Publications by authors named "Takashi Aoyama"

65 Publications

Study of factors related to recurrence within 30 days after pneumonia treatment for community-onset pneumonia.

J Infect Chemother 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Fukuoka University, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka, Japan.

Introduction: It is not uncommon for patients hospitalized with pneumonia to experience an early relapse. Here, we investigated the factors related to pneumonia recurrence in Japan.

Purpose: We aimed to elucidate the factors related to early recurrence after completion of pneumonia treatment.

Methods: We examined 696 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and nursing and healthcare-associated pneumonia (NHCAP) who were admitted to our hospital between October 2010 and February 2018, excluding those who died during hospitalization. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the endpoint of recurrence within 30 days after the end of antibiotic treatment.

Results: NHCAP, chronic lung disease and duration of antibiotic treatment were significant risk factors for recurrence of pneumonia within 30 days after antibiotic discontinuation. Aspiration pneumonia was not be a significant factor in the early recurrence of pneumonia.

Conclusions: Long-term use of antimicrobials may be a risk factor in early recurrence of pneumonia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2021.08.002DOI Listing
September 2021

The usefulness of postmortem computed tomography angiography for subdural hematoma caused by rupture of the cortical artery: A report of two autopsy cases and a literature review.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2021 Jul 12;53:101941. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Division of Legal Medicine, Department of Community Preventive Medicine, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan; Center of Cause of Death Investigation, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan.

Acute subdural hematoma (SDH) occurs following severe head trauma with brain contusion or rupture of bridging veins. Conversely, SDH caused by rupture of a cortical artery without trauma or with minor trauma is also possible. Although over 150 cases of the latter SDH have been reported, they were predominantly diagnosed only during surgery, and therefore, no adequate histological evaluation has been performed. Therefore, essential etiology of this SDH type has remained unclear. In addition, the scarcity of autopsy cases may be attributed to arterial rupture being missed if the macroscopic findings are too minimal to detect during autopsy. Here, we describe two autopsy cases of SDH of cortical artery origin. Extravasation on postmortem computed tomography angiography and arterial leakage on macroscopic observation during autopsy facilitated detection of the ruptured artery and allowed detailed histological evaluation of the ruptured artery and adjacent dura mater. The etiology of arterial rupture is briefly described on the basis of histopathological findings in this study and the available literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.legalmed.2021.101941DOI Listing
July 2021

Lung squamous cell carcinoma with severe hypomagnesemia due to cisplatin plus gemcitabine in combination with necitumumab therapy: A case report.

Thorac Cancer 2021 07 1;12(13):2039-2042. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Fukuoka University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan.

A 72-year-old man, diagnosed with advanced lung squamous cell carcinoma, was administered of cisplatin plus gemcitabine with necitumumab, a human monoclonal antibody that binds to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), as a sixth-line treatment. Tumor shrinkage was observed, but asymptomatic grade 4 hypomagnesemia occurred on day 8 of the second cycle. He received magnesium replenishment and hypomagnesemia recovered on day 40, but tumor progression was observed during the period of magnesium correction. Hypomagnesemia is known as a major adverse event of treatment with anti-EGFR antibodies, but there have been no case reports of severe hypomagnesemia or its clinical course.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.13999DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8258358PMC
July 2021

Comparison of the disinfecting effect of sodium hypochlorite aqueous solution and surfactant on hospital kitchen hygiene using adenosine triphosphate swab testing.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(4):e0249796. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Dietary Department, Shizuoka Cancer Centre, Shizuoka, Japan.

The Japanese Ministry of Health requires large-scale cooking facilities to use sodium hypochlorite aqueous solution (HYP) on food preparation tools, equipment, and facilities to prevent secondary contamination. This study aimed to compare the disinfecting effect of HYP and surfactant using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) swab testing on large-scale equipment and facilities that could not be disassembled and disinfected in hospital kitchen. From May 2018 to July 2018, ATP swab tests were performed on the following six locations in the Shizuoka Cancer Centre Dietary Department Kitchen: cooking counter, mobile cooking counter, refrigerator handle, conveyor belt, tap handle, and sink. Six relative light unit (RLU) measurements were taken from each location. The log10 values of the RLU measurements were evaluated by dividing the samples into two groups: the control group (surfactant followed by HYP swabbing) and the HYP group (HYP swabbing only). The results showed that the RLUs (log10 values) in both the groups improved after disinfection (p<0.05), except for the RLUs (log10 values) of the mobile cooking counter, tap handle, and sink in the control group after the HYP swab. The changes in the RLU (log10 value) did not differ between the two groups for all locations of the kitchen. Hence, HYP swabbing of large-scale equipment and facilities provides the same level of disinfection as surfactants and can be as beneficial.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0249796PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8043410PMC
April 2021

Arabidopsis phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase genes PIP5K7, PIP5K8, and PIP5K9 are redundantly involved in root growth adaptation to osmotic stress.

Plant J 2021 May 5;106(4):913-927. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 611-0011, Japan.

Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) produces phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P ), a signaling phospholipid critical for various cellular processes in eukaryotes. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes 11 PIP5K genes. Of these, three type B PIP5K genes, PIP5K7, PIP5K8, and PIP5K9, constitute a subgroup highly conserved in land plants, suggesting that they retain a critical function shared by land plants. In this study, we comprehensively investigated the biological functions of the PIP5K7-9 subgroup genes. Reporter gene analyses revealed their preferential expression in meristematic and vascular tissues. Their YFP-fusion proteins localized primarily to the plasma membrane in root meristem epidermal cells. We selected a mutant line that was considered to be null for each gene. Under normal growth conditions, neither single mutants nor multiple mutants of any combination exhibited noticeable phenotypic changes. However, stress conditions with mannitol or NaCl suppressed main root growth and reduced proximal root meristem size to a greater extent in the pip5k7pip5k8pip5k9 triple mutant than in the wild type. In root meristem epidermal cells of the triple mutant, where plasma membrane localization of the PtdIns(4,5)P marker P24Y is impaired to a large extent, brefeldin A body formation is retarded compared with the wild type under hyperosmotic stress. These results indicate that PIP5K7, PIP5K8, and PIP5K9 are not required under normal growth conditions, but are redundantly involved in root growth adaptation to hyperosmotic conditions, possibly through the PtdIns(4,5)P function promoting plasma membrane recycling in root meristem cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.15207DOI Listing
May 2021

SAP130 and CSN1 interact and regulate male gametogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

J Plant Res 2021 Mar 8;134(2):279-289. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Molecular Biology Laboratory, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto, 611-0011, Japan.

