Publications by authors named "Taketoshi Furugohri"

9 Publications

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Tranexamic Acid Failed to Reverse the Anticoagulant Effect and Bleeding by an Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibitor Edoxaban.

Pharmacology 2018 3;101(1-2):92-95. Epub 2017 Nov 3.

Department of Medical Science, Tokyo, Japan.

Background/aims: Agents to reverse the anticoagulant effect of edoxaban, an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor, would be desirable in emergency situations. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of tranexamic acid, an antifibrinolytic agent, on the anticoagulant activity and bleeding by edoxaban in rats.

Methods: A supratherapeutic dose of edoxaban (3 mg/kg) was intravenously administered to rats. Three minutes after dosing, tranexamic acid (100 mg/kg) was given intravenously. Bleeding was induced by making an incision with a blade on the planta 8 min after edoxaban injection and bleeding time was measured. Prothrombin time (PT) and clot lysis were examined.

Results: A supratherapeutic dose of edoxaban significantly prolonged PT and bleeding time. Tranexamic acid did not affect PT or bleeding time prolonged by edoxaban, although tranexamic acid significantly inhibited clot lysis in rat plasma.

Conclusion: An antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid failed to reverse the anticoagulant effect and bleeding by edoxaban in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000484172DOI Listing
August 2018

A direct thrombin inhibitor suppresses protein C activation and factor Va degradation in human plasma: Possible mechanisms of paradoxical enhancement of thrombin generation.

Thromb Res 2016 May 3;141:77-83. Epub 2016 Mar 3.

Biological Research Laboratories, R&D Division, Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd., 1-2-58 Hiromachi, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 140-8710, Japan. Electronic address:

We have demonstrated that antithrombin (AT)-independent thrombin inhibitors paradoxically increase thrombin generation (TG) in human plasma in a thrombomodulin (TM)- and protein C (PC)-dependent manner. We determined the effects of AT-independent thrombin inhibitors on the negative-feedback system, activation of PC and production and degradation of factor Va (FVa), as possible mechanisms underlying the paradoxical enhancement of TG. TG in human plasma containing 10nM TM was assayed by means of the calibrated automated thrombography. As an index of PC activation, plasma concentration of activated PC-PC inhibitor complex (aPC-PCI) was measured. The amounts of FVa heavy chain and its degradation product (FVa(307-506)) were examined by western blotting. AT-independent thrombin inhibitors, melagatran and dabigatran (both at 25-600nM) and 3-30μg/ml active site-blocked thrombin (IIai), increased peak levels of TG. Melagatran, dabigatran and IIai significantly decreased plasma concentration of aPC-PCI complex at 25nM or more, 75nM or more, and 10 and 30μg/ml, respectively. Melagatran (300nM) significantly increased FVa and decreased FVa(307-506). In contrast, a direct factor Xa inhibitor edoxaban preferentially inhibited thrombin generation (≥25nM), and higher concentrations were required to inhibit PC activation (≥150nM) and FVa degradation (300nM). The present study suggests that the inhibitions of protein C activation and subsequent degradation of FVa and increase in FVa by antithrombin-independent thrombin inhibitors may contribute to the paradoxical TG enhancement, and edoxaban may inhibit PC activation and FVa degradation as a result of TG suppression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2016.03.005DOI Listing
May 2016

Paradoxical enhancement of the intrinsic pathway-induced thrombin generation in human plasma by melagatran, a direct thrombin inhibitor, but not edoxaban, a direct factor Xa inhibitor, or heparin.

Thromb Res 2015 Sep 4;136(3):658-62. Epub 2015 Jul 4.

Biological Research Laboratories, R&D Division, Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd., 1-2-58 Hiromachi, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 140-8710, Japan.

