Publications by authors named "Takafumi Abe"

45 Publications

Association between hilliness and walking speed in community-dwelling older Japanese adults: A cross-sectional study.

Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2021 Aug 26;97:104510. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Center for Community-Based Healthcare Research and Education (CoHRE), Head Office for Research and Academic Information, Shimane University, 223-8 Enya-cho, Izumo-shi, Shimane 693-8501, Japan; Faculty of Human Sciences, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu-cho, Matsue-shi, Shimane 690-8504, Japan.

Purpose: This cross-sectional study investigated the association between hilliness and walking speed in community-dwelling older adults, and whether it varied according to their car-driving status.

Methods: Data were collected from 590 participants aged 65 and older living in Okinoshima Town, Shimane prefecture, Japan, in 2018. Comfortable walking speed (m/s) was objectively assessed. Hilliness was measured by the mean land slope (degree) within a 500-m or 1000-m network buffer around each participant's home using a geographic information system. A multiple linear regression examined whether the land slope was associated with walking speed, adjusted for sex, age, body mass index, smoking habits, alcohol consumption habits, exercise habits, chronic disease, and living arrangements. A stratified analysis by car-driving status was also conducted.

Results: After adjusting for all confounders, the land slope within the 500-m or 1000-m network buffer was negatively associated with walking speed (B = -0.007, 95% CI [-0.011, -0.002]; B = -0.007, 95% CI [-0.011, -0.003], respectively). The stratified analysis by car-driving status showed that living in a hilly area was negatively associated with walking speed among non-drivers in the 500-m or 1000-m network buffer (B = -0.011, 95% CI [-0.017, -0.004]; B = -0.012, 95% CI [-0.019, -0.006]), though there were no associations among drivers.

Conclusions: A hilly environment is positively associated with slow walking speed in community-dwelling older adults in Japan. Moreover, car-driving status potentially modifies the relationship between living in a hilly environment and slow walking speed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2021.104510DOI Listing
August 2021

Environmental Factors Affecting Cognitive Function among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Longitudinal Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 08 12;18(16). Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Department of Medical Education and Research, Faculty of Medicine, Shimane University, 89-1 Enya-cho, Izumo-shi 693-8501, Shimane, Japan.

Although neighborhood environmental factors have been found to be associated with cognitive decline, few longitudinal studies have focused on their effect on older adults living in rural areas. This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the role of neighborhood environmental factors in cognitive decline among rural older adults. The data of 485 older adults aged ≥60 years who were living in Unnan City in Japan and had participated in two surveys conducted between 2014 and 2018 were analyzed. Cognitive function was assessed using the Cognitive Assessment for Dementia, iPad version 2. Elevation, hilliness, residential density, and proximity to a community center were determined using geographic information system. We applied a generalized estimating equation with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cognitive decline in the quartiles of neighborhood environmental factors. A total of 56 (11.6%) participants demonstrated a decrease in cognitive function at follow up. Elevation (adjusted OR 2.58, 95% CI (1.39, 4.77) for Q4 vs. Q1) and hilliness (adjusted OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.03, 3.63) for Q4 vs. Q1) were associated with a higher likelihood of cognitive decline. The second quartiles of residential density showed significantly lower likelihoods of cognitive decline compared with the first quartiles (adjusted OR 0.36, 95% CI (0.19, 0.71) for Q2 vs. Q1). Thus, an elevated hilly environment and residential density predicted cognitive decline among rural older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168528DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8391693PMC
August 2021

Which factors have a great impact on coagulopathy and hemostatic impairment after cardiopulmonary bypass in cardiovascular surgery? An analysis based on rotational thromboelastometry.

Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 Aug 13. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Oita University Hospital, Idaigaoka 1-1, Hasama town, Yufu city, Oita, 879-5593, Japan.

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate which factors have a great impact on coagulopathy after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM).

Methods: Ninety-eight patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery using CPB were enrolled. Data of amplitude 10 min after clotting time (A10) of ROTEM measured routinely before and after CPB were retrospectively collected. ROTEM has some assays by which we can evaluate the capacity of extrinsic coagulation (EXTEM), intrinsic coagulation (INTEM), fibrin polymerization (FIBTEM), and the effect of heparin (HEPTEM). The platelet component, defined as PLTEM, can be calculated by subtracting FIBTEM from EXTEM. Age, sex, total plasma volume, pre-CPB A10, lowest body temperature, in-out balance during CPB, intraoperative bleeding amount, and type of pumps were considered as possible factors. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed for the rate of change of A10.

Results: The change rate of each A10 had a significant negative correlation with bleeding amount (p < 0.01 for EXTEM, p < 0.01 for INTEM, p = 0.02 for FIBTEM, p < 0.01 for PLTEM). Female sex was a significant contributive predictor for the greater decline of EXTEM (p < 0.01) and INTEM (p < 0.01), positive balance for EXTEM (p < 0.01), FIBTEM (p = 0.01), and PLTEM (p < 0.01), long CPB time for INTEM (p = 0.01), centrifugal pump for FIBTEM (p < 0.01), and large pre-CPB A10 for PLTEM (p < 0.01).

