Publications by authors named "Takuo Fujisawa"

43 Publications

Metabolism of the Pyrethroid Insecticide Momfluorothrin in Lettuce ( L.).

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jun 27;69(22):6156-6165. Epub 2021 May 27.

Environmental Health Science Laboratory, Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd., 4-2-1 Takatsukasa, Takarazuka, Hyogo 665-8555, Japan.

The metabolism of the insecticide momfluorothrin (), 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-(methoxymethyl)benzyl ()-(1,3)-3-(2-cyanoprop-1-enyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate, C-labeled at the benzyl or cyclopropyl carbon, was investigated in lettuce. The metabolic profiles were similar between the two active ingredients, - and -. On the leaf surface, gradually volatilized and penetrated into the plant with concomitant degradation to form aldehyde/carboxylic acid derivatives via oxidative cleavage of the propenyl double bond. No isomerization of proceeded at any chiral carbon. In the leaf tissues, underwent ester hydrolysis to give the corresponding alcohol and chrysanthemic acid moieties, followed by glucose conjugation and successive malonic acid or ribose modification. Assuming O or O as the major reactant for the degradation on the plant, the reactivity with the alkenyl group in the substructure methyl (1,3)-3-[()-2-cyanoprop-1-enyl]-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylate was estimated from the HOMO/LUMO energy at the B3LYP/6-311+G** level, which indicated a lower potential of than analogous pyrethroids due to its electron-withdrawing cyano group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c00493DOI Listing
June 2021

Utility of an immunocytochemical analysis for pan-Trk in the cytodiagnosis of secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland.

Diagn Cytopathol 2021 Aug 22;49(8):E329-E335. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, Japan.

Secretory carcinoma (SC) of the salivary gland is a rare distinct clinicopathological entity characterized by the presence of the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion. Although the characteristic cytological features of SC have been recognized, its cytodiagnosis, especially differentiating SC from acinic cell carcinoma, is challenging. Recent studies have revealed that immunohistochemistry for pan-tyrosine receptor kinase (Trk) and nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group member 3 (NR4A3) are specific for SC and acinic cell carcinoma, respectively. However, the usefulness of immunocytochemical detection of these markers in the diagnosis of SC has not been addressed. Hence, the present study aimed to analyze the usefulness of immunocytochemical staining for pan-Trk and NR4A3 in the cytodiagnosis of SC. We enrolled eight patients with a histopathological diagnosis of SC who underwent preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytological examination. The cytological characteristics were reviewed and immunocytochemical staining for pan-Trk and NR4A3 was performed. The characteristic cytological features noted in the patient cohort included neoplastic cell clusters with a sheet-like and papillary cluster arrangement as well as single cells. Additionally, neoplastic cells with mild to moderately enlarged nuclei and small nucleoli, multi-vacuolated cytoplasm, and intracytoplasmic mucin were also observed. The immunocytochemical analyses clearly demonstrated that all eight specimens showed positive nuclear staining for pan-Trk, but were negative for NR4A3 expression. Although all cases of SC do not always show positive immunoreactivity for pan-Trk, immunocytochemical analysis for pan-Trk may be useful for the cytodiagnosis of SC along with assessment of the characteristic cytological features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dc.24750DOI Listing
August 2021

Review of the cytological features of olfactory neuroblastoma: A retrospective single-center study.

Diagn Cytopathol 2021 Aug 25;49(8):E301-E306. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, Japan.

Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is a rare malignant neuroectodermal tumor. Due to the rarity, there are scarce reports describing the cytological features of ONB. Thus, we aimed to analyze these cytological features and discuss their differences depending on the histological grading of ONB. Patients with a histopathological diagnosis of ONB who underwent fine-needle aspiration cytology were enrolled in the study. The cytological features, including arrangement and shape of neoplastic cells, nuclear features, and presence of rosettes, were analyzed. Eight patients with ONB were enrolled; cytological specimens of seven patients were obtained from metastatic lesions and that of one patient were obtained from the nasal cavity tumor. The cytological specimens demonstrated variable-sized clusters of neoplastic cells and single cells. Two-cell pattern, composed of large-sized viable neoplastic cells and small-sized apoptotic cells, was noted in 3 of 4 high-grade ONBs but in none of 4 low-grade ONBs. This reflects that the presence of the two-cell pattern may represent higher proliferation in neoplastic cells. The neoplastic cells had scant cytoplasm and round to oval nuclei containing fine to granular chromatin without conspicuous nucleoli. Rosettes and paranuclear blue bodies were observed in one patient. Most cytological specimens of ONB were obtained from metastatic lesions, especially from the cervical lymph node. Thus, ONB should be differentiated from malignant lymphoma and small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Recognition of these cytological features of ONB while considering patient history can aid in correctly diagnosing ONBs. Moreover, the presence of two-cell pattern might reflect high-grade histology of ONB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dc.24728DOI Listing
August 2021

Spontaneous infarction of pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland: A case report.

Mol Clin Oncol 2020 Dec 17;13(6):68. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, 573-1010 Osaka, Japan.

