Publications by authors named "Takashi Matsukura"

10 Publications

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Response of preterm infants with transient hypothyroxinaemia of prematurity to the thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test is characterized by a delayed decrease in thyroid-stimulating hormone after the peak.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2020 11 21;93(5):605-612. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Objectives: We evaluated the response to the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation test in very low-birth weight (VLBW) infants to elucidate the aetiology of transient hypothyroxinaemia of prematurity (THOP).

Design And Methods: We performed TRH stimulation tests on 43 VLBW infants. Subjects were divided into two groups; a THOP group (N = 11; basal TSH < 15 mU/L and basal FT4 ≤ 0.8 ng/dL) and a non-THOP group (N = 32; basal TSH < 15 mU/L and basal FT4 > 0.8 ng/dL). Basal FT4 and FT3 were measured before, and TSH (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 minutes) was measured after, the administration of TRH (7 µg/kg). We calculated the ratio of TSH 180 minutes to THS 0 minute as the primary outcome. We also collected data on T3 and rT3 in this study.

Results: In both groups, TSH 30 minutes values were the highest. However, the ratios of TSH 180 minutes to THS 0 minutes in the non-THOP group and the THOP group were (median [IQR]) 1.3 [1.0-1.7] and 3.0 [1.5-5.3] (P < .01). No significant differences were observed in T3 (1.0 [0.8-1.3] and 0.7 [0.4-0.7] ng/mL, P = .06). However, in the THOP group, rT3 was significantly lower than that of the non-THOP group (168.0 [148.1-197.0] and 92.9 [74.7-101.6] pg/mL, P < .01).

Conclusions: The delayed decrease in the TSH concentration after the peak for the TRH tests and decreased levels of rT3 suggest that the main aetiology for THOP is suppression at the level of the hypothalamus, but not inactivation of peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cen.14260DOI Listing
November 2020

Antenatal Glucocorticoids Reduce the Incidence of Refractory Hypotension in Low Birthweight Infants during the Early Neonatal Period, but Do Not Affect It beyond This Time.

Am J Perinatol 2020 Feb 18. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Objective:  This study aimed to clarify the effect of antenatal glucocorticoids (AGs) on the incidence of refractory hypotension (RH) in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants after the first week of life.

Study Design:  We included VLBW infants born at a gestational age of <30 weeks and divided them into three groups: the complete group (born within 7 days of completing a single course [two doses] of AGs), the incomplete group (born without complete course), and the late delivery group (born at ≥8 days after a single course). We compared the incidence and period of onset of RH among the three groups.

Results:  A total of 115 infants were enrolled. The incidence of RH in the first week of life was significantly lower in the complete group than in the other groups. However, there was no significant difference in the incidence of RH after the first week of life among the groups.

Conclusion:  AGs contribute to circulatory stabilization during the first week of life, but this effect does not last after 1 or 2 weeks of administration. In infants who receive AGs, physicians should consider that the risk of RH after the first week of life is not low.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1701608DOI Listing
February 2020

Corticotrophin-releasing hormone stimulation tests for the infants with relative adrenal insufficiency.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2017 Dec 4;87(6):660-664. Epub 2017 Sep 4.

Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Background: Very low birthweight (VLBW) infants are considered to be vulnerable to relative adrenal insufficiency (RAI); however, diagnosis is difficult in some clinical settings. Considering this background, it is necessary to establish a diagnosis of RAI in preterm infants.

Objective: In this study, we attempted to clarify the difference in response to CRH stimulation tests for preterm infants with or without RAI.

Methods: Between June 2009 and December 2015, we performed CRH stimulation tests for preterm infants born at a gestational age of <30 weeks at around 2 weeks of age. Retrospectively, subjects were classified into two groups: infants with RAI (n = 9) or without RAI (n = 17) based on the clinical symptoms and responsiveness to hydrocortisone.