Introduction: The blood coagulation cascade consists of two pathways, the tissue factor (TF)-dependent extrinsic pathway and the contact factor-dependent intrinsic pathway. We have previously shown that a direct thrombin inhibitor, melagatran, paradoxically increased TF-induced thrombin generation (TG) in thrombomodulin (TM)-containing human plasma in vitro. However, the effect of melagatran on the intrinsic pathway-induced TG remains to be investigated. We investigated whether melagatran enhances the intrinsic pathway-induced TG.

Methods And Results: TG was induced by kaolin in human plasma and assayed by the calibrated automated thrombography method. Melagatran at 150 and 300 nM significantly increased the peak level (2.40-fold) and endogenous thrombin potential of TG in normal plasma in the presence of 5 nM TM. In the absence of TM or in protein C (PC)-deficient plasma, the paradoxical enhancement of TG by melagatran disappeared. A direct FXa inhibitor, edoxaban, and an antithrombin-dependent anticoagulant, unfractionated heparin (UFH), did not increase, but simply decreased TG under each condition in a concentration dependent manner.

Conclusion: Melagatran enhanced the intrinsic pathway-induced TG as well as the extrinsic pathway-induced TG in human plasma under the condition where PC system is active. In contrast, edoxaban and UFH showed concentration-dependent decrease of TG, but no enhancement. These results indicated that edoxaban and UFH may have a low risk of the paradoxical enhancement of TG by both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathway activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2015.06.034DOI Listing
September 2015

Impact of antithrombin deficiency on efficacy of edoxaban and antithrombin-dependent anticoagulants, fondaparinux, enoxaparin, and heparin.

Thromb Res 2013 Jun 11;131(6):540-6. Epub 2013 May 11.

Biological Research Laboratories, R&D Division, Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd., 1-2-58 Hiromachi, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 140-8710, Japan.

Introduction: Oral factor Xa (FXa) inhibitors are a novel class of anticoagulants that, unlike heparins, are expected to demonstrate antithrombotic effects independent of plasma antithrombin (AT) concentrations. We utilized heterozygous AT-deficient (AT+/-) mice to determine the impact of AT deficiency on anticoagulant and antithrombotic effects of edoxaban, a direct FXa inhibitor, and compared with heparins (fondaparinux, enoxaparin, and unfractionated heparin [UHF]).

Materials And Methods: The effects of edoxaban and heparins on in vitro prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were measured in plasma obtained from wild type (AT+/+) and AT+/- male mice. To assess the antithrombotic effects of these anticoagulants in vivo, venous thrombosis was induced in the inferior vena cava by FeCl3 treatment. Potency ratios of antithrombotic effects in AT+/- compared with AT+/+ mice were analyzed by a parallel line assay.

Results: In vitro studies demonstrated that the clotting-time prolongation effects of edoxaban were not affected by heterozygous AT deficiency whereas those of AT-dependent anticoagulants were attenuated. In AT+/- mice, the antithrombotic effects of AT-dependent anticoagulants were less potent than those in AT+/+ mice. In contrast, edoxaban was equipotent in preventing thrombus formation in both wild-type and AT-deficient mice. The attenuated antithrombotic effects of fondaparinux, enoxaparin, and UFH in AT-deficient mice were restored by AT supplementation. Edoxaban exerts a comparable antithrombotic effect even in mice with low plasma AT antigen and activity to that in wild-type mice.

Conclusion: Edoxaban may potentially be prioritized over AT-dependent anticoagulants in patients with lower plasma AT concentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2013.04.016DOI Listing
June 2013

The effects of warfarin and edoxaban, an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor, on gammacarboxylated (Gla-osteocalcin) and undercarboxylated osteocalcin (uc-osteocalcin) in rats.

Thromb Res 2013 Jan 19;131(1):59-63. Epub 2012 Sep 19.

Biological Research Laboratories, R&D Division, Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd., 1-2-58 Hiromachi, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 140-8710, Japan.