Infarction after the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) procedure is a well-recognized phenomenon of salivary gland lesions. Though extremely rare, spontaneous infarction without previous FNA can occur in pleomorphic adenoma (PA). The present report describes a fourth cytological case of spontaneous infarction of PA of the parotid gland using immunocytochemical analysis, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time. A 57-year-old Japanese female presented with persistent swelling of the right neck region. Physical examination revealed a tumour in the right parotid gland, and FNA examination of the tumour was performed following surgical resection. The Papanicolaou smear demonstrated the presence of fully necrotic cell clusters of varying sizes in a necrotic background. Only a few viable cell clusters were observed. These cells were polygonal to spindle-shaped, and exhibited large round to oval nuclei with a conspicuous nucleoli. Although nuclear pleomorphism was noted, the nuclear chromatin was fine. No neoplastic myoepithelial cells were observed. Therefore, it was suspected that these cells were malignant. Immunocytochemical analysis indicated that these atypical cells were positive for p40. Histopathological examination of the resected parotid gland tumour revealed infarcted PA. Our study revealed that the presence of atypical squamous metaplastic cells in a necrotic background was a characteristic cytological feature of infarcted PA, and that these atypical squamous cells can have large nuclei with conspicuous nucleoli and exhibit pleomorphism. Although cytological diagnosis of infarcted PA is difficult, pathologists and cytopathologists must consider the presence of atypical metaplastic squamous cells in benign salivary gland tumours, including infarcted PA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mco.2020.2138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7520748PMC
December 2020

Metabolism of esfenvalerate in tomato plants ().

J Pestic Sci 2020 Aug;45(3):138-146

Environmental Health Science Laboratory, Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd., 4-2-1 Takarazuka, Hyogo 665-8555, Japan.

The metabolic fate of esfenvalerate (), C-labeled at the chlorophenyl or phenoxyphenyl ring, in tomato plants was investigated by spraying it three times at 15 g/ha. The overall metabolic trend of was similar in foliage and fruit. The applied gradually penetrated into the foliage/fruit, and approximately 30% of the total radioactive residue (TRR) distributed within the plant. The applied radioactivity remained mostly intact on the plant surface, while its degradation proceeded ester cleavage to produce two corresponding acids derived from the chlorophenyl and phenoxyphenyl moieties, followed by saccharide conjugation at the inner tissues (each <5%TRR). While retained its optical configuration (2,α) on the plant surface and in the fruit, a very slight isomerization at the α-cyanobenzyl carbon occurred to form a (2,α) isomer in the foliage (≤1%TRR). The isomerization at another asymmetric carbon C2 in the isovaleric acid moiety did not proceed on/in the plant for or its metabolite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.D20-022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7453297PMC
August 2020

Optimization of therapeutic strategy for p16-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: Multi-institutional observational study based on the national Head and Neck Cancer Registry of Japan.

Cancer 2020 09 10;126(18):4177-4187. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

University Hospital Medical Information Network, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Although the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM classification has been amended to include human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) as an independent entity, to the authors' knowledge the optimized de-escalating treatment modality has not been established to date.

Methods: The authors conducted a retrospective, nationwide, observational study in patients with HPV-related OPSCC who were treated from 2011 to 2014 in Japan to determine the best treatment modality.

Results: A total of 688 patients who were newly diagnosed with HPV-related OPSCC who were treated with curative intent at 35 institutions and had coherent clinical information and follow-up data available were included in the current study. In patients with T1-T2N0 disease (79 patients), both the 3-year recurrence-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates were 100% in the group treated with radiotherapy (RT) as well as the group receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). The 3-year OS rates were 94.4% (for patients with T1N0 disease) and 92.9% (for patients with T2N0 disease) among the patients treated with upfront surgery. In patients with stage I to stage II HPV-related OPSCC, the 5-year recurrence-free survival and OS rates were 91.4% and 92%, respectively, in the patients treated with CCRT with relatively high-dose cisplatin (≥160 mg/m ; 114 patients) and 74.3% and 69.5%, respectively, in the patients treated with low-dose cisplatin (<160 mg/m ; 17 patients).

Conclusions: Despite it being a retrospective observational trial with a lack of information regarding toxicity and morbidity, the results of the current study demonstrated that patients with T1-T2N0 HPV-related OPSCC could be treated with RT alone because of the equivalent outcomes of RT and CCRT, and patients with stage I to stage II HPV-related OPSCC other than those with T1-T2N0 disease could be treated with CCRT with cisplatin at a dose of ≥160 mg/m .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33062DOI Listing
September 2020

Prominent oncocytic metaplasia in pleomorphic adenoma: A potential diagnostic pitfall.

Diagn Cytopathol 2020 Aug 25;48(8):765-768. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, Japan.

Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common salivary gland tumor. The cytological features of PA are well recognized, and its diagnosis is straightforward in most cases. Some metaplastic changes in PA are well known; however, occurrence of oncocytic metaplasia in PA is very rare. In this report, we describe the first cytological case of prominent oncocytic metaplasia in PA identified based on immunocytochemical analysis. We report the case of a 62-year-old Japanese female who presented with swelling of the left neck region. A fine-needle aspiration cytologic examination was performed followed by surgical resection. The Papanicolaou smear revealed the presence of discohesive neoplastic cells in a myxoid background. These neoplastic cells had a relatively rich, granular cytoplasm, and round nuclei with moderate pleomorphism. Initial cytodiagnosis revealed carcinoma ex PA (CXPA). Immunocytochemical analysis showed that abundant mitochondria were present in the cytoplasm of these neoplastic cells. Histopathological examination of the resected tumor demonstrated proliferation of oncocytic neoplastic cells within a myxoid material and the presence of conventional PA components. A final diagnosis of prominent oncocytic metaplasia in PA was made. Oncocytic metaplasia showed nuclear atypia and pleomorphism; therefore, CXPA, which presents with severe nuclear atypia and necrotic background, must be differentiated from oncocytic metaplastic PA. Recognition of oncocytic metaplasia in PA is important for correct diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dc.24443DOI Listing
August 2020

Real-world Treatment Outcomes of the EXTREME Regimen as First-line Therapy for Recurrent/Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: A Multi-center Retrospective Cohort Study in Japan.

Anticancer Res 2019 Dec;39(12):6819-6827

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Yokohama City University, School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan.

Background/aim: This Japanese multiple-center retrospective study aimed to examine the real-world treatment outcomes of the EXTREME regimen as a first-line therapy for recurrent/metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (R/M SCCHN).

Patients And Methods: A total of 100 R/M SCCHN patients treated with the EXTREME regimen as first-line therapy were analyzed. The treatment outcomes were evaluated to compare patient and treatment characteristics with overall survival.

Results: Patients treated with carboplatin-based EXTREME regimen showed similar overall survival with less adverse effects compared to that of patients using cisplatin. The post-progression survival was significantly longer in patients treated with second-line treatment following the EXTREME regimen than in those without second-line treatment.

Conclusion: The carboplatin-based EXTREME regimen was more feasible with similar treatment outcomes compared to cisplatin-based EXTREME regimen. In addition, subsequent lines of therapy contributed to improvement of survival for R/M SCCHN patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.13898DOI Listing
December 2019

Cytological features of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary glands: A diagnostic challenge.

Diagn Cytopathol 2020 Feb 1;48(2):149-153. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, Japan.

Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) of the salivary glands is a relatively rare carcinoma. The detection rate of the carcinoma component in the cytological specimens is not high and may be challenging in cytological examination. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the cytological specimens of CXPA with emphasis on the detection of the carcinoma component. We reviewed the cytological characteristics of patients histopathologically diagnosed with CXPA who underwent preoperative cytological examination. Of the 10 patients enrolled in the study, 8 had tumors located in the parotid gland, and 2 in the submandibular gland. A review of the cytological specimens revealed the presence of the carcinoma component in all 10 cases and the pleomorphic adenoma (PA) component in 6 cases, although initial cytodiagnosis detected the carcinoma component in 8 cases. The cytological feature of this component was the presence of variable-sized clusters of polygonal cells with relatively rich cytoplasm and large round to oval nuclei in a necrotic background. Interestingly, carcinoma cells mixed with the PA component were also present. On histopathological analysis, 7 cases were intracapsular, and the remaining 3 cases were widely invasive CXPA. Further, 9 cases had salivary duct carcinoma as carcinoma component. In conclusion, these findings show that careful detection of the carcinoma cells, particularly within the PA component, is crucial for early detection of CXPA, and the presence of necrosis might help with the detection of the carcinoma component.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dc.24333DOI Listing
February 2020

Effects of the insecticide esfenvalerate on zooplankton in an indoor synthetic model ecosystem.

J Pestic Sci 2019 May;44(2):112-119

Environmental Health Science Laboratory, Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd.

Effects of esfenvalerate on zooplankton and their recovery potential were studied using an indoor synthetic model ecosystem. Esfenvalerate was applied to the system by direct spiking to overlying water or the introduction of treated slurry soil to imitate drift and run-off exposure. Four zooplankton taxa, (Cladocera), (Ostracoda), sp. (Copepoda), and (Rotifera), were exposed to esfenvalerate with (green alga). In a drift scenario, lower doses (0.02-0.5 µg/L) showed slight or negligible effects, but the results for the highest dose (5 µg/L) indicated direct effects, as remarkable population decreases were observed for three taxa (except rotifera). However, for the latter dose, results of weekly or single (Day-15) zooplankton re-introductions after dosing demonstrated resilient recovery. In a run-off scenario, a nominal dose of 20 µg/L, in which the measured water concentrations remained at 3-6%, had effects similar to those of the high drift exposure scenario for cladocera and ostracoda.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.D18-078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6589407PMC
May 2019

Cytological features of basal cell adenocarcinoma of the salivary glands.

Diagn Cytopathol 2019 Jul 22;47(7):733-737. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, Osaka, Japan.