Results: We found no difference in base or peak serum cortisol levels related to CRH stimulation tests between the two groups; however, delta cortisol levels and responsive ratio (peak-to-base ratio) were significantly reduced in infants with RAI. 140 nmol/L for delta cortisol or 1.5 times for peak-to-base ratio may be cut-off levels in preterm infants.

Conclusion: This study provides evidence that base cortisol levels of preterm infants with RAI were not different from those without RAI; however, CRH stimulation tests may be a useful tool for the diagnosis of RAI in preterm infants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cen.13446DOI Listing
December 2017

Screening for secondary hyperparathyroidism in preterm infants.

Pediatr Int 2016 Oct 8;58(10):988-992. Epub 2016 Jun 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Background: The major cause of osteopathy of prematurity is dietary phosphate deficiency, but secondary hyperparathyroidism caused by calcium deficiency or vitamin D deficiency is also important. Because parathyroid hormone (PTH) mobilizes calcium and phosphate from the bone, hyperparathyroidism worsens osteopathy of prematurity. In order to identify useful markers to screen for and diagnose hyperparathyroidism in preterm infants, we measured serum and urinary biochemical markers.

Methods: Several biomarkers, including serum intact PTH (iPTH), were measured in urine and serum samples obtained from 95 preterm infants, and the relationship between serum iPTH and the other parameters was analyzed.

Results: Mean gestation was 33.2 ± 2.9 weeks, and mean birthweight was 1705 ± 402 g. Samples were collected around postnatal day 17.3 ± 7.4. Fourteen infants (14.7%) had iPTH >65 pg/mL. Cut-offs for serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and percent tubular reabsorption rate of phosphate (%TRP) were fixed at 1300 IU/L and 93%, respectively using receiver operating characteristic curves with iPTH cut-off of 65 pg/mL. Serum ALP was proven to be a good marker: ALP had a sensitivity of 78.6% and a specificity of 86.4%, while %TRP itself was not: %TRP had a sensitivity of 64.3% and a specificity of 58.0%. Combined measurement of serum ALP (>1300 IU/L) and %TRP (≤93%), however, had a specificity of 93.8% for detecting elevated iPTH.

Conclusion: Measurement of serum ALP (>1300 IU/L) is considered as an effective screening method to detect hyperparathyroidism. In addition, combined assessment of ALP(>1300 IU/L) and %TRP(≤93%) is a good indicator of elevated iPTH in preterm infants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ped.12961DOI Listing
October 2016

Fetal growth restriction but not preterm birth is a risk factor for severe hypospadias.

Pediatr Int 2016 Jul 4;58(7):573-7. Epub 2016 Feb 4.

Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Background: Hypospadias has multifactorial causes and occurs at a high frequency among very low-birthweight infants. Placental insufficiency is hypothesized to be one cause of hypospadias; that is, decreased human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) secretion caused by placental insufficiency is suspected to result in abnormal male external genitalia, but there is little direct evidence to support this. The aim of this study was therefore to identify the features of hypospadias and to clarify the male genital abnormalities caused by fetal growth restriction (FGR).

Methods: We reviewed the clinical data of boys who underwent hypospadias repair between 2005 and 2011 at Kyoto University Hospital.

Results: Twenty boys were included in this study. Fifteen (75%) of the subjects were preterm or low-birthweight infants. Thirteen (65%) had FGR, 60% of whom had severe hypospadias regardless of gestational age. In addition, 92% of the FGR infants also had other genital anomalies, such as cryptorchidism, bifid scrotum, or micropenis. In contrast, only 14% and 43% of the non-FGR infants had severe hypospadias or genital anomalies other than hypospadias, respectively. Placental histopathology was available in eight FGR infants, in seven of whom it was suggestive of blood flow deficiency such as infarction and single umbilical artery.

Conclusions: Infants with FGR have a high incidence of hypospadias. FGR caused by placental dysfunction, but not low birthweight, is a risk factor for severe hypospadias associated with multiple genital anomalies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ped.12864DOI Listing
July 2016

High prevalence of severe circulatory complications with diazoxide in premature infants.