Conclusion: In perioperative hemostatic management using ROTEM, attention should be given to the effects of these multiple factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11748-021-01688-0DOI Listing
August 2021

Relationship between Masticatory Function and Bone Mineral Density in Community-Dwelling Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 Jul 5;9(7). Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Care Center, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, 89-1 Enya Cho, Izumo 693-8501, Shimane, Japan.

The relationship between masticatory function and bone mineral density (BMD) is unclear. This cross-sectional study examined this relationship after adjusting for confounding factors. The subjects were 702 community-dwelling elderly adults (306 men, 396 women) who had been recruited for the Community-Based Healthcare Research and Education study in 2019. Objective masticatory function was assessed using the gummy jelly method. The median for each descriptive statistic was 69.0 years for age, 86.2% for the young adult mean, and 18.0 for masticatory function. Comparisons of the groups with good and poor masticatory function by sex revealed a significant difference in muscle mass and the tooth number for both sexes ( < 0.05). Men showed significant differences in age ( < 0.05) and salivary occult blood findings ( < 0.05). Multivariate analysis using propensity scores showed a significant association between masticatory function and BMD in both sexes (men: odds ratio 163.0, 95% confidence interval 1.36-19,610.55, = 0.04; women: odds ratio 48.65, 95% confidence interval 1.52-1561.15, = 0.03 in women). Masticatory function and BMD in the community-dwelling elderly may be related. However, other factors, including frailty and sarcopenia, may also be involved. Regular oral health care by dentists and dental hygienists may benefit this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9070845DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8305999PMC
July 2021

An association analysis between hypertension, dementia, and depression and the phases of pre-sarcopenia to sarcopenia: A cross-sectional analysis.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0252784. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Center for Community-Based Healthcare Research and Education (CoHRE), Shimane University, Shimane, Japan.

Sarcopenia is intricately related to aging associated diseases, such as neuropsychiatric disorders, oral status, and chronic diseases. Dementia and depression are interconnected and also related to sarcopenia. The preliminary shift from robust to sarcopenia (i.e., pre-sarcopenia) is an important albeit underdiscussed stage and is the focus of this study. Identifying factors associated with pre-sarcopenia may lead to sarcopenia prevention. To separately examine the effects of dementia and depression on pre-sarcopenia/sarcopenia, we conducted multiple analyses. This cross-sectional study used health checkup data from a rural Japanese island. The participants were aged 60 years and above, and the data included muscle mass, gait speed, handgrip strength, oral status (teeth and denture), chronic diseases (e.g., hypertension), dementia (cognitive assessment for dementia, iPad Version), and depression (self-rating depression scale). A total of 753 older adult participants were divided into the sarcopenia (n = 30), pre-sarcopenia (n = 125), and robust (n = 598) groups. An ordered logit regression analysis indicated that age and depression were positively correlated with sarcopenia, while hypertension was negatively associated with it. A multiple logistic regression analysis between the robust and pre-sarcopenia groups showed significant associations between the same three variables. Depression was associated with pre-sarcopenia, but not dementia. There was also a significant association between hypertension and pre-sarcopenia. Further research is needed to reveal whether the management of these factors can prevent sarcopenia.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0252784PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8297796PMC
July 2021

Impact of Phase Angle on Physical Function in Patients with Acute Stroke.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Sep 30;30(9):105941. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Rehabilitation, Uonuma Kikan Hospital, 4132 Urasa, Minami Uonuma, Niigata 949-7302, Japan.

Objective: Phase angle, an assessment of muscle quality, might be a possible predictor of physical function in patients with an acute stroke; however, the evidence for the same is limited. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate whether phase angle is associated with improved physical function at discharge.

Methods: In this observational cohort study, we determined the phase angle in patients with an acute stroke using a portable, noninvasive multifrequency bio-impedance device. The primary objective was the assessment of physical function using the Functional Independence Measure motor (FIM-motor) at discharge in the acute phase. The secondary outcome was home discharge. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the association between phase angle, FIM-motor score, and home discharge.

Results: The study included 129 patients (78 men; mean age 75.2 years). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the phase angle was independently associated with FIM-motor score at discharge in all models (Model 1: β= 0.27, p < 0.001; Model 2: β = 0.234, p < 0.001; Model 3: β = 0.201, p = 0.017). However, multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the phase angle was not associated with home discharge (p = 0.464).

Conclusions: The phase angle at the onset of a stroke, is an independent predictor of physical function at discharge in the acute phase. Our findings highlight the importance of determining the phase angle in patients with an acute stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.105941DOI Listing
September 2021

Number of teeth and masticatory function are associated with sarcopenia and diabetes mellitus status among community-dwelling older adults: A Shimane CoHRE study.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(6):e0252625. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Center for Community-Based Healthcare Research and Education (CoHRE), Organization for Research and Academic Information, Shimane University, Izumo City, Shimane, Japan.

Objectives: We aimed to examine the number of teeth and masticatory function as oral health indices and clarify their roles in the pathogenesis of sarcopenia and diabetes mellitus in community-dwelling older adults.