The cytological features of basal cell adenocarcinoma (BAC) of the salivary gland, a rare carcinoma, have not been well described. This study included patients who were histopathologically diagnosed with BAC and who underwent preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytological examination. Cytological characteristics, including background, arrangement and shape of the neoplastic cells, nuclear and cytoplasmic features, and presence of stromal spindle cells, were reviewed. Seven patients were enrolled in the study. The cytological specimens were cellular and composed of large or small clusters with occasional discohesive neoplastic cells at the periphery. The predominant cellular morphology was spindle-shaped in four cases, and small round-shaped in three cases. These neoplastic cells were tightly packed, showed high cellularity and overlapping nuclei, and had mildly to moderately enlarged round to oval nuclei with occasional small nucleoli and scant cytoplasm. Stromal spindle cells were observed around the basaloid cells in three cases (42.9%). All histology-proven stromal spindle cell-positive cases had stromal spindle cells in the cytological specimens. The study findings clearly demonstrate the relatively high frequency of stromal spindle cells in cytological specimens of BAC. This finding is characteristic of BAC, although basal cell adenoma of salivary gland frequently has stromal spindle cells in the cytological specimens. The characteristic that differentiates BAC from basal cell adenoma is the presence of tightly packed and high cellular clusters with discohesive neoplastic cells. An understanding of these cytological features can aid the cytodiagnosis of BAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dc.24178DOI Listing
July 2019

Quantitative immunohistochemical assay with novel digital immunostaining for comparisons of PD-L1 antibodies.

Mol Clin Oncol 2019 Mar 17;10(3):391-396. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010, Japan.

One obstacle in diagnostic pathology is the harmonization of one drug-one diagnostic tests for programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1). There are many challenges in accurate comparisons of diagnostic tests, such as differences in the titer of each antibody, detection system and dynamic range of visualization. Our previously developed digital immunostaining technique is highly sensitive and quantitative with the ability to quantify particles that bind in a one-to-one fashion with antibody in each cell. Determining the differences in the titer of each antibody with digital immunostaining may be beneficial for future harmonized analysis. To demonstrate the accuracy of digital immunostaining, the present study compared the number of particles with ELISA and nCounter data from five cell lines. NCI-H460 exhib-ited the highest level of PD-L1 protein, followed by A549, PC-3, NCI-H1299, and NCI-H446 cells. In addition, the PD-L1 mRNA values determined by nCounter corresponded with the order of the protein levels determined by ELISA. The present study revealed that digital immunostaining for PD-L1 was highly associated with ELISA and nCounter data. Among the four antibodies tested, the titer of all but SP142 coincided with ELISA and nCounter data. These results indicated that our digital immunostaining technique may be beneficial for future harmonized analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mco.2019.1801DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388504PMC
March 2019

Cytological features of basal cell adenoma of salivary glands: Analysis of 19 cases emphasizing stromal spindle cells.

Diagn Cytopathol 2019 Jul 27;47(7):665-669. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, Japan.

Background: Basal cell adenoma (BCA) of the salivary gland is a relatively rare benign tumor. Although the presence of stromal spindle cells is a characteristic histopathological feature, this finding has not been the focus of much attention in the cytodiagnosis of BCA. Thus, we analyzed the cytological features of BCA, especially the presence of stromal spindle cells.

Methods: Patients who were histopathologically diagnosed with BCA and underwent preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytological examination were enrolled in this study. The cytological characteristics including arrangement and shape of the neoplastic cells, nuclear and cytoplasmic features, and the presence of stromal spindle cells were reviewed.

Results: Nineteen patients were enrolled in the study. The cytological specimens were cellular and composed of small or large clusters or both. The neoplastic cells had scant cytoplasm and small round to oval nuclei. Basement membrane-like material was observed in 57.9%, and peripheral palisading was noted in 84.2%. Loose aggregates of stromal spindle cells were present in 63.2%, and the stromal spindle cells shown in the histological examination of 85.7% of cases were expressed in the cytological specimens.

Conclusion: This study clearly demonstrated the relatively high frequency of stromal spindle cells in cytological specimens of BCA. This finding is characteristic of BCA, and therefore, the combination of cytological features, including packed clusters of neoplastic cells with scant cytoplasm and small nuclei, peripheral palisading, and basement membrane-like material, and the presence of stromal spindle cells could increase the diagnostic success of BCA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dc.24164DOI Listing
July 2019

Collagenous crystalloids in pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland.

Diagn Cytopathol 2019 Jun 12;47(6):612-613. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dc.24149DOI Listing
June 2019

Metastatic salivary duct carcinoma in cardiac and pleural effusions: A case report with immunocytochemical analysis for androgen receptor and HER2.

Mol Clin Oncol 2019 Jan 17;10(1):78-82. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, Osaka 573-1010, Japan.

Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is a relatively rare highly aggressive salivary gland tumor. Although SDC shows frequent lymph node and distant metastases, the presence of neoplastic cells in the pleural effusion is extremely rare. In this report, we describe the first documented cytological case of metastatic SDC in cardiac and pleural effusions with immunocytochemical analyses for androgen receptor (AR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)2. A 52-year-old Japanese male developed cardiac tamponade and respiratory discomfort after surgery and chemo-radiation therapy for SDC of the right submandibular gland. Aspiration of the cardiac and pleural effusions was performed. The Papanicolaou-stained cytological specimens of cardiac and pleural effusions showed that numerous small ball-like or papillary structures were present in an inflammatory background. The neoplastic cells had rich granular cytoplasm and large round to oval nuclei containing conspicuous nucleoli. Immunocytochemical analyses clearly demonstrated positivity for AR and strong membranous expression of HER2 in the neoplastic cells. Accordingly, a cytodiagnosis of metastatic SDC was made. Recently, HER2-targeted or AR deprivation therapy have been introduced for patients with SDC, therefore, determination of expression profiles of AR and HER2 may be crucial for developing a treatment strategy for patients with metastatic SDC. According to the results of the present report, immunocytochemical analyses for AR and HER2 in the effusion specimens may be useful for determination of a treatment strategy for patients with metastatic SDC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mco.2018.1747DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6313956PMC
January 2019

A comparison of short-term outcomes of neck dissection for head and neck cancers using Thunderbeat™, LigaSure™ or treatment without an energy-based device: A case controlled study.