Introduction: Osteocalcin plays a role in bone homeostasis. The vitamin K cycle is essential for the gamma-carboxylation of glutamic acid residues in osteocalcin. Some evidence suggests that long-term warfarin therapy, which inhibits the vitamin K cycle and prevents gamma-carboxylation, is associated with increased bone-fracture risk. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of warfarin and edoxaban, a direct factor Xa inhibitor, on the serum concentration of total, gamma-carboxylated (Gla-osteocalcin) and undercarboxylated osteocalcin (uc-osteocalcin) in rats.

Materials And Methods: Rats received orally administered warfarin or edoxaban, and 24h later serum and plasma were prepared. Osteocalcin level in serum was measured with ELISA. A Gla-osteocalcin was precipitated by the addition of hydroxyapatite, and the resulting supernatant was used for measuring uc-osteocalcin. Prothrombin time (PT) of plasma was also measured.

Results: Warfarin at 1mg/kg (a dose which prolonged PT 2.62-fold) markedly increased the serum level of uc-osteocalcin and slightly increased the total osteocalcin level compared with control in rats. Serum Gla-osteocalcin significantly decreased by warfarin. Edoxaban at 1mg/kg (an antithrombotic dose) and 54mg/kg (a dose which prolonged PT 2.25-fold) had no effects on total, uc-, and Gla-osteocalcin levels.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that warfarin impaired the carboxylation of osteocalcin in rats. In contrast, edoxaban at or higher doses than needed for an antithrombotic effect sustained the circulating Gla-osteocalcin level. These findings suggest that edoxaban has no effects on the production of Gla-osteocalcin and thus, may have a lower risk of adverse effects on bone health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2012.08.304DOI Listing
January 2013

Melagatran, a direct thrombin inhibitor, but not edoxaban, a direct factor Xa inhibitor, nor heparin aggravates tissue factor-induced hypercoagulation in rats.

Eur J Pharmacol 2012 Jul 21;686(1-3):74-80. Epub 2012 Apr 21.

Biological Research Laboratories, R&D Division, Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd., 1-2-58 Hiromachi, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

There are concerns that some anticoagulants can paradoxically increase thrombogenesis under certain circumstances. We have shown that low-dose administration of a direct thrombin inhibitor, melagatran, significantly worsens the coagulation status induced by tissue factor injection in rats. We compared the effect of inhibition of thrombin and factor Xa for their potential to aggravate tissue factor-induced coagulation in rats. Hypercoagulation was induced by the injection of 2.8 U/kg tissue factor after administration of melagatran, heparin and edoxaban in rats. Blood samples were collected 10min after tissue factor injection. Platelet numbers, thrombin-antithrombin complex concentrations and plasma compound concentrations were measured. Though a high dose of melagatran (1mg/kg, i.v.) suppressed platelet consumption and thrombin-antithrombin complex generation induced by tissue factor, lower doses of melagatran (0.01, 0.03 and 0.1mg/kg, i.v.) significantly enhanced platelet consumption and thrombin-antithrombin complex generation. In addition, although melagatran (3mg/kg, i.v.) improved coagulation status when tissue factor was given 5min after the drug administration, and 2, 4 and 8h after melagatran dosing, it deteriorated coagulation status. These results were well explained by the plasma melagatran concentration. Low concentrations (15-234ng/ml) of melagatran aggravated coagulation status whereas it was mended by high concentrations (1190ng/ml or more) of the compound. In contrast, edoxaban and heparin did not show any exacerbation under these examination conditions. These results show that subtherapeutic concentrations of melagatran are associated with coagulation pathway activation, whereas factor Xa inhibition with edoxaban has a low risk of paradoxical hypercoagulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2012.04.031DOI Listing
July 2012

Antithrombin-independent thrombin inhibitors, but not direct factor Xa inhibitors, enhance thrombin generation in plasma through inhibition of thrombin-thrombomodulin-protein C system.

Thromb Haemost 2011 Dec 20;106(6):1076-83. Epub 2011 Oct 20.

Biological Research Laboratories, R&D Division, Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd., 1-2-58 Hiromachi, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 140-8710, Japan.