Subjects And Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 635 older adults in Ohnan, Shimane Prefecture, in rural Japan. The number of teeth and masticatory function (measured by the number of gummy jelly pieces collected after chewing) were evaluated by dental hygienists. Sarcopenia status was assessed using handgrip strength, skeletal muscle index, calf circumference, and a possible sarcopenia diagnosis based on the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia 2019. Diabetes mellitus status was defined as a hemoglobin A1c level ≥6.5% or self-reported diabetes. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between oral health, sarcopenia, and diabetes mellitus after adjusting for confounders.

Results: After adjusting for all confounders, logistic regression analysis showed that the number of remaining teeth was negatively associated with a low level of handgrip strength (odds ratio [OR], 0.961; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.932-0.992) and possible sarcopenia (OR, 0.949; 95% CI, 0.907-0.992). Higher levels of masticatory function were also negatively associated with a low level of handgrip strength (OR, 0.965; 95% CI, 0.941-0.990) and possible sarcopenia (OR, 0.941; 95% CI, 0.904-0.979). Logistic regression analysis showed that the number of remaining teeth and a higher level of masticatory function were negatively associated with diabetes mellitus (OR, 0.978; 95% CI, 0.957-0.999; OR, 0.976; 95% CI, 0.960-0.992, respectively).

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that improvement in oral health, including the maintenance of masticatory function and remaining teeth, may contribute to the prevention of sarcopenia and diabetes mellitus in older adults.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0252625PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172058PMC
June 2021

Assessing the Impact of a Hilly Environment on Depressive Symptoms among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 24;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Functional Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Shimane University, Shimane 693-8501, Japan.

Although some neighborhood environmental factors have been found to affect depressive symptoms, few studies have focused on the impact of living in a hilly environment, i.e., land slope, on depressive symptoms among rural older adults. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether a land slope is associated with depressive symptoms among older adults living in rural areas. Data were collected from 935 participants, aged 65 years and older, who lived in Shimane prefecture, Japan. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and defined on the basis of an SDS score ≥ 40. Land slopes within a 400 m network buffer were assessed using geographic information systems. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of depressive symptoms were estimated using logistic regression. A total of 215 (23.0%) participants reported depressive symptoms. The land slope was positively associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.01-1.08) after adjusting for all confounders. In a rural setting, living in a hillier environment was associated with depressive symptoms among community-dwelling older adults in Japan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094520DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8123156PMC
April 2021

Relationship between Oral Health Status and Bone Mineral Density in Community-Dwelling Elderly Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 Apr 7;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Oral Care Center, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Shimane University, Izumo 693-8501, Japan.

The relationship between oral health status and bone mineral density has been poorly elucidated. We conducted a cross-sectional study to examine the relationship between oral health status and bone mineral density with data from healthy community-dwelling elderly individuals in Ohnan-cho, Shimane Japan who were recruited in 2019 for the Shimane Center for Community-Based Health Research and Education (CoHRE) study. The study included 702 participants (306 men and 396 women). The median age, bone mineral density, and number of remaining teeth were 69.0 years, 86.2%, and 26.0, respectively. The two groups (Low teeth group and High teeth group) showed significant differences in age, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level, and masticatory function in men ( < 0.05). In women, age, number of untreated teeth, and masticatory function were significantly different ( < 0.05). The odds ratio of propensity score analysis for the association between the number of remaining teeth and bone mineral density was 27.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.86-414.9, < 0.05). The number of remaining teeth could be associated with bone mineral density in the healthy elderly women, and no significant association was observed in men. Number of remaining teeth and bone mineral density may be interrelated, and oral care by dentists/dental hygienists may play an important role in maintaining bone mineral density in elderly women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9040432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8067960PMC
April 2021

Nutrition in the First Week after Stroke Is Associated with Discharge to Home.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 15;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Rehabilitation, Uonuma Kikan Hospital, Minamiuonuma 949-7302, Japan.

Malnutrition is associated with poor clinical outcomes in stroke patients. The effect of early nutritional intake after admission on home discharge is unclear. We evaluated the impact of energy intake in the first week of hospitalization of acute stroke patients on home discharge and activities of daily living (ADL). A retrospective cohort study was conducted with 201 stroke patients admitted to an acute care hospital in Japan. The energy and protein intake during the first week were evaluated. Multivariate models were used to estimate variables related to discharge destination and ADL at discharge. The cut-off point of nutritional intake for determining the discharge destination was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic curve. Out of 163 patients included in the analysis, 89 (54.6%) and 74 (45.4%) were discharged home and elsewhere, respectively. Those discharged home had higher energy and protein intake than those discharged elsewhere. In multiple regression analysis, energy intake was independently associated with ADL at discharge and home discharge (odds ratio 1.146). Those with energy intake >20.7 kcal/kg/day had higher ADL at discharge and more patients discharged home than those with energy intake <20.7 kcal/kg/day. Energy intake during the first week affected home discharge in acute stroke patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13030943DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001465PMC
March 2021

Compliance with a physical activity guideline among junior high school students.

Pediatr Int 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Physical Activity for Health Group, School of Psychological, Sciences and Health, University of Strathclyde, 50 George Street, Glasgow, G1 1QE, UK.