Neonatology 2014 21;105(3):166-71. Epub 2014 Jan 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Background: Since diazoxide was approved for clinical use in Japan in 2008, its prescription for the treatment of infants with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (HIH) has rapidly expanded. Concomitantly, reports of complications associated with diazoxide are increasing.

Objectives: To clarify the trends and problems associated with the treatment of infants with HIH, we planned a nationwide surveillance in Japan.

Methods: Questionnaires were sent to 255 institutions belonging to the Japanese Neonatologist Association inquiring about neonatal cases of HIH from 2009 to 2011.

Results: One hundred nineteen cases of neonates with transient HIH (THIH) related to perinatal problems and 15 cases with permanent HIH (PHIH; hypoglycemia persisting beyond a year) or genetic HIH were reported. Sixty-four infants (53.8%) with THIH were administered diazoxide, and the administration was completed within 3 months in 46 infants (71.9%). Fourteen of the PHIH or genetic cases were treated with diazoxide and 7 of them (50%) had hypoglycemia persisting beyond a year. Circulatory complications were reported in 15 infants, i.e. 10 with THIH and 5 with PHIH. Multiple regression analysis revealed that a younger gestational age at birth and higher maximum doses of diazoxide were significant risk factors for circulatory complications.

Conclusions: Diazoxide is widely prescribed for infants with HIH as a first-line medicine in Japan, but prophylactic diuretics are uncommon. Under these circumstances, a high prevalence of severe circulatory complications in very-low-birth-weight infants was reported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000356772DOI Listing
November 2014

Salivary biomarkers are not suitable for pain assessment in newborns.

Early Hum Dev 2013 Jul 10;89(7):503-6. Epub 2013 Apr 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Kyoto University Hospital, 54 Shogoin-Kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan.

Background And Aims: Newborns admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit are repeatedly subjected to painful or stressful procedures; therefore, objective assessment of their pain is essential. An increasing number of scales for neonatal pain assessment have been developed, many of which are based on physiological and behavioral factors. Recently, salivary biomarkers have been used to assess stress in adults and older infants. This study aimed to determine whether salivary biomarkers can be useful objective indices for assessing newborn pain.

Study Design: A total of 47 healthy newborns were enrolled 3-4days after birth. Heel lancing was performed to collect blood for a newborn screening test. Before and after heel lancing, saliva was collected to analyze hormone levels, a video was recorded for behavioral observations, and heart rate was recorded. Two investigators independently assessed newborn pain from the video observations using the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS). Salivary chromogranin (sCgA) and salivary amylase (sAA) levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit and a dry chemistry system, respectively.

Results: No definite changes in salivary biomarkers (sCgA or sAA) were detected before and after heel lancing. However, newborn sCgA levels were markedly higher than reported adult levels, with large inter- and intra-subject variability, whereas newborn sAA levels were lower than adult levels. NIPS score and heart rate were dramatically increased after heel lancing.

Conclusions: NIPS score (behavioral assessment) and heart rate are useful stress markers in newborns. However, neither sCgA nor sAA is suitable for assessing newborn pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2013.03.006DOI Listing
July 2013

Limited response to CRH stimulation tests at 2 weeks of age in preterm infants born at less than 30 weeks of gestational age.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2013 May;78(5):724-9

Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Background: The high incidence of glucocorticoid-responsive complications in extremely preterm infants suggests the immaturity of their adrenal function; however, knowledge of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in extremely preterm infants is limited.

Methods: To clarify the characteristics of the HPA axis in preterm very low birthweight (VLBW) infants, we performed CRH tests repeatedly: at about 2 weeks of age and at term (37-41 weeks of postmenstrual age) for 21 VLBW infants with a gestational age (GA) <30 weeks at birth.