COP9 signalosome (CSN) is a nuclear complex composed of eight distinct subunits that governs vast developmental processes in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. The null alleles of csn mutants display pleiotropic phenotypes that result in seedling lethality. To date, several partially complemented transgenic plants, expressing the particular CSN subunit in its corresponding null mutant allele, were utilized to bypass seedling lethality and investigate CSN regulation at later stages of development. One such transgenic plant corresponding to CSN1 subunit, fus6/CSN1-3-4, accumulates wild-type level of CSN1 and displays normal plant architecture at vegetative stage. Here we show through histological analyses that fus6/CSN1-3-4 plants display impairment of pollen development at the bicellular stage. This defect is identical to that observed in RNAi plants of SAP130, encoding a subunit of the multiprotein splicing factor SF3b. We further dissected the previously reported interaction between CSN1 and SAP130, to reveal that approximately 100 amino-acid residues located at the N-terminal end of CSN1 (CSN1NN) were essential for this interaction. In silico structure modeling demonstrated that CSN1NN could swing out towards SAP130 to dock onto its Helical Insertion protruding from the structure. These results support our model that CSN1 embeds itself within CSN protein complex through its C-terminal half and reaches out to targets through its N-terminal portion of the protein. Taken together, this is the first report to document the identical loss-of-function phenotypes of CSN1 and SAP130 during male gametogenesis. Thus, we propose that SAP130 and CSN1 coordinately regulate development of male reproductive organs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10265-021-01260-0DOI Listing
March 2021

Examining the Beneficial Aspects of Nutritional Guidance Using Estimated Daily Salt Intake in Cancer Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease.

Med Sci Monit Basic Res 2021 Jan 19;27:e927719. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Division of Cardiology, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Nagaizumi, Shizuoka, Japan.

BACKGROUND The outcomes associated with nutritional guidance for patients with ischemic heart disease undergoing cancer treatment have not been explored. We examined the effects of nutritional guidance using estimated daily salt intake in cancer patients with ischemic heart disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS We examined the data from physical examinations and laboratory assessments of 27 patients with suspected excessive salt intake who underwent coronary angiography for the first time and received nutritional guidance on their next visit to the Department of Cardiology of Shizuoka Cancer Center between May 2018 and March 2020. Salinity measurement was not used in the nutritional guidance method, but the patients were instructed to reduce consumption of salt-containing foods. We compared the frequency of the estimated daily salt intake with the frequency of categories requiring salt control (food, cooking, and table salts). RESULTS The median age of the participants was 74 (range, 63-86) years. The estimated daily salt intake and the rate of change in the triglyceride level were negatively correlated (r=-0.61, P<0.01). The estimated daily salt intake was reduced in 16 cases; there was a relative decrease in the frequency of food intake among categories requiring salt control compared with that in the nonimproved cases (P<0.01). No difference was found between the cancer stage and the affected site of the digestive system in either group (P=0.64, P=0.39). CONCLUSIONS Nutritional guidance on dietary habits without using salinity measurement was beneficial in preventing ischemic heart disease and food intake reduction in cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSMBR.927719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7834217PMC
January 2021

Clinical impact of walking capacity on the risk of disability and hospitalizations among elderly patients with advanced lung cancer.

Support Care Cancer 2021 Jul 3;29(7):3961-3970. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Division of Thoracic Oncology, Shizuoka Cancer Center, 1007, Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi-cho, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka, 411-8777, Japan.

Purpose: Little is known about the impact of decreased walking capacity on clinical outcomes in elderly patients with cancer. This prospective observational study aimed to investigate the impact of walking capacity on the risk of disability and hospitalization in elderly patients with advanced lung cancer.

Method: This study prospectively enrolled 60 patients aged ≥ 70 years with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) scheduled to receive first-line chemotherapy or radical radiotherapy between January 2013 and December 2014 (trial registration number: UMIN000009768). Patients were classified into the mobile or less mobile group based on the median incremental shuttle walking distance (ISWD) before initial treatment. Assessments included the Barthel index, disability-free survival time, mean cumulative lengths of hospital stay, and inpatient medical costs.

Results: The median ISWD was 290 m (interquartile range, 245-357.5 m). The mobile group (ISWD ≥ 290 m) had a longer disability-free survival time than the less mobile group (ISWD < 290 m, 24.6 months vs. 8.4 months, p < 0.05). During the first year from study entry, the mobile group had shorter cumulative lengths of hospital stay (41.3 vs. 72.9 days/person, p < 0.05) and lower inpatient medical costs (¥1.9 vs. ¥2.9 million/person, p < 0.05) than the less mobile group.

Conclusion: Elderly NSCLC patients with adequate walking capacity showed lower risks of disability, shorter hospitalizations, and lower inpatient medical costs than patients with reduced walking capacity. Further prospective research is needed to validate these findings. The trial was registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network as trial number UMIN000009768 on January 13, 2013.

Trial Registration: UMIN000009768.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-020-05953-5DOI Listing
July 2021

Secondary renal amyloidosis associated with asbestos-related pleuropulmonary diseases.