Background: There was no nation-wide moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) data among Japanese adolescents. This study assessed the compliance with the MVPA guideline in adolescents using a random sampling survey in Japan. The factors associated with meeting the guideline were also examined.

Methods: Participants were 1st to 3rd grade Japanese junior high school students (307 boys and 255 girls). We analyzed data of the National Sports-Life Survey of Teens 2019 which used the Japanese version of PA questions in the WHO Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey and potential correlates of MVPA.

Results: The compliance with meeting PA guideline by the WHO for Japanese students was 19.0% (95% CI, 15.8 - 22.3). The compliance for boys was significantly higher than that of girls (23.1%; 95% CI, 18.4 - 27.8; vs, 14.1%; 95% CI, 9.8 -18.4). Meeting PA guideline was significantly associated with boys in the second grade than boys in the first grade (OR 1.78; 95% CI, 1.02 - 3.09), liking PA (for all: OR 2.97; 95% CI, 1.32 - 6.69; for girls: OR 2.99; 95% CI, 1.01 - 8.81), and sports participation (for all: OR 4.77; 95% CI, 2.32 - 9.80; for boys: OR 6.00; 95% CI, 1.81 - 19.89; for girls: OR 4.08; 95% CI, 1.63 - 10.21).

Conclusion: The results suggest that more than 80% junior high school students were insufficiently physically active in Japan. Preference for PA and sports participation may be important correlates of sufficient PA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ped.14716DOI Listing
March 2021

Neighborhood Environmental Factors and Physical Activity Status among Rural Older Adults in Japan.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 02 4;18(4). Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Center for Community-Based Healthcare Research and Education (CoHRE), Organization for Research and Academic Information, Shimane University, 223-8 Enya-cho, Izumo-shi, Shimane 693-8501, Japan.

(1) Background: Although several neighborhood environmental factors have been identified to be associated with older adults' physical activity, little research has been done in rural areas where the population is aging. This study aimed to investigate neighborhood environmental factors and the longitudinal change of physical activity status among rural older adults in Japan. (2) Methods: The study included 2211 older adults, aged over 60 years, residing in three municipalities in Shimane prefecture and participating at least twice in annual health checkups between 2010 and 2019. Physical activity was identified based on self-report. Hilliness, bus stop density, intersection density, residential density, and distance to a community center were calculated for each subject. Hazard ratios for the incidence of physical inactivity were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. (3) Results: We found that 994 (45%) of the study subjects became physically inactive during the follow-up. Those living far from a community center had a lower risk of becoming physically inactive compared to those living close to a community center. When the analysis was stratified by residential municipality, this association remained in Ohnan town. Those living in hilly areas had a higher risk of becoming physically inactive in Okinoshima town. (4) Conclusions: The impact of neighborhood environmental factors on older adults' physical activity status might differ by region possibly due to different terrain and local lifestyles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041450DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7913898PMC
February 2021

Inconvenience of Living Place Affects Individual HbA1c Level in a Rural Area in Japan: Shimane CoHRE Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 01 28;18(3). Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Functional Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Shimane University, Izumo, Shimane 693-8501, Japan.

Background: It has been shown that the socio-geographical environment of residential areas, such as altitude, affects the health status and health-maintenance behavior of residents. Here, we examined a hypothesis that altitude of residence would influence glycemic control in a general elderly population living in a rural area.

Methods: A thousand and sixteen participants living in a mountainous region in Japan were recruited at health examinations. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was measured in serum as a parameter of glycemic control. The altitude of residence, distance to grocery stores and to medical facilities were estimated using a geographic information system.

Results: Linear regression analysis confirmed a significant effect of the altitude on log HbA1c even after adjustment of other demographic and biochemical factors. When the distance to grocery stores or medical facilities were used instead of the altitude in a linear regression analysis, distance to secondary medical facilities alone showed a significant effect on HbA1c.

Conclusions: We found a positive correlation between HbA1c level and residential altitude in a rural area of Japan. The altitude seemed to be a parameter substituting the inconvenicence of residential areas. Socio-geographical factors of living place, such as inconvenience, may influence glycemic control of the residents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7908499PMC
January 2021

Social participation and physical prefrailty in older Japanese adults: The Shimane CoHRE study.

PLoS One 2020 16;15(12):e0243548. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Center for Community-Based Healthcare Research and Education (CoHRE), Organization for Research and Academic Information, Shimane University, Izumo City, Shimane, Japan.

As older adults in an early stage (prefrailty) of frailty may return to a healthy state, it is necessary to examine the prevention of prefrailty. In this context, the number and types of social participation activities associated with physical prefrailty in community-dwelling older adults have remained relatively unexplored. This cross-sectional study investigates this issue by analyzing 616 participants living in Okinoshima, Shimane, a rural area of Japan, in 2019. Frailty was assessed using the 5-item frailty phenotype (unintentional weight loss, self-reported exhaustion, weakness, slow walking speed, and low physical activity). Data on social participation were obtained using a questionnaire based on participants' level of involvement with volunteer groups, sports clubs/groups, neighborhood associations, religious organizations/groups, and community elderly salons; their answers were categorized as "yes" if they answered "several times per year or more" and "no" if they answered "never." Binominal logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of prefrailty by the number or types of social participation activities, adjusted for gender, age, body mass index, smoking, medication-taking, educational attainment, working status, and living arrangement. Of the 616 participants, 273 (44.3%) and 28 (4.5%) had prefrailty and frailty, respectively. The analysis showed that the number of social participation activities was significantly associated with lower odds of prefrailty (OR = 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74-0.94). Regarding the types of social participation, sports clubs/groups were associated with lower odds of prefrailty (OR = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.31-0.73). Participation in neighborhood associations was associated with prefrailty/frailty (OR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.37-0.86). These results suggest that increasing the number of social participation activities or involvement in sports clubs/groups and neighborhood associations may be important to prevent physical prefrailty in the older population.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0243548PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7743931PMC
February 2021

