Publications by authors named "Takawira C Marufu"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Nursing interventions to reduce medication errors in paediatrics and neonates: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Pediatr Nurs 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Nottingham Childrens Hospital, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, UK; Children and Young People Health Research, School of Health Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

Background: Medication errors are a great concern to health care organisations as they are costly and pose a significant risk to patients. Children are three times more likely to be affected by medication errors than adults with medication administration error rates reported to be over 70%.

Objective: To identify nursing interventions to reduce medication administration errors and perform a meta-analysis.

Methods: Online databases; British Nursing Index (BNI), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), EMBASE and MEDLINE were searched for relevant studies published between January 2000 to 2020. Studies with clear primary or secondary aims focusing on interventions to reduce medication administration errors in paediatrics, children and or neonates were included in the review.

Results: 442 studies were screened and18 studies met the inclusion criteria. Seven interventions were identified from included studies; education programmes, medication information services, clinical pharmacist involvement, double checking, barriers to reduce interruptions during drug calculation and preparation, implementation of smart pumps and improvement strategies. Educational interventional aspects were the most common identified in 13 out of 18 included studies. Meta-analysis demonstrated an associated 64% reduction in medicine administration errors post intervention (pooled OR 0.36 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.21-0.63) P = 0.0003).

Conclusion: Medication safety education is an important element of interventions to reduce administration errors. Medication errors are multifaceted that require a bundle interventional approach to address the complexities and dynamics relevant to the local context. It is imperative that causes of errors need to be identified prior to implementation of appropriate interventions.
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September 2021

Factors influencing retention among hospital nurses: systematic review.

Br J Nurs 2021 Mar;30(5):302-308

Lecturer in Anaesthesia Department, University of Zawia, Libya.

Background: Recruitment and retention of nursing staff is the biggest workforce challenge faced by healthcare institutions. Across the UK, there are currently around 50 000 nursing vacancies, and the number of people leaving the Nursing and Midwifery Council register is increasing.

Objective: This review comprehensively compiled an update on factors affecting retention among hospital nursing staff.

Methods: Five online databases; EMBASE, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, CINAHL and NICE Evidence were searched for relevant primary studies published until 31 December 2018 on retention among nurses in hospitals.

Results: Forty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Nine domains influencing staff turnover were found: nursing leadership and management, education and career advancement, organisational (work) environment, staffing levels, professional issues, support at work, personal influences, demographic influences, and financial remuneration.

Conclusion: Identified turnover factors are long-standing. To mitigate the impact of these factors, evaluation of current workforce strategies should be high priority.
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March 2021

Pressure injury and risk in the inpatient paediatric and neonatal populations: A single centre point-prevalence study.

J Tissue Viability 2021 May 9;30(2):231-236. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Nottingham Childrens Hospital and Neonatal Services, Family Health Division, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, UK; Children and Young People Health Research, School of Health Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

Introduction: Prevention and management of pressure injury is a key nurse-sensitive quality indicator. From clinical insights, pressure injury effects hospitalised neonates and children, however it is unclear how prevalent this is. The aim of this study was to quantify prevalence of pressure injury, assess skin integrity risk level, and quantify preventive interventions in both neonatal and child inpatient populations at a large children's hospital in the UK.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken, assessing the skin integrity of all children allocated to a paediatric or neonatal bed in June/July 2020. A data collection tool was adapted from two established pressure ulcer point prevalence surveys (EUPAP and Medstrom pre-prevalence survey). Risk assessment was performed using the Braden QD scale.

Results: Eighty-eight participants were included, with median age of 0.85 years [range 0-17.5 years), with 32 (36%) of participants being preterm. Median length of hospital stay was 11 days [range 0-174 days]. Pressure ulcer prevalence was 3.4%. The majority of participants had at least two medical devices, with 16 (18.2%) having more than four. Having a medical device was associated with increased risk score of developing pressure injury (odds ratio [OR] 0.03, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.01-0.05, p = 0.02). Most children (39 (44%)) were reported not having proposed preventive measures in place aligned to their risk assessment. However, for those that did, 2 to 4 hourly repositioning was associated with a risk reduction on pressure damage (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.03-0.23, p = 0.01).

Conclusion: Overall, we found a low prevalence of pressure injury across preterm infants, children and young people at a tertiary children's hospital. Accurate risk assessment as well as availability and implementation of preventive interventions are a priority for healthcare institutes to avoid pressure injury.
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May 2021

A regional evaluation of the health care utilization and outcomes of children and young people with long-term ventilation needs.

Child Care Health Dev 2021 01 26;47(1):70-76. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Nottingham Children's Hospital, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, UK.

Background: Globally, the number of children and young people (CYP) with long-term ventilation (LTV) needs is increasing, with high associated health care costs, due to frequent hospital admissions and contact with community health care services. However, demographic, health care utilization and outcome details of the CYP cared for locally is unknown. This study aimed to examine health care utilization and outcomes for this patient population.

Methods: Routinely collected data from 2014 to 2018 were extracted from local LTV team records and from hospital electronic patient records. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 17.

Results: A total of 112 CYP aged 0-17 years old were included in the evaluation. Sixty per cent (n = 67) commenced ventilation in hospital, and 62% (n = 69) had at-least one hospitalization event whilst they were on LTV, with a median length of stay of 3 days. Most hospitalizations were unplanned and respiratory in nature. Ninety-five per cent (n = 106) of CYP accessed at least one clinic appointment whilst on LTV, with a median of 20 outpatient clinic appointments during the study period. The majority of CYP received time-intensive support from LTV nurses and physiotherapists during the period that they received LTV. Minimal seasonal variation existed in relation to hospital admissions. Year on year increasing trend of hospital admissions was noted. The observed mortality rate was 3.6% (n = 4), 72.3% (n = 81) remained active on LTV, 14% (n = 16) were liberated from their ventilation and 9% (n = 10) transitioned to adult care by the end of the study.