CEN Case Rep 2020 11 13;9(4):385-391. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Division of Nephrology and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Nanakuma 7-45-1, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka, 814-0180, Japan.

Here, we present a 67-year-old Japanese man who developed insidious-onset nephrotic syndrome. He had a history of occupational asbestos exposure for about 8 years during his 30s, and was found to have pleural effusion 3 years before his present illness. At that time, repeated cytology testing of his pleural effusion found no malignant cells, and pleural biopsy found fibrous pleuritis without evidence of malignant mesothelioma. Percutaneous kidney biopsy found massive deposits of AA-type amyloid in the glomeruli, small arteries, and medulla. Computed tomography showed a calcified mass in the right lower lung that was positive for Ga uptake, but transbronchial lung biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage found no evidence of malignancy. He was diagnosed with rounded atelectasis and diffuse pleural thickening. As these benign asbestos-related diseases have no standard treatment, we administered low-dose angiotensin II receptor blocker to preserve kidney function. Unfortunately, his nephrotic syndrome persists, with progressive chronic kidney failure. Kidney involvement in patients with asbestos-related disease is rare. To our knowledge, this is the first case to present with secondary amyloidosis. Kidney biopsy should be considered for patients with existing asbestos-related pleuropulmonary diseases who have urinary abnormalities or renal dysfunction, to clarify the incidence and pathophysiology of renal manifestations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13730-020-00493-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7502098PMC
November 2020

Benefit of Reducing Body Weight Loss with A Nutritional Support Pathway in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Med Sci Monit Basic Res 2019 09 10;25:187-198. Epub 2019 Sep 10.

Division of Stem Cell Transplantation, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Nagaizumi, Shizuoka, Japan.

Background: This retrospective, historically controlled investigative study examined the benefit of a nutritional support pathway that included nutritional education before the start of conditioning and emphasized oral nutrition in response to nutrition-related adverse events in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).

Material And Methods: Participants were patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT; 46 were in the control group (i.e., did not follow our nutritional pathway) and 36 were in the group that underwent nutritional intervention (enhanced nutrition group). We compared the following parameters between groups from the day before the start of conditioning to the day after completion of parenteral nutrition (PN): percent loss of body weight (%LBW), percent loss of skeletal muscle mass (%LSMM), and estimated basal energy expenditure (EBEE) sufficiency rate. The relationship between each parameter and %LBW was also examined. We also compared nutritional indices, gastrointestinal graft versus host disease (GvHD) grade, oral energy intake, and %LBW between groups.

Results: There was a relationship between %LBW, %LSMM, and EBEE sufficiency rate in both groups. Compared with the control group, the enhanced nutrition group had significantly improved energy intake amount, EBEE sufficiency rate, PN duration, and oral energy intake over time. The enhanced nutrition group also had increased oral energy intake, no difference in gastrointestinal GvHD grade, and improved %LBW compared with the control group.

Conclusions: Use of our nutritional support pathway in patients undergoing HSCT may be beneficial for %LBW and gastrointestinal GvHD grade, enabling early enhanced nutritional intervention after HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSMBR.917329DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6754707PMC
September 2019

Procalcitonin-Guided Antibiotic Discontinuation Might Shorten the Duration of Antibiotic Treatment Without Increasing Pneumonia Recurrence.

Am J Med Sci 2019 07 16;358(1):33-44. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Fukuoka University, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan.

Background: The optimal duration of antibiotic treatment has not been established for pneumonia patients. Some investigators reported procalcitonin (PCT)-guided antimicrobial stewardship reduces the duration of antibiotic use without increasing mortality in pneumonia patients.

Material And Methods: We prospectively enrolled hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia or healthcare-associated pneumonia patients with PCT levels >0.20 ng/mL on admission, who were admitted between 2014 and 2017. PCT levels were measured on days 5, 8 and 11 and every 3 days thereafter if needed. Physicians were encouraged and strongly encouraged to discontinue antibiotics when PCT levels decreased below 0.20 ng/mL and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. Those admitted between 2010 and 2014 were included in the study as historical controls. Primary endpoints were duration of antibiotic treatment and recurrence of pneumonia within 30 days after antibiotic discontinuation.

Results: The PCT-guided and control groups consisted of 116 patients each. Background factors including pneumonia severity and PCT levels did not differ between the 2 groups. Median duration of antibiotic treatment was 8.0 and 11 days in the PCT-guided and control groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Multivariable regression analysis revealed that PCT-guided antibiotic discontinuation (partial regression coefficient [PRC] -1.9319, P < 0.001), PCT (PRC 0.1501, P = 0.0059) and albumin (PRC -1.4398, P = 0.0096) were significantly related to duration of antibiotic treatment. Pneumonia recurrence within 30 days after antibiotic discontinuation was not statistically different between the 2 groups (4.3% vs. 6.0%, P = 0.5541).

Conclusions: PCT-guided antibiotic discontinuation might be useful for shortening the duration of antibiotic treatment without increasing pneumonia recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjms.2019.04.005DOI Listing
July 2019

An autopsy case of peliosis hepatis with X-linked myotubular myopathy.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2019 May 18;38:77-82. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Division of Legal Medicine, Department of Community Preventive Medicine, Niigata University Graduate School of Medicine and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan; Center of Cause of Death Investigation, Faculty of Medicine, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan. Electronic address:

This report describes the autopsy case of a 4-year-old boy who died from hepatic hemorrhage and rupture caused by peliosis hepatis with X-linked myotubular myopathy. Peliosis hepatis is characterized by multiple blood-filled cavities of various sizes in the liver, which occurs in chronic wasting disease or with the use of specific drugs. X-linked myotubular myopathy is one of the most serious types of congenital myopathies, in which an affected male infant typically presents with severe hypotonia and respiratory distress immediately after birth. Although each disorder is rare, 12 cases of pediatric peliosis hepatis associated with X-linked myotubular myopathy have been reported, including our case. Peliosis hepatis should be considered as a cause of hepatic hemorrhage despite its low incidence, and it requires adequate gross and histological investigation for correct diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.legalmed.2019.04.005DOI Listing
May 2019

Author Correction: PtdIns(3,5)P mediates root hair shank hardening in Arabidopsis.