Int J Surg 2018 Oct 21;58:60-64. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Kansai Medical University Hospital, Japan.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the new energy-based device Thunderbeat in neck dissection (ND) for head and neck cancer.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively examined 95 consecutive patients who underwent ND for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma between April 2013 and March 2018. The patients were divided into three groups: ND without the energy-based device (control group), ND using the LigaSure Small Jaw (LS group), and ND using the Thunderbeat Open Fine Jaw (TB group). The outcomes were compared among the three groups, as measured by the duration of ND (dissection time), blood loss during ND, and postoperative complications. We also analyzed the factors that may influence dissection time using multivariate analysis.

Results: Compared to the control group, dissection time was found to be significantly shorter in both energy-based device groups (LS group and TB group) (96.4, 71.1, and 66.0 min, respectively, p = 0.0015) by univariate analysis. Blood loss during ND did not differ significantly among the three groups. Multivariate analysis showed that ND using the Thunderbeat as well as elderly patients (70 years and over), less extensive surgery (3 or fewer neck levels), and absence of extracapsular invasion were independently and significantly associated with shorter dissection time (p = 0.0069, 0.0337, <0.0001, and 0.0015, respectively). The incidence of postoperative complications in the LS group (20%) tended to be higher than those in the other groups (5.6% in the control group and 3.4% in the TB group), although the differences were not significant.

Conclusion: ND for head and neck cancers using the Thunderbeat is a safe and reliable method in terms of duration of dissection without increasing postoperative complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2018.09.009DOI Listing
October 2018

Metabolism of the Strobilurin Fungicide Mandestrobin in Wheat.

J Agric Food Chem 2018 Oct 19;66(39):10154-10162. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Bioscience Research Laboratory , Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd. , 3-1-98, Kasugade-naka 3-chome, Konohana-ku , Osaka-city, Osaka 554-8558 , Japan.

The metabolic fate of a new fungicide, mandestrobin, labeled with C at the phenoxy or benzyl ring was examined in wheat after a single spray application at 300 g/ha. Mandestrobin penetrated into foliage over time, with both radiolabels showing similar C distribution in wheat, and 2.8-3.3% of the total radioactive residue remained on the surface of straw at the final harvest. In foliage, mandestrobin primarily underwent mono-oxidation at the phenoxy ring to produce 4-hydroxy or 2-/5-hydroxymethyl derivatives, followed by their subsequent formation of malonylglucose conjugates. In grain, the cleavage of its benzyl phenyl ether bond was the major metabolic reaction, releasing the corresponding alcohol derivative, while the counterpart 2,5-dimethylphenol was not detected. The constant RS enantiomeric ratio of mandestrobin showed its enantioselective metabolism to be unlikely on/in wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.8b03639DOI Listing
October 2018

Photodegradation of Strobilurin Fungicide Mandestrobin in Water.

J Agric Food Chem 2018 Aug 2;66(32):8514-8521. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

Environmental Health Science Laboratory, Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd., 3-1-98 Kasugadenaka , Konohana-ku, Osaka 554-8558 , Japan.

Photodegradation of a new strobilurin fungicide, mandestrobin, was investigated in buffered aqueous solution and synthetic humic water (SHW) under continuous irradiation with artificial sunlight (λ > 290 nm). In both aquatic media, the direct photolysis preferentially proceeded via homolytic bond cleavage at the benzyl phenyl ether, and the subsequent recombination of geminate radicals in a solvent cage gave the photo-Claisen rearrangement products. A radical mechanism in the photochemical rearrangement was strongly supported by a radical-trapping technique using a novel nitroxide spin label combined with electron spin resonance (ESR) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses. Photosensitized generation of hydroxyl radical in SHW might significantly contribute to enhancing the formation of a benzyl alcohol derivative. The series of photolysis products steadily degraded and finally mineralized to carbon dioxide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.8b03610DOI Listing
August 2018

Bioconcentration and Metabolism of Pyriproxyfen in Tadpoles of African Clawed Frogs, Xenopus laevis.

J Agric Food Chem 2017 Nov 8;65(46):9980-9986. Epub 2017 Nov 8.

Environmental Health Science Laboratory, Sumitomo Chemical Company, Limited , 3-1-98 Kasugade-naka, Konohana-ku, Osaka-city, Osaka 554-8558, Japan.