There is increasing concern that some anticoagulants can paradoxically increase thrombogenesis under certain circumstances. Previously, we demonstrated that at certain doses a direct thrombin inhibitor, melagatran, worsens the coagulation status induced by tissue factor (TF) injection in a rat model. We utilised an in vitro thrombin generation (TG) assay to determine if direct thrombin inhibitors could enhance TG in human plasma, and whether inhibition of the negative-feedback system [thrombin-thrombomodulin (TM)-protein C] contributed to the TG enhancement. TG in human plasma was assayed by means of the calibrated automated thrombography. In this assay, direct factor Xa (FXa) inhibitors such as edoxaban and antithrombin (AT)-dependent anticoagulants such as heparin did not increase, but simply suppressed TG. AT-independent thrombin inhibitors (melagatran, lepirudin, and active site blocked thrombin (IIai)) increased peak levels of TG (2.0, 1.6, and 2.2-fold, respectively) in the presence of 12 nM recombinant human soluble TM (rhsTM). Melagatran and lepirudin at higher concentrations began to suppress TG. In the absence of rhsTM, the enhancement of peak TG by melagatran decreased to 1.2-fold. Furthermore, in protein C-deficient plasma, AT-independent thrombin inhibitors failed to enhance TG. In addition, a human protein C neutralising antibody increased the peak height of TG in the presence of rhsTM. These results suggest that AT-independent thrombin inhibitors may activate thrombogenesis by suppression of the thrombin-induced negative-feedback system through inhibition of protein C activation. In contrast, direct FXa inhibitors are more useful than AT-independent thrombin inhibitors in terms of lower possibility of activation of the coagulation pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1160/TH11-06-0382DOI Listing
December 2011

Cycloalkanediamine derivatives as novel blood coagulation factor Xa inhibitors.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2007 Aug 25;17(16):4683-8. Epub 2007 May 25.

Medicinal Chemistry Research Laboratory, Daiichi Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, 1-16-13, Kita-Kasai, Edogawa-ku, Tokyo 134-8630, Japan.

This paper describes the synthesis of orally available potent fXa inhibitors 2 and 3 by modification of the piperazine part of lead compound 1. Carbonyl derivative 3 showed potent fXa activity but not sulfonyl derivative 2. Among the compounds synthesized, cyclohexane derivatives 3g and 3h and cycloheptane derivative 3j had potent anticoagulant activity as well as anti-fXa activity. Synthetic study of the optical isomers of 3g demonstrated that (-)-3g had more potent activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2007.05.068DOI Listing
August 2007

Different antithrombotic properties of factor Xa inhibitor and thrombin inhibitor in rat thrombosis models.

Eur J Pharmacol 2005 May 15;514(1):35-42. Epub 2005 Apr 15.

New Product Research Laboratories II, Tokyo R & D Center, Daiichi Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., 16-13, Kita-kasai 1-chome Edogawa-ku, Tokyo 134-8630, Japan.

We compared the antithrombotic properties of a factor Xa inhibitor (DX-9065a) with those of a thrombin inhibitor (melagatran) in a rat disseminated intravascular coagulation model and a rat venous thrombosis model. Rat disseminated intravascular coagulation and venous thrombosis models were produced by injection of tissue factor and platinum wire placement, respectively. DX-9065a exerted antithrombotic effects dose dependently in both models. Melagatran was also effective in the venous thrombosis model, whereas it showed an aggravation in the disseminated intravascular coagulation model at low but not high doses. In the in vitro study, DX-9065a decreased the C(max) of the thrombin generation curve in plasma irrespective of whether protein C was present or not. However, melagatran increased the C(max) at low concentrations when protein C was present. This increase was not detected in protein C-deficient plasma. These results suggest that, unlike DX-9065a, melagatran in low doses aggravates disseminated intravascular coagulation by increasing thrombin generation, which may be partly due to suppression of negative feedback by activated protein C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2005.03.009DOI Listing
May 2005
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