Nat Plants 2019 Apr;5(4):447

Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, Kyoto, Japan.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41477-019-0416-xDOI Listing
April 2019

Arabidopsis PCaP2 modulates the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate signal on the plasma membrane and attenuates root hair elongation.

Plant J 2019 08 15;99(4):610-625. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto, 611-0011, Japan.

Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P ] serves as a subcellular signal on the plasma membrane, mediating various cell-polarized phenomena including polar cell growth. Here, we investigated the involvement of Arabidopsis thaliana PCaP2, a plant-unique plasma membrane protein with phosphoinositide-binding activity, in PtdIns(4,5)P signaling for root hair tip growth. The long-root-hair phenotype of the pcap2 knockdown mutant was found to stem from its higher average root hair elongation rate compared with the wild type and to counteract the low average rate caused by a defect in the PtdIns(4,5)P -producing enzyme gene PIP5K3. On the plasma membrane of elongating root hairs, the PCaP2 promoter-driven PCaP2-green fluorescent protein (GFP), which complemented the pcap2 mutant phenotype, overlapped with the PtdIns(4,5)P marker 2xCHERRY-2xPH in the subapical region, but not at the apex, suggesting that PCaP2 attenuates root hair elongation via PtdIns(4,5)P signaling on the subapical plasma membrane. Consistent with this, a GFP fusion with the PCaP2 phosphoinositide-binding domain PCaP2 , root hair-specific overexpression of which caused a low average root hair elongation rate, localized more intense to the subapical plasma membrane than to the apical plasma membrane similar to PCaP2-GFP. Inducibly overexpressed PCaP2-GFP, but not its derivative lacking the PCaP2 domain, replaced 2xCHERRY-2xPH on the plasma membrane in root meristematic epidermal cells, and suppressed FM4-64 internalization in elongating root hairs. Moreover, inducibly overexpressed PCaP2 arrested an endocytic process of PIN2-GFP recycling. Based on these results, we conclude that PCaP2 functions as a negative modulator of PtdIns(4,5)P signaling on the subapical plasma membrane probably through competitive binding to PtdIns(4,5)P and attenuates root hair elongation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.14226DOI Listing
August 2019

PtdIns(3,5)P mediates root hair shank hardening in Arabidopsis.

Nat Plants 2018 11 2;4(11):888-897. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, Kyoto, Japan.

Root hairs elongate by tip growth and simultaneously harden the shank by constructing the inner secondary cell wall layer. While much is known about the process of tip growth, almost nothing is known about the mechanism by which root hairs harden the shank. Here we show that phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P), the enzymatic product of FORMATION OF APLOID AND BINUCLEATE CELLS 1 (FAB1), is involved in the hardening of the shank in root hairs in Arabidopsis. FAB1 and PtdIns(3,5)P localize to the plasma membrane along the shank of growing root hairs. By contrast, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase 3 (PIP5K3) and PtdIns(4,5)P localize to the apex of the root hair where they are required for tip growth. Reduction of FAB1 function results in the formation of wavy root hairs while those of the wild type are straight. The localization of FAB1 in the plasma membrane of the root hair shank requires the activity of Rho-related GTPases from plants 10 (ROP10) and localization of ROP10 requires FAB1 activity. Computational modelling of root hair morphogenesis successfully reproduces the wavy root hair phenotype. Taken together, these data demonstrate that root hair shank hardening requires PtdIns(3,5)P/ROP10 signalling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41477-018-0277-8DOI Listing
November 2018

Impact of Cancer Cachexia on Hospitalization-associated Physical Inactivity in Elderly Patients with Advanced Non-small-cell Lung Cancer.

Asia Pac J Oncol Nurs 2018 Oct-Dec;5(4):377-382

Division of Thoracic Oncology, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Shizuoka, Japan.

Objective: New or worsening disability can develop in elderly patients in just 1 week of hospitalization for acute illness. Elderly patients with cancer, particularly those with cancer cachexia, are vulnerable to disability. This study aimed to explore the impact of hospitalization and cachexia on physical activity (PA) in elderly patients during chemotherapy.

Methods: We prospectively enrolled 18 patients aged ≥70 years with newly-diagnosed, advanced non-small-cell lung cancer scheduled to initiate first-line chemotherapy. PA was measured using an accelerometer (Lifecorder, Suzuken Co., Ltd., Japan). Mean daily steps at baseline, during hospitalization, and subsequent weeks (1, 2, and 3 week after discharge) were compared.

Results: A total of 30 hospitalizations for chemotherapy were evaluated in 18 patients with a median age of 74.5 years. The median number of baseline daily steps was 3756. Fifteen cases (50%) showed fewer daily steps during hospitalization and no recovery to baseline level during the 1 week after discharge. Long hospitalizations (≥8 days) and the presence of cachexia were associated with persistent physical inactivity. One patient developed disability within 30 days after hospitalization.

Conclusions: Physical inactivity was frequently seen after hospitalization for chemotherapy in elderly patients with advanced lung cancer. Longer in-hospital days and the presence of cancer cachexia caused slow recovery from physical inactivity. Individualized hospitalization planning based on careful consideration of patient age and the presence of cancer cachexia may be needed to prevent physical inactivity and disability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/apjon.apjon_20_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6103202PMC
October 2018

Study of the usefulness of small-bore aspiration catheters (Aspiration Kit) for treating pneumothorax.

Respir Investig 2018 Sep 20;56(5):405-409. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Fukuoka University Hospital, Japan.