Neighborhood environment and muscle mass and function among rural older adults: a 3-year longitudinal study.

Int J Health Geogr 2020 11 25;19(1):51. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Center for Community-Based Healthcare Research and Education (CoHRE), Organization for Research and Academic Information, Shimane University, 223-8 Enya-cho, Izumo-shi, Shimane, 693-8501, Japan.

Background: Sarcopenia, resulting from loss of muscle mass and function, is highly prevalent in the ageing societies and is associated with risk of falls, frailty, loss of independence, and mortality. It is important to identify environmental risk factors, so that evidence-based interventions to prevent sarcopenia can be implemented at the population level. This study aimed to examine the potential effect of several objectively measured neighborhood environmental factors on longitudinal change of muscle mass and function among older adults living in rural Japanese towns where the population is ageing.

Methods: This study was based on data from the Shimane CoHRE Study conducted by the Center for Community-based Healthcare Research and Education (CoHRE) at Shimane University in 3 rural towns in the Shimane Prefecture, Japan. Subjects older than 60 years, who participated in an annual health examination in 2016 and any follow-up years until 2019, i.e., 4 possible time points in total, were included (n = 2526). The skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) and grip strength were assessed objectively for each year as a measure of muscle mass and function, respectively. Neighborhood environmental factors, i.e., hilliness, bus stop density, intersection density, residential density, and distance to a community center were measured by geographic information systems (GIS). Linear mixed models were applied to examine the potential effect of each neighborhood environmental factor on the change of SMI and grip strength over time.

Results: Males living far from community centers had a less pronounced decline in SMI compared to those living close to community centers. Females living in areas with higher residential density had a less pronounced decline in grip strength compared to those living in areas with lower residential density.

Conclusions: Neighborhood environmental factors had limited effects on change of SMI and grip strength among rural older adults within the 3 years follow up. Further long-term follow up studies are necessary by also taking into account other modifiable neighborhood environmental factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12942-020-00247-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7690178PMC
November 2020

Low Muscle Mass is Associated with Walking Function in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Nov 28;29(11):105259. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Graduate School of Health and Welfare, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, 1398 Shimami-cho, Kita-ku, Niigata, Niigata 950-3198, Japan.

Background: Muscle mass might be a possible predictor for walking function in patients with stroke; however, evidence is limited.

Objective: To investigate whether skeletal muscle mass is associated with walking function at discharge during the acute phase.

Methods: In this observational cohort study, we assessed skeletal muscle mass in patients with acute ischemic stroke using the noninvasive and portable multifrequency bio-impedance device. This device can easily be used in bedridden patients. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass was converted to skeletal muscle index (SMI) standardizing by height squared (kg/m). The primary outcome was walking function assessed by the modified Rankin Scale score at acute phase hospital discharge. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between skeletal muscle mass and walking function.

Results: Of the 107 patients enrolled, low SMI (SMI: male <7.0 kg/m, female <5.7 kg/m) was identified in 29.9% (19.7% in men, 48.6% in women). Logistic regression analysis showed that low SMI [OR: 4.02, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38-11.7, p = 0.001] independently associated with walking function at discharge. Further, patients with mild and moderate severity had significant difficulty in walking when they had low SMI (p = 0.039).

Conclusions: Low skeletal muscle mass at the onset of ischemic stroke is an independent predictor of walking function at discharge during the acute phase. Our findings highlight the importance of detecting skeletal muscle mass in patients with acute ischemic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.105259DOI Listing
November 2020

Serological screening for celiac disease in adults in Japan: Shimane CoHRE study.

JGH Open 2020 Aug 7;4(4):558-560. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Second Department of Internal Medicine Shimane University Faculty of Medicine Izumo Japan.

Background And Aim: Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic autoimmune enteropathy triggered by ingested gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Although common in Europe and the United States, cases of CD are rarely encountered in East Asia, including Japan, and its prevalence remains to be fully evaluated in a large-scale study. We previously investigated the presence of CD in adults in Japan, which revealed a low prevalence of 1 (0.05%) of 2008 nonclinical subjects, while 1 (2.1%) of 47 symptomatic patients was diagnosed based on serology and duodenal histopathology results. To confirm those results, we conducted an additional retrospective serological screening study of adults in Japan.

Methods: Serum samples were collected from 2055 adults who underwent a health examination in four local areas of Shimane prefecture in Japan from July 2008 to August 2013. As a screening test for CD, the antitissue transglutaminase IgA antibody (TTG) titer was determined in all subjects, and a value greater than 10 U/mL was considered to be evidence of CD.