Conclusion: The study highlights the most common modes of health care utilization for CYP with LTV needs. To enable formalization of future resource planning and accurate assessment of health care utilization in evaluations, there is an urgent need to create a systematic approach for relevant LTV data collection.
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January 2021

Short-term morbidity factors associated with length of hospital stay (LOS): Development and validation of a Hip Fracture specific postoperative morbidity survey (HF-POMS).

Injury 2019 Apr 14;50(4):931-938. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Anaesthesia and Critical Care Research Group, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Queen's Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, UK. Electronic address:

Background: We aimed to describe and quantify postoperative complications in the older hip fracture population, develop and validate a hip fracture postoperative morbidity survey tool (HF-POMS).

Methods: A prospective clinical observation study of patients (≥ 70 years) admitted for emergency hip fracture surgery, was conducted across three English National Health Service hospitals. Outcome data items were developed from the Postoperative Morbidity Survey (POMS), Cardiac-POMS, hip fracture postoperative literature and orthogeriatric clinical team input. Postoperative outcome data were collected on days 1, 3, 5, 8 and 15; 341 patients participated.

Results: A 12-domain HF-POMS tool was developed with acceptable construct validity on all HF-POMS days. Patients with high perioperative risk scores as measured by the NHFS and ASA grade were more prone to develop HF-POMS defined morbidities. High morbidity rates occurred in the following domains; renal, ambulation assistance, pain and infectious. Presence of any morbidity on postoperative days 8 and 15 was associated with subsequent length of stay of 3.08 days (95% CI 0.90-5.26, p = 0.005) and 15.81 days (95% CI 13.35-18.27, p = 0.001) respectively. Observed average length of stay was 16.9 days. HF-POMS is a reliable and valid tool for measuring early postoperative complications in hip fracture patients. Additional domains are necessary to account for all morbidity aspects in this patient population compared to the original POMS.

Conclusion: Many patients remained in hospital for non-medical reasons. HF-POMS may be a useful tool to assist in discharge planning and randomised control trial outcome definitions.
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April 2019

Risk scoring models for predicting peri-operative morbidity and mortality in people with fragility hip fractures: Qualitative systematic review.

Injury 2015 Dec 21;46(12):2325-34. Epub 2015 Oct 21.

Anaesthesia and Critical Care Research Group, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Queen's Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, UK. Electronic address:

Rationale: Accurate peri-operative risk prediction is an essential element of clinical practice. Various risk stratification tools for assessing patients' risk of mortality or morbidity have been developed and applied in clinical practice over the years. This review aims to outline essential characteristics (predictive accuracy, objectivity, clinical utility) of currently available risk scoring tools for hip fracture patients.

Methods: We searched eight databases; AMED, CINHAL, Clinical, Cochrane, DARE, EMBASE, MEDLINE and Web of Science for all relevant studies published until April 2015. We included published English language observational studies that considered the predictive accuracy of risk stratification tools for patients with fragility hip fracture.

Results: After removal of duplicates, 15,620 studies were screened. Twenty-nine papers met the inclusion criteria, evaluating 25 risk stratification tools. Risk stratification tools considered in more than two studies were; ASA, CCI, E-PASS, NHFS and O-POSSUM. All tools were moderately accurate and validated in multiple studies; however there are some limitations to consider. The E-PASS and O-POSSUM are comprehensive but complex, and require intraoperative data making them a challenge for use on patient bedside. The ASA, CCI and NHFS are simple, easy and inexpensive using routinely available preoperative data. Contrary to the ASA and CCI which has subjective variables in addition to other limitations, the NHFS variables are all objective.

Conclusion: In the search for a simple and inexpensive, easy to calculate, objective and accurate tool, the NHFS may be the most appropriate of the currently available scores for hip fracture patients. However more studies need to be undertaken before it becomes a national hip fracture risk stratification or audit tool of choice.
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December 2015

Maternal smoking and the risk of still birth: systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Public Health 2015 Mar 13;15:239. Epub 2015 Mar 13.

Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Nottingham, Clinical Sciences Building 2, Nottingham City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham, NG5 1 PB, UK.

Background: Smoking in pregnancy is known to be associated with a range of adverse pregnancy outcomes, yet there is a high prevalence of smoking among pregnant women in many countries, and it remains a major public health concern. We have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide contemporary estimates of the association between maternal smoking in pregnancy and the risk of stillbirth.

Methods: We searched four databases namely MEDLINE, EMBASE, Psych Info and Web of Science for all relevant original studies published until 31(st) December 2012. We included observational studies that measured the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and the risk of stillbirth.

Results: 1766 studies were screened for title analysis, of which 34 papers (21 cohorts, 8 case controls and 5 cross sectional studies) met the inclusion criteria. In meta-analysis smoking during pregnancy was significantly associated with a 47% increase in the odds of stillbirth (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.37, 1.57, p < 0.0001). In subgroup analysis, smoking 1-9 cig/day and ≥10 cig/day was associated with an 9% and 52% increase in the odds of stillbirth respectively. Subsequently, studies defining stillbirth at ≥ 20 weeks demonstrated a 43% increase in odds for smoking mothers compared to mothers who do not smoke, (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.32, 1.54, p < 0.0001), whereas studies with stillbirth defined at ≥ 24 weeks and ≥ 28 weeks showed 58% and 33% increase in the odds of stillbirth respectively.

Conclusion: Our review confirms a dose-response effect of maternal smoking in pregnancy on risk of stillbirth. To minimise the risk of stillbirth, reducing current smoking prevalence in pregnancy should continue to be a key public health high priority.
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March 2015