Background: Small-bore aspiration catheters (Aspiration Kit) cause less pain than conventional trocar catheters in patients. The objective of this study was to examine the usefulness of these less invasive small-bore aspiration catheters for drainage of pneumothorax.

Methods: Baseline characteristics and laboratory test data at admission of 70 patients who were admitted to and underwent drainage treatment for pneumothorax at our hospital between April 2011 and February 2017 were retrospectively reviewed based on their medical records. The primary endpoints were factors associated with drainage treatment failure, and baseline characteristics and laboratory test data were compared between those treated with a small-bore aspiration catheter and those treated with a trocar catheter.

Results: The numbers of patients with anticoagulant use (P < 0.0001), ischemic stroke (P = 0.0063), and atrial fibrillation (P = 0.0410) were significantly different between the two groups. No significant intergroup differences were noted with respect to the length of hospitalization, drainage duration, subcutaneous emphysema, and treatment failure. Logistic regression analyses of baseline characteristics showed that the severity of pneumothorax, localization of pneumothorax, and recurrent pneumothorax were significantly associated with drainage treatment failure, but the type of drainage catheter was not significantly associated with treatment failure. [Conclusions] The results suggest that small-bore aspiration catheters, which cause less pain in patients, are potentially useful for pneumothorax drainage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resinv.2018.06.003DOI Listing
September 2018

Long-Term Outcomes of Gastric Cancer Patients with Preoperative Sarcopenia.

Ann Surg Oncol 2018 Jun 9;25(6):1625-1632. Epub 2018 Apr 9.

Division of Gastric Surgery, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Nagaizumi-cho, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka, Japan.

Background: There are few reports of long-term outcomes of gastric cancer patients with sarcopenia. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of sarcopenia on long-term outcomes in gastric cancer patients who underwent curative resection.

Methods: A total of 951 patients aged 65 years or older who underwent R0 resection for gastric cancer were investigated. Sarcopenia was defined as a decreased arm muscle area < 38.05 cm in men and < 27.87 cm in women combined with a decline in grip strength to < 26 kgf in men and < 18 kgf in women.

Results: Of 951 patients, 111 (11.7%) were diagnosed with sarcopenia. Reduced surgery was performed significantly more frequently in patients with sarcopenia (p = 0.006). The incidence of eligible patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy was significantly lower in patients with sarcopenia than in those without sarcopenia (p = 0.030). Mortality due to gastric cancer and aging-associated multiple organ failure rates without obvious diseases were higher in patients with sarcopenia (p = 0.036 and p < 0.001, respectively). Overall survival (OS) and cause-specific survival (CSS) were significantly worse in patients with sarcopenia (p < 0.001 and p = 0.005, respectively). Multivariate analysis for OS and CSS revealed that sarcopenia was an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer patients (p < 0.001 and p = 0.043, respectively).

Conclusions: Sarcopenia is related to poor survival in gastric cancer patients and appears to be a significant negative prognostic factor in patients with gastric cancer who underwent curative resection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-018-6452-3DOI Listing
June 2018

Comprehensive analysis of prognostic factors in hospitalized patients with pneumonia occurring outside hospital: Serum albumin is not less important than pneumonia severity assessment scale.

J Infect Chemother 2018 Aug 5;24(8):602-609. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Japan.

Purpose: This study aimed to elucidate factors related to 30-day mortality of pneumonia occurring outside hospital by comprehensively analyzing data considered relevant to prognosis.

Methods: Data considered relevant to prognosis were retrospectively examined from clinical charts and chest X-ray images of all patients with pneumonia occurring outside hospital admitted to our hospital from 2010 to 2016. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality.

Results: Data were collected from 534 patients (317 community-acquired pneumonia and 217 nursing- and healthcare associated pneumonia patients; 338 men (63.3%); mean age, 76.2 years-old). Eighty-three patients (9.9%) died from pneumonia within 30 days from the date of admission. The numbers of patients with pneumonia severity index (PSI) classes of I/II/III/IV/V and age, dehydration, respiratory failure, orientation disturbance, pressure (A-DROP) scores of 0/1/2/3/4/5 were 29/66/127/229/83, and 71/107/187/132/30/7, respectively. Mean (standard deviation) body mass index (BMI), serum albumin, blood procalcitonin, white blood cell and C-reactive protein were 20.00 (4.12) kg/m, 3.16 (0.60) g/dL, 3.69 (13.15) ng/mL, 11559.4 (5656.9)/mm, and 10.92 (8.75) mg/dL, respectively. Chest X-ray images from 152 patients exhibited a pneumonia shadow over a quarter of total lung field. Logistic regression analysis revealed that PSI class or A-DROP score, BMI, serum albumin, and extent of pneumonia shadow were related to 30-day mortality. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis revealed that serum albumin was superior to PSI class or A-DROP score for predicting 30-day mortality.

Conclusion: Serum albumin is not less important than PSI class or A-DROP score for predicting 30-day mortality in hospitalized patients with pneumonia occurring outside hospital.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2018.03.006DOI Listing
August 2018

Comparison of Nutrition-Related Adverse Events and Clinical Outcomes Between ICE (Ifosfamide, Carboplatin, and Etoposide) and MCEC (Ranimustine, Carboplatin, Etoposide, and Cyclophosphamide) Therapies as Pretreatment for Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients with Malignant Lymphoma.

Med Sci Monit Basic Res 2018 Feb 5;24:31-39. Epub 2018 Feb 5.

Division of Hematology and Stem Cell Transplantation, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Naga-izumi, Shizuoka, Japan.