Results: Of the 2055 subjects, 4 (0.19%) showed a high concentration of TTG. Although two of the four who were seropositive had died at the time of this retrospective study, none reported prominent digestive symptoms such as diarrhea or weight loss in a follow-up survey.

Conclusions: Among a general population in Japan, a positive rate of serological tests for CD was noted in 0.19%, indicating quite a low presence, consistent with our previous results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgh3.12334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7411563PMC
August 2020

Fast food outlets, physical activity facilities, and obesity among adults: a nationwide longitudinal study from Sweden.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2020 08 19;44(8):1703-1711. Epub 2020 May 19.

Center for Primary Health Care Research, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

Background: While neighborhood deprivation is a well-known predictor of obesity, the mechanisms behind this association are unclear and these are important to clarify before designing interventions focusing on modifiable neighborhood environmental factors in order to reduce obesity risk.

Objectives: This study examined the longitudinal association between availability of fast-food outlets and physical activity facilities and the risk of obesity among adults.

Methods: This study used multiple national register data from Sweden. During the 11-year follow-up period between 2005 and 2015, data from 1,167,449 men and 542,606 women, aged 20-55 years, were accessible for inclusion in this analysis. Incidence of obesity was identified based on a diagnosis of obesity during the follow-up period derived from clinical register data. Neighborhood availability of fast-food outlets and physical activity facilities were assessed in 2005 and Cox regression was used in the statistical analysis. Individual socio-demographic factors and neighborhood deprivation were used as covariates.

Results: There were no meaningful associations between neighborhood fast-food outlets or physical activity facilities and obesity in men or women. Neighborhood deprivation was, however, consistently and strongly associated with incidence of obesity in both men and women.

Conclusions: Availability of fast-food outlets and lack of physical activity facilities appear unlikely to cause obesity in Swedish adults. Other potentially modifiable environmental factors within specific social and cultural settings that may influence obesity risk should be examined in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41366-020-0588-5DOI Listing
August 2020

Adherence to the Japanese Physical Activity Guideline During Early Childhood Among Rural Preschoolers: A Cross-sectional Study.

J Epidemiol 2021 Mar 17;31(3):194-202. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Tokyo Medical University.

Background: Physical activity (PA) guidelines for early childhood have been established worldwide, and adherence to PA guidelines has been utilized to assess the effectiveness of policies regarding PA promotion. Although there is a Japanese PA guideline for preschoolers, little is known about adherence to this recommendation. This study examined and compared proportions of meeting the Japanese PA guideline among preschoolers.

Methods: Participants comprised 821 children aged 3-6 years from all 21 preschools and childcare facilities (hereafter collectively "preschools") within Unnan City, Shimane Prefecture, Japan. Data on PA levels were collected through a parent-report questionnaire in accordance with the Japanese PA guideline. This guideline recommends that preschoolers perform PA for at least 60 minutes every day. Analyses included descriptive statistics, chi-squared, and Mann-Whitney's tests to compare adherence to the PA guideline.

Results: Data of 441 participants from 20 preschools were analyzed. Of these, 292 (66.2%) preschoolers met the PA guideline. Boys (70.2%) showed a significantly higher proportion of meeting the PA guideline than girls (61.2%; P = 0.048). Proportions of meeting the PA guideline among preschool grades were not statistically different. Prevalence rates of meeting the PA guideline among 20 preschools considerably varied from 14.3% to 100% (P = 0.007).

Conclusions: Two-thirds of preschoolers met the Japanese PA guideline, while adherence to PA recommendations differed between genders. Moreover, there were distinct variations of adherence to PA guideline among preschools. Possible determinants that cause the differences in adherence to the PA guideline at the individual and preschool-levels should be further evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20190320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7878712PMC
March 2021

Hilly environment and physical activity among community-dwelling older adults in Japan: a cross-sectional study.

BMJ Open 2020 03 26;10(3):e033338. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Center for Community-Based Healthcare Research and Education (CoHRE), Organization for Research and Academic Information, Shimane University, Izumo, Shimane, Japan.

Objectives: We investigated whether a moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) level and walking time were associated with a hilly environment in rural Japanese older adults.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: Unnan city, Ohnan and Okinoshima towns in Shimane, Japan.

Participants: Data were collected from 1115 adults from the Shimane CoHRE study, who were aged 60 years and older and living in rural Japan in 2012.

Measures: We measured the total time spent on MVPA and walking using a Japanese short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The land slope in 400 or 800 m network buffers was assessed using the geographic information system. A multivariable Poisson regression model examined the prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% CIs of walking time or MVPA levels meeting the WHO guideline (150 min/week) in the land slope categories (low, middle and high), adjusted for confounders.