Bioconcentration and metabolism of pyriproxyfen uniformly labeled with C at the phenoxyphenyl ring were studied using tadpoles of African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, exposed to water at the nominal concentrations of 3 and 300 ppb for 22 days under the flow-through conditions, with a following 3 day depuration phase. Neither meaningful mortality nor abnormal behavior was observed in control and exposure groups throughout the study. After the rapid uptake to tadpoles, pyriproxyfen was extensively metabolized and excreted, and as a result, steady-state bioconcentration factors and depuration half-lives ranged from 550 to 610 and from 0.34 to 0.54 days, respectively. The metabolites were mostly distributed in the liver or gastrointestinal tract. The major metabolic reactions were hydroxylation at the 4' position of the phenoxyphenyl group and cleavage of the ether linkage, followed by sulfate conjugation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.7b04184DOI Listing
November 2017

Fate of Flumioxazin in Aquatic Plants: Two Algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Synechococcus sp.), Duckweed (Lemna sp.), and Water Milfoil (Myriophyllum elatinoides).

J Agric Food Chem 2017 Oct 26;65(40):8813-8822. Epub 2017 Sep 26.

Environmental Health Science Laboratory, Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd. , 3-1-98, Kasugade-naka 3-chome, Konohana-ku, Osaka-city, Osaka 554-8558, Japan.

Flumioxazin separately C-labeled at 1,2-positions of the tetrahydrophthalimide moiety or uniformly labeled at the phenyl ring was exposed to two algae and duckweed via the water layer and water milfoil via the water layer or bottom sediment for 14 days to investigate uptake and metabolic profiles in these aquatic plants. While C-flumioxazin received immediate hydrolysis through maleimide ring opening and amide bond cleavage with its hydrolytic half-life of <1 day in both water and sediment, the C-plant uptake was ≤4.7% of the applied radioactivity (%AR) with water exposure for all plants and 0.9%AR with sediment exposure for water milfoil. No C-translocation between shoot/leaves and roots occurred in water milfoil. The components of C residues in plants were common among the species, which were the above hydrolysates and their transformation products, that is, dicarboxylic acid derivative metabolized via hydroxylation at the double bond of the cyclohexene ring followed by sugar conjugation with its counterpart amine derivative via acid conjugations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.7b03355DOI Listing
October 2017

Behavior of cyphenothrin in aquatic environment.

J Pestic Sci 2017 May;42(2):17-24

Environmental Health Science Laboratory, Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd., 3-1-98 Kasugadenaka, Konohana-ku, Osaka 554-8558, Japan.

The behavior of cyphenothrin () [()-α-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (1)---2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylprop-1-enyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate] in an aquatic environment was investigated by using the C-labeled and isomers. In parallel with the rapid partition from water phase to bottom sediment, was degraded with the first-order half-lives of 2.0 (-) and 7.3 days (-) in the water-sediment system under dark conditions. underwent extensive microbial degradation ester cleavage to form 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, finally forming bound residues and mineralizing to CO. Aqueous photolysis significantly accelerated the degradation of with a half-life of <1 day, mainly photo-induced oxidation at the 2-methylprop-1-enyl group and ester cleavage without isomerization. These results strongly suggest that is unlikely to persist in the actual aquatic environment due to its rapid photolysis and extensive microbial degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.D16-085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6173171PMC
May 2017

[A Clinical Study on Cervical Tuberculous Lymphadenitis].

Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho 2015 May;118(5):643-50

We retrospectively examined the records of patients treated for cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis in our department and analyzed the effectiveness of the various diagnostic methods. From January 2006 to December 2013, we treated 19 cases of cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis. The ages of patients with cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis ranged from 28 to 87 years old (mean, 61.4 years), and the male-to-female ratio was 8: 11. Two of the 19 patients with cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis presented with the comorbid condition of pulmonary tuberculosis. The sensitivity of cytological examination, smears, cultures and PCR (polymerase chain reaction) technique using an aspiration procedure for cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis were 13.3%, 50%, 60% and 71.4%, respectively: Although the detection ratio of fine needle aspiration cytology alone was low, the aspiration procedure could permit a definitive diagnosis by a combination of smear, culture and PCR. The QuantiFERON test (QFT) was positive in seven of seven cases, and T-SPOT was positive in two of two cases. Thus, QFT and T-SPOT were useful as aids in the diagnosis of cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis. For early diagnosis of cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis, it is important to consider a combined multimodal approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3950/jibiinkoka.118.643DOI Listing
May 2015

Uptake, Translocation, and Metabolism of Phenols by Submerged Rooted Macrophyte, Water Milfoil (Myriophyllum elatinoides).

J Agric Food Chem 2015 Jun 22;63(21):5189-95. Epub 2015 May 22.

Environmental Health Science Laboratory, Sumitomo Chemical Company, Limited, 4-2-1 Takatsukasa, Takarazuka, Hyo̅go 665-8555, Japan.

Shoot and root uptakes of (14)C-labeled phenol (1), 4-nitrophenol (2), 4-cyanophenol (3), 4-hydroxybenzamide (4), and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (5) by Myriophyllum elatinoides were individually examined with water or sediment treatments using the sequestered chamber. Shoot uptake of each (14)C-phenol dissolved in water amounted to 21.0% (1), 14.3% (2), 12.8% (3), 4.2% (4) and 41.7% (5) of the applied radioactivity (AR) after 96 h without significant (14)C translocation from shoot to root (≤0.9% AR), and the major metabolite produced was the glucose conjugate. On the other hand, root uptake of (14)C-phenols from sediment was much slower/smaller (≤6.6% AR), and (14)C transportation from root to shoot was scarcely observed, except for compound 5 (≤1.5% AR). For the water treatment, a kinetic analysis on uptake/metabolism was conducted using the assumed compartment. Good correlation was observed between lipophilicity and shoot uptake rate constants, and the electronic state of the hydroxyl group (σ, σ(-), or EHOMO(OH)) and the transformation rate constant of glucosidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.5b01133DOI Listing
June 2015

A short-term treatment with tumor necrosis factor-alpha enhances stem cell phenotype of human dental pulp cells.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2014 Feb 28;5(1):31. Epub 2014 Feb 28.