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to compare nutrition-related adverse events and clinical outcomes of ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide regimen (ICE therapy) and ranimustine, carboplatin, etoposide, and cyclophosphamide regimen (MCEC therapy) instituted as pretreatment for autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS We enrolled patients who underwent autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation between 2007 and 2012. Outcomes were compared between ICE therapy (n=14) and MCEC therapy (n=14) in relation to nutrient balance, engraftment day, and length of hospital stay. In both groups, we compared the timing of nutrition-related adverse events with oral caloric intake, analyzed the correlation between length of hospital stay and duration of parenteral nutrition, and investigated the association between oral caloric intake and the proportion of parenteral nutrition energy in total calorie supply. Five-year survival was compared between the groups. RESULTS Compared with the MCEC group, the ICE group showed significant improvement in oral caloric intake, length of hospital stay, and timing of nutrition-related adverse events and oral calorie intake, but a delay in engraftment. Both groups showed a correlation between duration of parenteral nutrition and length of hospital stay (P=0.0001) and between oral caloric intake (P=0.0017) and parenteral nutrition energy sufficiency rate (r=-0.73, P=0.003; r=-0.76, P=0.002). Five-year survival was not significantly different between the groups (P=0.1355). CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that compared with MCEC therapy, ICE therapy improves nutrition-related adverse events and reduces hospital stay, conserving medical resources, with no significant improvement in long-term survival. The nutritional pathway may serve as a tool for objective evaluation of pretreatment for autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5810616PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/msmbr.908113DOI Listing
February 2018

Unfavorable impact of cancer cachexia on activity of daily living and need for inpatient care in elderly patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer in Japan: a prospective longitudinal observational study.

BMC Cancer 2017 Nov 28;17(1):800. Epub 2017 Nov 28.

Division of Thoracic Oncology, Shizuoka Cancer Center, 1007, Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi-cho, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka, 411-8777, Japan.

Background: Cancer cachexia in elderly patients may substantially impact physical function and medical dependency. The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of cachexia on activity of daily living (ADL), length of hospital stay, and inpatient medical costs among elderly patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving chemotherapy.

Methods: Thirty patients aged ≥70 years with advanced NSCLC (stage III-IV) scheduled to receive first-line chemotherapy were prospectively enrolled between January 2013 and November 2014. ADL was assessed using the Barthel index. The disability-free survival time (DFS) was calculated as the time between the date of study entry and the date of onset of a disabling event, which was defined as a 10-point decrease in the Barthel index from that at baseline. The mean cumulative function of the length of hospital stay and inpatient medical costs (¥, Japanese yen) was calculated.

Results: The study patients comprised 11 women and 19 men, with a median age of 74 (range, 70-82) years. Cachexia was diagnosed in 19 (63%) patients. Cachectic patients had a shorter DFS (7.5 vs. 17.1 months, p < 0.05). During the first year from study entry, cachectic patients had longer cumulative lengths of hospital stay (80.7 vs. 38.5 days/person, p < 0.05), more frequent unplanned hospital visits or hospitalizations (4.2 vs. 1.7 times/person, p < 0.05), and higher inpatient medical costs (¥3.5 vs. ¥2.1 million/person, p < 0.05) than non-cachectic patients.

Conclusions: Elderly NSCLC patients with cachexia showed higher risks for disability, prolonged hospitalizations, and higher inpatient medical costs while receiving chemotherapy than patients without cachexia. Our results might indicate that there is a potential need for an early intervention to minimize progression to or development of cachexia, improve functional prognosis, and reduce healthcare resource burden in this population.

Trial Registration: Trial registration number: UMIN000009768 . Name of registry: UMIN (University hospital Medical Information Network). Date of registration: 14 January 2013. Date of enrolment of the first participant to the trial: 23 January 2013.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-017-3795-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5706408PMC
November 2017

Skeletal muscle depletion during chemotherapy has a large impact on physical function in elderly Japanese patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

BMC Cancer 2017 Aug 25;17(1):571. Epub 2017 Aug 25.

Division of Thoracic Oncology, Shizuoka Cancer Center, 1007, Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi-cho, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka, 411-8777, Japan.

Background: Elderly patient with advanced cancer is one of the most vulnerable populations. Skeletal muscle depletion during chemotherapy may have substantial impact on their physical function. However, there is little information about a direct relationship between quantity of muscle and physical function. We sought to explore the quantitative association between skeletal muscle depletion, and muscle strength and walking capacity in elderly patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: Thirty patients aged ≥70 years with advanced NSCLC (stage III-IV) scheduled to initiate first-line chemotherapy were prospectively enrolled between January 2013 and November 2014. Lumbar skeletal muscle index (LSMI, cm/m), incremental shuttle walking distance (ISWD, m), and hand-grip strength (HGS, kg) were assessed at baseline, and 6 ± 2 weeks (T2) and 12 ± 4 weeks (T3) after study enrollment. Associations were analyzed using linear regression.

Results: Altogether, 11 women and 19 men with a median age of 74 (range, 70-82) years were included in the study; 24 received cytotoxic chemotherapy and 6, gefitinib. Mean ± standard deviation of LSMI, ISWD and HGS were 41.2 ± 7.8 cm/m, 326.0 ± 127.9 m, and 29.3 ± 8.5 kg, respectively. LSMI and ISWD significantly declined from baseline to T2 and T3. HGS significantly declined from baseline to T2 and T3 only in men. Change in LSMI was significantly associated with change in HGS (β = 0.3 ± 0.1, p = 0.0127) and ISWD (β = 8.8 ± 2.4, p = 0.0005).

Conclusions: Skeletal muscle depletion accompanied with physical functional decline started in the early phase of the chemotherapy in elderly patients with advanced NSCLC. Our results suggest that there may be a need for early supportive care in these patients to prevent functional decline during chemotherapy.

Trial Registration: Trial registration number: UMIN000009768 Name of registry: UMIN (University hospital Medical Information Network). URL of registry: Date of registration: 14 January 2013. Date of enrolment of the first participant to the trial: 23 January 2013.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-017-3562-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5574084PMC
August 2017

SRPP, a Cell Wall Protein is Involved in Development and Protection of Seeds and Root Hairs in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Plant Cell Physiol 2017 04;58(4):760-769

Laboratory of Cell Dynamics, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan.