Results: Engaging in the recommended level of MVPA was significantly associated with middle land slope (PR=1.07; p=0.03) and high land slope (PR=1.06; p=0.07) compared with low land slope in the 400 m network buffer, as well as with middle land slope (PR=1.02; p=0.48) and high land slope (PR=1.04; p=0.25) compared with the low land slope in the 800 m network buffer. Walking time was significantly associated with middle land slope (PR=1.13; p=0.04) and high land slope (PR=1.17; p=0.01) compared with low land slope in the 400 m network buffer, and with middle land slope (PR=1.09; p=0.16) and high land slope (PR=1.17; p<0.01) compared with low land slope in the 800 m network buffer. The sensitivity analysis found only a positive association between walking time and land slope in the 400 and 800 m network buffers.

Conclusions: This study showed that a hilly environment was positively associated with walking time among older adults living in rural Japan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-033338DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7170569PMC
March 2020

Prevalence of lifestyle-related chronic diseases among agricultural and non-agricultural workers in ruralareas of Japan: the Shimane CoHRE study.

J Rural Med 2020 Jan 23;15(1):1-7. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

The Center for Community-based Healthcare Research and Education (CoHRE), Shimane University, Japan.

Engaging in agriculture greatly affects workers' lifestyles, particularly related to physical activity. This study aimed to clarify the prevalence of lifestyle-related chronic diseases among workers engaging and not engaging in agriculture in rural areas of Japan. A total of 4,666 consecutive participants aged ≥40 years (1,929 men and 2,737 women) were recruited during health examinations conducted from 2006 to 2014. For analysis, the participants were divided by sex and age into those engaging in agriculture and those not engaging in agriculture. Engaging in agriculture may be contributing with a low prevalence of dyslipidemia, a constitutive factor of metabolic syndrome, in both sexes between the ages of 40 and 64 years. In the elderly aged ≥65 years, engaging in agriculture may influence the low prevalence of hypertension in men. Hypertension, a strong risk factor for stroke and cardiovascular disease, is very frequent among the Japanese elderly and, therefore, engaging in agriculture may have a significant impact on its prevention and control. In rural areas of Japan, engaging in agriculture may contribute to the control of lipid metabolism in middle-aged individuals and blood pressure in the elderly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2185/jrm.2019-008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6983452PMC
January 2020

Endoscopic-assisted aortic replacement of the descending aorta through the 8th intercostal space to preserve collateral vessels: a case report.

Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2020 Sep 19;68(9):1027-1030. Epub 2019 Sep 19.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Oita Oka Hospital, 3-7-11, Nishitsurusaki, , Oita, 870-0192, Japan.

We present the case of a 75-year-old man with repeated lower limb hematoma caused by consumptive coagulopathy from a type B chronic aortic dissection. His abdominal aorta was replaced with a Y-shaped graft 30 years prior to admission. As his previous aortic stent graft treatment failed, he underwent open surgical prosthetic graft replacement of the descending aorta under deep hypothermia. To reduce intra- and postoperative bleeding, we avoided cutting the ribs and intercostal arteries. The aneurysm was approached only through the 8th intercostal space; however, as the proximal descending aorta was inaccessible from this site, total endoscopic or endoscopic-assisted procedure was performed to approach the proximal descending aorta. All intercostal arterial orifices were securely closed by suture. The postoperative course was uneventful, and he was discharged home on postoperative day 11. The endoscopic surgery reduced impairment of collateral vessels during surgery and might have reduced the risk of paraplegia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11748-019-01198-0DOI Listing
September 2020

Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Activity Among Children and Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study of a Rural City in Japan.

J Epidemiol 2020 Sep 10;30(9):404-411. Epub 2019 Aug 10.

College of Health and Welfare, J. F. Oberlin University.

Background: Although moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) has multiple health benefits, current participation in recommended MVPA level and its determinants among Japanese children and adolescents remain unclear. Therefore, this cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of meeting recommended MVPA level and its correlates among Japanese children and adolescents.

Methods: Using the Japanese version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey questionnaire, we confirmed the prevalence of meeting recommended MVPA level in all primary schools (PS) and junior high schools (JHS) in Unnan City, Japan. We evaluated its association with school grade, gender, body weight status, screen time, consumption of breakfast, physical activity (PA) preference, and population density using Poisson regression.

Results: We found that 20.1% of the 1,794 students (9-15 years old) met the WHO recommendation. Meeting recommended MVPA level was significantly associated with being in the sixth grade of PS (prevalence ratio [PR] 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39-0.84) and first (PR 1.52; 95% CI, 1.16-1.99), second (PR 1.45; 95% CI, 1.10-1.90), and third grade of JHS (PR 0.40; 95% CI, 0.26-0.62) (vs fourth grade of PS); being a boy (PR 1.33; 95% CI, 1.12-1.59) (vs girl); liking PA (PR 3.72; 95% CI, 2.22-6.22) (vs dislike); and belonging to a medium-population-density (PR 0.73; 95% CI, 0.61-0.88) or low-population-density area (PR 0.67; 95% CI, 0.48-0.94) (vs high-population-density area).

Conclusions: About 20% of Japanese children and adolescents engaged in the recommended MVPA level. MVPA was associated with grade, gender, preference for PA, and population density.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20190047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7429150PMC
September 2020

Relationship between Individual Social Capital and Cognitive Function among Older Adults by Gender: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 06 17;16(12). Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Center for Community-Based Healthcare Research and Education (CoHRE), Organization for Research and Academic Information, Shimane University, 223-8 Enya-cho, Izumo-shi, Shimane 693-8501, Japan.