Introduction: During normal pulp tissue healing, inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) or interleukins, act in the initial 48 hours (inflammatory phase) and play important roles not only as chemo-attractants of inflammatory cells and stem/progenitor cells but also in inducing a cascade of reactions toward tissue regeneration or reparative dentin formation or both. Previous reports have shown that inflammatory cytokines regulate the differentiation capacity of dental pulp stem/progenitor cells (DPCs), but none has interrogated the impact of these cytokines on the stem cell phenotype of stem/progenitor cells. This study investigated the effects of a short-term treatment with TNF-α on the stem cell phenotype and differentiation ability of human DPCs.

Methods: An in vivo mouse model of pulp exposure was performed for analysis of expression of the mesenchymal stem cell marker CD146 in DPCs during the initial stage of inflammatory response. For in vitro studies, human DPCs were isolated and incubated with TNF-α for 2 days and passaged to eliminate TNF-α completely. Analysis of stem cell phenotype was performed by quantification of cells positive for mesenchymal stem cell markers SSEA-4 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 4) and CD146 by flow cytometry as well as by quantitative analysis of telomerase activity and mRNA levels of OCT-4 and NANOG. Cell migration, colony-forming ability, and differentiation toward odontogenesis and adipogenesis were also investigated.

Results: The pulp exposure model revealed a strong staining for CD146 during the initial inflammatory response, at 2 days after pulp exposure. In vitro experiments demonstrated that a short-term (2-day) treatment of TNF-α increased by twofold the percentage of SSEA-4+ cells. Accordingly, STRO-1, CD146, and SSEA-4 protein levels as well as OCT-4 and NANOG mRNA levels were also significantly upregulated upon TNF-α treatment. A short-term TNF-α treatment also enhanced DPC function, including the ability to form cell colonies, to migrate, and to differentiate into odontogenic and adipogenic lineages.

Conclusions: A short-term treatment with TNF-α enhanced the stem cell phenotype, migration, and differentiation ability of DPCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/scrt420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4055131PMC
February 2014

A problem-based learning tutorial for dental students regarding elderly residents in a nursing home in Japan.

J Dent Educ 2012 Dec;76(12):1580-8

Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kita-ku, Okayama, 700-8525, Japan.

This educational trial was an eight-day problem-based learning (PBL) course for fourth-year predoctoral students at Okayama University's dental school who interviewed elderly residents living in a nursing home. The purpose of this PBL course was to introduce geriatric dentistry to the students by allowing them, independently, to discover the clinical problems of elderly patients as well as the solutions. The sixty-five students were divided into nine small groups and received patient information (age, gender, degree of care needed, medical history, food type, medications, and oral condition) in datasheets before visiting the nursing home. Each group of students directly interviewed one patient and the caregivers and identified the patient's medical, psychological, and social problems. After the interview, the students participated in a PBL tutorial to delineate a management approach for the patient's problems. To measure the efficacy of this program, the students completed a questionnaire before and after the course regarding their level of understanding of and attitudes toward geriatric dentistry, clinical research, and self-study. The results showed that student's perceptions of their knowledge about and attitudes toward oral health care for the elderly significantly increased after the PBL course, which suggests that such tutorials should be an option for dental curricula.
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December 2012

Metabolism of the insecticide metofluthrin in cabbage (Brassica oleracea).

J Agric Food Chem 2012 Mar 29;60(10):2607-16. Epub 2012 Feb 29.

Environmental Health Science Laboratory, Sumitomo Chemical Company, Ltd., Takarazuka, Hyogo, Japan.

The metabolic fate of metofluthrin [2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-(methoxymethyl)benzyl (E,Z)-(1R,3R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(prop-1-enyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate] separately labeled with (14)C at the carbonyl carbon and the α-position of the 4-methoxymethylbenzyl ring was studied in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ). An acetonitrile solution of (14)C-metofluthrin at 431 g ai ha(-1) was once applied topically to cabbage leaves at head-forming stage, and the plants were grown for up to 14 days. Each isomer of metofluthrin applied onto the leaf surface rapidly volatilized into the air and was scarcely translocated to the untreated portion. On the leaf surface, metofluthrin was primarily degraded through ozonolysis of the propenyl side chain to produce the secondary ozonide, which further decomposed to the corresponding aldehyde and carboxylic acid derivatives. In the leaf tissues, the 1R-trans-Z isomer was mainly metabolized to its dihydrodiol derivative probably via an epoxy intermediate followed by saccharide conjugation in parallel with the ester cleavage, whereas no specific metabolite was dominant for the 1R-trans-E isomer. Isomerization of metofluthrin at the cyclopropyl ring was negligible for both isomers. In this study, the chemical structure of each secondary ozonide derivative was fully elucidated by the various modes of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy together with cochromatography with the synthetic standard, and their cis/trans configuration was examined by the nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) difference NMR spectrum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf203903rDOI Listing
March 2012

Degradation of flumioxazin in illuminated water-sediment systems.