Enhancement of root hair development in response to phosphate (Pi) deficit has been reported extensively. Root hairs are involved in major root functions such as the absorption of water, acquisition of nutrients and secretion of organic acids and enzymes. Individual root hair cells maintain these functions and appropriate structure under various physiological conditions. We carried out a study to identify protein(s) which maintain the structure and function of root hairs, and identified a protein (SEED AND ROOT HAIR PROTECTIVE PROTEIN, SRPP) that was induced in root hairs under Pi-deficient conditions. Promoter assay and mRNA quantification revealed that SRPP was expressed in root hairs and seeds. A knockout mutant, srpp-1, consistently displayed defects in root hairs and seeds. Root hairs in srpp-1 were short and the phenotypes observed under Pi-deficient conditions were also detected in ethylene-treated srpp-1 plants. Propidium iodide stained most root hairs of srpp-1 grown under Pi-deficient conditions, suggesting cell death. In addition to root hairs, most srpp-1 seeds were withered and their embryos were dead. SRPP tagged with green fluorescent protein was detected in the cell wall. Electron microscopy showed abnormal morphology of the cell wall. Wild-type phenotypes were restored when the SRPP gene was expressed in srpp-1. These data strongly suggest that SRPP contributes to the construction of robust cell walls, whereby it plays a key role in the development of root hairs and seeds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcx008DOI Listing
April 2017

Nutritional risk in allogeneic stem cell transplantation: rationale for a tailored nutritional pathway.

Ann Hematol 2017 Apr 3;96(4):617-625. Epub 2017 Jan 3.

Division of Hematology & Stem Cell Transplantation, Shizuoka Cancer Center, 1007 Shimonagakubo, Naga-izumi-cho, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka, 411-8777, Japan.

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation carries nutrition-related risks. Therefore, nutritional therapy needs to be initiated before transplantation even takes place. We assessed nutritional risk among patients who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We assessed nutrient supply (calorie supply and protein supply) by chart review. Assessments were made from the pretreatment phase of transplantation to after the end of parenteral nutrition in 51 patients who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation at Shizuoka Cancer Center between 2007 and 2012. We compared nutrition-related adverse events and parameters between two groups: those in whom % loss of body weight was ≥7.5 and those in whom % loss of body weight was <7.5. A correlation was observed between changes in weight and skeletal muscle mass (r = 0.89; P < 0.0001). A weak correlation was observed between % loss of body weight and nutrient supply of calories (r = 0.517; P = 0.0001). There were significant differences between the % loss of body weight ≥7.5 group and the % loss of body weight <7.5 group in the following variables: % loss of body weight, nutrient supply from calories and protein; orally ingested nutrient supply from calories and protein; start day of oral intake; and acute graft-versus-host disease. Orally ingested calories were negatively correlated with nutrition-related adverse events in both groups. Early and customized nutritional intervention may be optimal for all patients who undergo allogeneic stem cell transplantation to ameliorate body weight loss associated with nutrition-related adverse events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-016-2910-9DOI Listing
April 2017

Characterization of Shikonin Derivative Secretion in Lithospermum erythrorhizon Hairy Roots as a Model of Lipid-Soluble Metabolite Secretion from Plants.

Front Plant Sci 2016 26;7:1066. Epub 2016 Jul 26.

Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University Uji, Japan.

Shikonin derivatives are specialized lipophilic metabolites, secreted in abundant amounts from the root epidermal cells of Lithospermum erythrorhizon. Because they have anti-microbial activities, these compounds, which are derivatives of red naphthoquinone, are thought to serve as a chemical barrier for plant roots. The mechanism by which they are secreted from cells is, however, largely unknown. The shikonin production system in L. erythrorhizon is an excellent model for studying the mechanism by which lipophilic compounds are secreted from plant cells, because of the abundant amounts of these compounds produced by L. erythrorhizon, the 0 to 100% inducibility of their production, the light-specific inhibition of production, and the visibility of these products as red pigments. To date, many factors regulating shikonin biosynthesis have been identified, but no mechanism that regulates shikonin secretion without inhibiting biosynthesis has been detected. This study showed that inhibitors of membrane traffic strongly inhibit shikonin secretion without inhibiting shikonin production, suggesting that the secretion of shikonin derivatives into the apoplast utilizes pathways common to the ADP-ribosylation factor/guanine nucleotide exchange factor (ARF/GEF) system and actin filament polymerization, at least in part. These findings provide clues about the machinery involved in secreting lipid-soluble metabolites from cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.01066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4961010PMC
August 2016

RNA Binding Proteins RZ-1B and RZ-1C Play Critical Roles in Regulating Pre-mRNA Splicing and Gene Expression during Development in Arabidopsis.

Plant Cell 2016 Jan 31;28(1):55-73. Epub 2015 Dec 31.

State Key Laboratory of Protein and Plant Gene Research, Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China National Plant Gene Research Center, Beijing 100101, China

Nuclear-localized RNA binding proteins are involved in various aspects of RNA metabolism, which in turn modulates gene expression. However, the functions of nuclear-localized RNA binding proteins in plants are poorly understood. Here, we report the functions of two proteins containing RNA recognition motifs, RZ-1B and RZ-1C, in Arabidopsis thaliana. RZ-1B and RZ-1C were localized to nuclear speckles and interacted with a spectrum of serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins through their C termini. RZ-1C preferentially bound to purine-rich RNA sequences in vitro through its N-terminal RNA recognition motif. Disrupting the RNA binding activity of RZ-1C with SR proteins through overexpression of the C terminus of RZ-1C conferred defective phenotypes similar to those observed in rz-1b rz-1c double mutants, including delayed seed germination, reduced stature, and serrated leaves. Loss of function of RZ-1B and RZ-1C was accompanied by defective splicing of many genes and global perturbation of gene expression. In addition, we found that RZ-1C directly targeted FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), promoting efficient splicing of FLC introns and likely also repressing FLC transcription. Our findings highlight the critical role of RZ-1B/1C in regulating RNA splicing, gene expression, and many key aspects of plant development via interaction with proteins including SR proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1105/tpc.15.00949DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4746689PMC
January 2016

GLABRA2 Directly Suppresses Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor Genes with Diverse Functions in Root Hair Development.