Results: Basal cortisol values at 2 weeks of age were significantly higher than those at term in VLBW infants < 30 weeks of gestation at birth (304·1 ± 146·3 nmol/l vs 184·7 ± 108·2 nmol/l). Response to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation tests at 2 weeks of age was significantly lower than at term (delta cortisol 148·3 ± 90·7 nmol/l vs 271·8 ± 167·0 nmol/l, delta ACTH 3·9 ± 3·2 pmol/l vs 12·3 ± 9·2 pmol/l, respectively). We found that earlier GA contributed to the higher basal cortisol values, and antenatal glucocorticoid (AG) contributed to the lower response of cortisol to CRH tests at 2 weeks of age.

Conclusions: VLBW infants showed a characteristic pattern in the HPA axis at 2 weeks of age: higher basal cortisol values and lower response to CRH tests. This study suggested that AG was related to the lower response to CRH tests, at least partly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cen.12049DOI Listing
May 2013

Diagnostic value of salivary cortisol in the CRH stimulation test in premature infants.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012 Mar 18;97(3):890-6. Epub 2012 Jan 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Shogoin-kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan.

Context: According to a recent nationwide survey in Japan, a significant proportion of very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) develop late-onset circulatory collapse after the first week of life. Small doses of glucocorticoid are very effective in these patients, and relative adrenal insufficiency is suspected to be the main cause of the condition. Although the CRH test is required to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, obtaining multiple blood samples is invasive.

Objectives: The present study was carried out to validate the consistency of the cortisol profiles of matched serum and saliva samples collected as part of the CRH test from VLBWI.

Subjects/methods: In 23 VLBWI with a gestational age of less than 29 wk, we performed CRH tests at 2 wk after birth and at term. Their cortisol values were measured at the baseline and 30 min after the administration of a single dose of human CRH (1 μg/kg) using matched serum and saliva samples.

Results: In 26 CRH tests in 19 infants, we were able to measure both serum and salivary cortisol. Significant correlations were detected between the infants' serum and salivary cortisol values (r=0.78; P<0.0001), the increases in these values induced in response to the CRH test (r=0.81; P<0.0001), and their peak serum and salivary cortisol values (r=0.68; P=0.0001).

Conclusion: This study indicated that using salivary cortisol measurements for the CRH test could be a reliable method for evaluating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in VLBWI with gestational age of less than 29 wk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2011-1814DOI Listing
March 2012

Hyperthyrotropinemia at 2 weeks of age indicates thyroid dysfunction and predicts the occurrence of delayed elevation of thyrotropin in very low birth weight infants.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2012 Aug;77(2):255-61

Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Background: For preterm infants, transient hypothyroxinemia of prematurity and transient primary hypothyroidism, especially with delayed elevation of serum thyrotropin (TSH), are important.

Methods: To address the above two issues, we performed thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation tests at about 2 weeks of age for 31 preterm infants with a gestational age of 30 weeks or less.

Results: For basal TSH levels, 68% of infants (21 of 31) showed normal values (TSH < 10 mU/l) and 32% of infants (10 of 31) showed higher values (four infants: TSH 10-15 mU/l, six infants: TSH > 15 mU/l). Peak TSH values in response to TRH stimulation tests ranged from 9·76 to 114·8 mU/l. All infants showed a significant response to TRH stimulation tests. Only 9·5% of infants (two of 21) with normal basal TSH values showed a hyperresponse (peak TSH > 45 mU/l), whereas 80% of infants (eight of 10) who had higher basal TSH values showed a hyperresponse. All infants who showed mildly elevated basal TSH values (TSH 10-15 mU/l) and a hyperresponse to TRH stimulation tests showed delayed elevation of basal TSH values (TSH > 15 mU/l) later.

Conclusions: Thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation tests at about 2 weeks of age suggested that the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis might be established even in extremely premature infants. Basal increased TSH levels (TSH > 10 mU/l) and a hyperresponse to TRH stimulation tests (peak TSH > 45 mU/l) suggested subclinical thyroid dysfunction. Serum TSH values at about 2 weeks of age could be useful for the prediction of delayed TSH elevation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2265.2011.04323.xDOI Listing
August 2012