J Agric Food Chem 2011 Oct 29;59(20):11186-95. Epub 2011 Sep 29.

Environmental Health Science Laboratory, Sumitomo Chemical Company, Ltd., Takatsukasa 4-chome, Takarazuka, Hyogo 665-8555, Japan.

The aerobic aquatic metabolism of flumioxazin was studied in two water-sediment systems under illumination and in darkness to investigate its degradation profiles. (14)C-Flumioxazin separately labeled at the 1- and 2-positions of the tetrahydrophthalimide moiety or uniformly labeled at the phenyl ring was applied to a overlying water at a rate equivalent to 600 g ai/ha by assuming uniform distribution in the water layer to a depth of 100 cm. Flumioxazin was rapidly degraded at 20 °C in the overlying waters irrespective of irradiation with half-lives of 0.1-0.4 day. Both various modes of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy analyses showed four major degradates under irradiation. Two of them were formed via successive hydrolysis of the cyclic imide ring, and the others were 2-arizidinone derivatives via photoinduced rearrangement. The presence of sediment under illumination greatly reduced the formation of these degradates and accelerated their degradation. The partitions of flumioxazin and its degradates to the bottom sediment not only reduced their fractions in the water layer subjected to hydrolysis and photolysis but also enhanced their microbial degradation in the sediment. The illuminated water-sediment systems were considered to more adequately represent the behavior of flumioxazin and its degradates in the environment than the corresponding studies of aqueous photolysis and water-sediment in darkness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf202542vDOI Listing
October 2011

Photoinduced oxidation of the insecticide phenothrin on soil surfaces.

J Agric Food Chem 2011 Sep 6;59(18):10182-90. Epub 2011 Sep 6.

Environmental Health Science Laboratory, Sumitomo Chemical Company, Ltd., 4-2-1 Takatsukasa, Takarazuka, Hyogo 665-8555, Japan.

Photodegradation profiles of the pyrethroid insecticide phenothrin on a moistened U.S. soil thin layer was investigated by using its predominant component, the 1R-trans-isomer (I), under continuous exposure to light at >290 nm from a xenon arc lamp. Its degradation was moderately accelerated by irradiation with half-lives of 5.7-5.9 days (dark control 21-24 days), mainly via successive oxidation of the 2-methylprop-1-enyl group and ester cleavage followed by mineralization to carbon dioxide. Spectroscopic and cochromatographic analyses showed that the major degradates were the alcohol and ketone derivatives of I formed via photoinduced oxidation of the 2-methylprop-1-enyl group by singlet oxygen. The photoinduced generation of singlet oxygen in/on the soil surface was confirmed by using chemical trapping reactions together with ESR spectroscopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf202564cDOI Listing
September 2011

[A case report: multiple air embolism after the laryngopharyngoesophagectomy occurred by the cervical infection from postoperative fistula].

Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho 2010 Jan;113(1):20-5

Kansai Medical University, Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Hirakata.

Systemic air embolism, a very rare clinical condition, has many causes. We report a case of multiple air embolisms following laryngopharyngoesophagectomy salvage surgery for hypopharyngeal residual cancer after concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Cervical infection arose from a fistula caused by postoperative suture failure in which the 56-year-old man suddenly lost consciousness and went into shock. A few days post operation, an air embolism happened and caused in the brain, pulmonary, myocardiac and cerebral infarction. The man died two months after initial occurrence. We suspect that air entered through the ruptured left internal jugular vein via infection due to aspiration at the injury site. Air embolisms are associated with different medical maneuvers, and it is necessary to recognize that they may become a serious perioperative complication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3950/jibiinkoka.113.20DOI Listing
January 2010

Application of separated leaf cell suspension to xenobiotic metabolism in plant.

J Agric Food Chem 2009 Aug;57(15):6982-9

Environmental Health Science Laboratory, Sumitomo Chemical Company, Ltd., 4-2-1 Takatsukasa, Takarazuka, Hyogo 665-8555, Japan.

Metabolic profiles of (14)C-labeled primary metabolites from several pesticides, 4-cyanophenol (1), 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (2), 3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol (3), 3,5-dichloroaniline (4), and (1RS)-trans-2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylprop-1-enyl)cyclopropanecarboxylic acid (5), were examined by using enzymatically separated leaf cell suspension from seedlings of cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ) and tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ). After 1 day of incubation, the metabolites were extensively transformed in cabbage, whereas they were scarcely metabolized in tomato. The major metabolic pathways were the phase II reactions leading to a number of conjugates such as glucoside/malonylglucoside of 1-5, malate of 2, and glutamate of 4. The oxidation of 1 and 2 was observed as a minor reaction to produce 4-hydroxybezoic acid and 3-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)benzoic acid. The chemical identities of the secondary metabolites were determined by various spectrometric analyses (LC-MS, LC-MS/MS, and NMR) and/or HPLC cochromatography with the synthetic reference standards. As a result, this separated leaf cell suspension system was found to well reproduce the in vivo plant metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf901245tDOI Listing
August 2009
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