Plant Cell 2015 Oct 20;27(10):2894-906. Epub 2015 Oct 20.

Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, Japan

The Arabidopsis thaliana GLABRA2 (GL2) gene encodes a transcription factor involved in the cell differentiation of various epidermal tissues. During root hair pattern formation, GL2 suppresses root hair development in non-hair cells, acting as a node between the gene regulatory networks for cell fate determination and cell differentiation. Despite the importance of GL2 function, its molecular basis remains obscure because the GL2 target genes leading to the network for cell differentiation are unknown. We identified five basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor genes (ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE6 [RHD6], RHD6-LIKE1 [RSL1], RSL2, Lj-RHL1-LIKE1 [LRL1], and LRL2) as GL2 direct targets using transcriptional and posttranslational induction systems. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed GL2 binding to upstream regions of these genes in planta. Reporter gene analyses showed that these genes are expressed in various stages of root hair development and are suppressed by GL2 in non-hair cells. GL2 promoter-driven GFP fusions of LRL1 and LRL2, but not those of the other bHLH proteins, conferred root hair development on non-hair cells. These results indicate that GL2 directly suppresses bHLH genes with diverse functions in root hair development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1105/tpc.15.00607DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4637992PMC
October 2015

A unified approach to an augmented Burgers equation for the propagation of sonic booms.

J Acoust Soc Am 2015 Apr;137(4):1857-66

Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603, Japan.

Nonlinear propagation through a relaxing atmosphere of pressure disturbances extracted from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solution of the flow around a supersonic aircraft is simulated using an augmented Burgers equation. The effects of nonlinearity, geometrical spreading, atmospheric inhomogeneity, thermoviscous attenuation, and molecular vibration relaxation are taken into account. The augmented Burgers equation used for sonic boom propagation calculations is often solved by the operator splitting method, but numerical difficulties arise with this approach when dissipation is not effective. By re-examining the solution algorithms for the augmented Burgers equation, a stable method for handling the relaxation effect has been developed. This approach can handle the Burgers equation in a unified manner without operator splitting and, therefore, the resulting scheme is twice as fast as the original one. The approach is validated by comparing it with an analytical solution and a detailed CFD of dispersed plane wave propagation. In addition, a rise time prediction of low-boom supersonic aircraft is demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4916833DOI Listing
April 2015

Phosphatidylinositol phosphate 5-kinase genes respond to phosphate deficiency for root hair elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Plant J 2015 Feb 3;81(3):426-37. Epub 2015 Jan 3.

Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, 611-0011, Japan.

Plants drastically alter their root system architecture to adapt to different underground growth conditions. During phosphate (Pi) deficiency, most plants including Arabidopsis thaliana enhance the development of lateral roots and root hairs, resulting in bushy and hairy roots. To elucidate the signal pathway specific for the root hair elongation response to Pi deficiency, we investigated the expression of type-B phosphatidylinositol phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) genes, as a quantitative factor for root hair elongation in Arabidopsis. At young seedling stages, the PIP5K3 and PIP5K4 genes responded to Pi deficiency in steady-state transcript levels via PHR1-binding sequences (P1BSs) in their upstream regions. Both pip5k3 and pip5k4 single mutants, which exhibit short-root-hair phenotypes, remained responsive to Pi deficiency for root hair elongation; however the pip5k3pip5k4 double mutant exhibited shorter root hairs than the single mutants, and lost responsiveness to Pi deficiency at young seedling stages. In the tactical complementation line in which modified PIP5K3 and PIP5K4 genes with base substitutions in their P1BSs were co-introduced into the double mutant, root hairs of young seedlings had normal lengths under Pi-sufficient conditions, but were not responsive to Pi deficiency. From these results, we conclude that a Pi-deficiency signal is transferred to the pathway for root hair elongation via the PIP5K genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.12741DOI Listing
February 2015

Differential expression of pentraxin 3 in neutrophils.

Exp Mol Pathol 2015 Feb 20;98(1):33-40. Epub 2014 Nov 20.

Department of Cellular Function, Division of Cellular and Molecular Pathology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan. Electronic address:

Pentraxins belong to the superfamily of conserved proteins that are characterized by a cyclic multimeric structure. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a long pentraxin which can be produced by different cell types upon exposure to various inflammatory signals. Inside the neutrophil PTX3 is stored in form of granules localized in the cytoplasm. Neutrophilic granules are divided into three types: azurophilic (primary) granules, specific (secondary) granules and gelatinase (tertiary) granules. PTX3 has been considered to be localized in specific (secondary) granules. Immunofluorescent analyses using confocal laser microscopic examination were performed to clarify the localization of all three groups of granules within the cytoplasm of the mature neutrophils and neutrophils stimulated with IL-8. Furthermore, PTX3 was localized in primary granules of promyelocyte cell line HL-60. As a result, we suggest that PTX3 is localized not only in specific granules, but is also partly expressed in primary and tertiary granules. After the stimulation with IL-8, irregular reticular structures called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) were formed, three types of granules were trapped by NETs and PTX3 showed partial colocalization with these granular components. PTX3 localized in all three types of granules in neutrophils may play important roles in host defense.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexmp.2014.11.009DOI Listing
February 2015
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