamethasone remained consistent with longer follow up. Daratumumab plus bortezomib and dexamethasone demonstrated significant clinical activity across clinically relevant subgroups and provided the greatest benefit to patients treated at first relapse. Trial registration: .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2018.194118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6269293PMC
December 2018

Multiple Myeloma of the Central Nervous System: 13 Cases and Review of the Literature.

J Oncol 2018 23;2018:3970169. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

3rd Department of Internal Medicine, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.

Central nervous system involvement is a rare complication of multiple myeloma with extremely poor prognosis as it usually fails to respond to therapy. We present 13 cases diagnosed at two centers in Budapest and review the current literature. The majority of our cases presented with high-risk features initially; two had plasma cell leukemia. Repeated genetic tests showed clonal evolution in 3 cases. Treatments varied according to the era, and efficacy was poor as generally reported in the literature. Only one patient is currently alive, with 3-month follow-up, and the patient responded to daratumumab-based treatment. Recent case reports show promising effectivity of pomalidomide and marizomib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/3970169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5937370PMC
April 2018

Patient-reported health-related quality of life from the phase III TOURMALINE-MM1 study of ixazomib-lenalidomide-dexamethasone versus placebo-lenalidomide-dexamethasone in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma.

Am J Hematol 2018 May 4. Epub 2018 May 4.

Department of Hematologic Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.

TOURMALINE-MM1 is a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of ixazomib plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone (IRd) versus placebo-Rd in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma following 1-3 prior lines of therapy. The study met its primary endpoint, demonstrating significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS) in the IRd arm versus placebo-Rd arm (median 20.6 vs 14.7 months, hazard ratio 0.74, P = .01), with limited additional toxicity. Patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was a secondary endpoint of TOURMALINE-MM1. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 (QLQ-C30) and Multiple Myeloma Module 20 (QLQ-MY20) were completed at screening, the start of cycles 1 and 2, every other cycle, the end of treatment, and every 4 weeks until progression. Over median follow-up of 23.3 and 22.9 months in the IRd and placebo-Rd arms, mean QLQ-C30 global health status (GHS)/QoL scores were maintained from baseline over the course of treatment in both groups, with no statistically significant differences between groups. EORTC QLQ-C30 function domain scores were also generally maintained from baseline; similarly, physical, emotional, and social function domains were maintained with IRd versus placebo-Rd, with slightly higher mean change from baseline scores at earlier time points with IRd. Findings from this double-blind study demonstrate that addition of ixazomib to Rd significantly improved efficacy while HRQoL was maintained, reflecting the limited additional toxicity seen with IRd versus placebo-Rd, and support the feasibility of long-term IRd administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25134DOI Listing
May 2018

Comparable results of autologous and allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for adults with Philadelphia-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in first complete molecular remission: An analysis by the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the EBMT.

Eur J Cancer 2018 06 18;96:73-81. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

Acute Leukemia Working Party of the EBMT, Paris, France; Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Tel Aviv University, Israel.

Background: Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) is considered a standard treatment for patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (Ph+ ALL) achieving complete remission after induction containing tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs).

Methods: We retrospectively compared results of myeloablative alloHSCT from either matched sibling donor (MSD) or unrelated donor (URD) with autologous (auto) HSCT for adults with Ph+ ALL in molecular remission, treated between 2007 and 2014.

Results: In univariate analysis, the incidence of relapse at 2 years was 47% after autoHSCT, 28% after MSD-HSCT and 19% after URD-HSCT (P = 0.0002). Respective rates of non-relapse mortality were 2%, 18%, and 22% (P = 0.001). The probabilities of leukaemia-free survival were 52%, 55% and 60% (P = 0.69), while overall survival rates were 70%, 70% and 69% (P = 0.58), respectively. In multivariate analysis, there was a trend towards increased risk of overall mortality after MSD-HSCT (hazard ratio [HR], 1.5, P = 0.12) and URD-HSCT (HR, 1.6, P = 0.08) when referred to autoHSCT. The use of total body irradiation (TBI)-based regimens was associated with reduced risk of relapse (HR, 0.65, P = 0.02) and overall mortality (HR, 0.67, P = 0.01).

Conclusion: In the era of TKIs, outcomes of myeloablative autoHSCT and alloHSCT for patients with Ph+ ALL in first molecular remission are comparable. Therefore, autoHSCT appears to be an attractive treatment option potentially allowing for circumvention of alloHSCT sequelae. Irrespective of the type of donor, TBI-based regimens should be considered the preferable type of conditioning for Ph+ ALL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2018.03.018DOI Listing
June 2018

Anti-thymocyte globulin improves survival free from relapse and graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in patients with Philadelphia-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia: An analysis by the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the EBMT.

Cancer 2018 06 30;124(12):2523-2533. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

The Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Office, Saint-Antoine Hospital, Paris, France.

Background: Mobilized peripheral blood stem cells are currently the predominant source of grafts for allogeneic transplantation (allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation [allo-PBSCT]), although, in comparison with bone marrow, their use is associated with an increased risk of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). Attempts to reduce the incidence of cGVHD include the addition of anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) to the pretransplant conditioning regimen.

Methods: The goal of this retrospective study was to analyze the effect of ATG on allo-PBSCT outcomes for adults with Philadelphia-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-neg ALL). The primary endpoint was survival free from relapse, grade 3 to 4 acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), and cGVHD (ie, graft-versus-host disease-free/relapse-free survival [GRFS]). Nine-hundred twenty-four patients who underwent unmanipulated allo-PBSCT in their first complete remission between 2007 and 2016 were included. ATG was used in 97 of the 494 transplants from matched sibling donors (20%) and in 307 of the 430 transplants from human leukocyte antigen-matched (8 of 8 loci) unrelated donors (71%).

Results: The use of ATG was an independent factor for an improved chance of GRFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; P = .0009). Furthermore, it was associated with a reduced risk of both grade 2 to 4 (HR, 0.66; P = .005) and grade 3 to 4 aGVHD (HR, 0.58; P = .03). Similarly, its addition reduced the incidence of both total (HR, 0.45; P < 10 ) and extensive cGVHD (HR, 0.30; P < 10 ) as well as nonrelapse mortality (HR, 0.58; P = .01). No significant effect was found with respect to leukemia-free or overall survival. However, an increased risk of relapse was noted for those who received ATG (HR, 1.40; P = .04).

Conclusions: Patients with Ph-neg ALL treated with allo-PBSCT benefit from the use of ATG in terms of improved GRFS. Its use may, therefore, be considered in this setting. Cancer 2018;124:2523-33. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.31354DOI Listing
June 2018