As it is not easy to modify lifestyle, it is important to examine the effect of social capital (SC), which does not require behavior modifications, on dementia prevention. This study aimed to clarify gender differences in the relationship between cognitive function and individual SC among people living in a rural area in Japan. We used the Shimane Center for Community-based Healthcare Research and Education (CoHRE) study data from 2011 to conduct a cross-sectional analysis. The analysis included 491 participants, aged 40 years or older, who had undergone medical examinations in two rural towns in Japan. Both cognitive SC and structural SC were measured. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cognitive function levels as binary outcomes. We found a significant association between cognitive function and individual cognitive SC in men (OR: 3.11, 95% CI: 1.43-6.78), and found that cognitive function was associated with structural SC in women (OR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.08-3.31). This study showed that the relationship between cognitive function and individual SC differed by gender. These results suggest that it is important to approach dementia prevention differently in men and women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122142DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6616497PMC
June 2019

Hilly neighborhoods are associated with increased risk of weight gain among older adults in rural Japan: a 3-years follow-up study.

Int J Health Geogr 2019 05 10;18(1):10. Epub 2019 May 10.

Department of Functional Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Shimane University, 89-1, Enya-cho, Izumo-shi, Shimane, 693-8501, Japan.

Background: Neighborhood environments have been regularly associated with the weight status. Although the evidence is mostly limited to adults residing in western urban settings, the weight status of older adults living in rural areas is also assumed to be significantly affected by their neighborhood environments. This study aimed to identify environmental attributes specific to rural areas that could affect the risk of longitudinal weight gain among older adults (≥ 65 years) in Japan.

Methods: We examined five environmental attributes, i.e., land slope, public transportation accessibility, residential density, intersection density, and the availability of parks and recreational centers, measured by the geographic information system. Our analysis was based on 714 subjects participated in Shimane Community-based Healthcare Research and Education study in 2012 and 2015. Multinomial logistic regression model was conducted to examine the association between each neighborhood environmental attribute and weight change status (gain, loss and unchanged).

Results: We observed a significant increase in the risk of weight gain as the steepness of the neighborhood land slope increased. There was no significant association between other environmental attributes and risk of weight gain as well as weight loss among older adults.

Conclusion: Living in hilly neighborhoods was associated with increased risk of weight gain among rural Japanese older adults. Future research should consider region-specific environmental attributes when investigating their effect on older adults' weight status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12942-019-0174-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6509780PMC
May 2019

Height loss but not body composition is related to low back pain in community-dwelling elderlies: Shimane CoHRE study.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2019 May 10;20(1):207. Epub 2019 May 10.

Center for Community-Based Healthcare Research and Education (CoHRE), Shimane University, Matsue-city, Shimane, Japan.

Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a common complaint in the elderly Japanese population. Although previous studies showed that height loss was associated with LBP, it remains unclear whether LBP is associated with body composition. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether body composition and physical characteristics, including height loss, were associated with LBP.

Methods: The present study is retrospectively registered, and the participants were 2212 community-dwelling Japanese people aged over 60 years who participated in the Shimane CoHRE study in 2016. We investigated the presence of LBP, body composition parameters (muscle, fat, body weight, and bone mass), physical characteristics (body height and height loss), chronic diseases, history of fall, smoking, and drinking habits. We examined the relationships of body composition parameters and physical characteristics with point prevalence of LBP using multivariate logistic regression.

Results: The point prevalence of LBP was 43.2% in women and 39.5% in men. Logistic regression models showed that body height and body composition were not significantly associated with LBP; however, height loss was associated significantly with LBP in women and men (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.08-1.20 and OR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.06-1.21, respectively). Hypertension (OR: 1.32, 9 5% CI: 1.04-1.69) and chronic heart disease (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.01-2.43) in women and history of fall (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.13-2.56) and cerebrovascular disease (OR: 1.88, 95% CI: 1.05-3.34) in men were significantly associated with LBP. However, body composition was not associated with LBP in either gender.

Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that height loss, but not body composition, was related to LBP in community-dwelling elderly people. To elucidate the cause of LBP, it is important to consider the relationship with height loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-019-2580-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6511157PMC
May 2019

The effect of transcranial random noise stimulation on corticospinal excitability and motor performance.

Neurosci Lett 2019 07 24;705:138-142. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Institute for Human Movement and Medical Sciences, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, Japan.

Although transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) over the primary motor cortex (M1) region can be used to enhance cortical excitability, it remains unclear whether tRNS over the M1 region improves motor performance. The present study aims to clarify the effect of tRNS on both corticospinal excitability and motor performance. We applied tRNS at the frequency range of 0.1-640 Hz over the left M1 for 10 min to 16 healthy adults. All subjects were tested in the following two interventions: (1) tRNS condition and (2) sham condition. Motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes were recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle by transcranial magnetic stimulation. The motor performance was evaluated using a visuomotor tracking task by isometric abduction motion of the right index finger. MEP amplitudes and motor performance were measured before intervention, immediately after and 10 min after the intervention. The two interventions (tRNS and sham) were randomly performed separated by a break of at least 1 week. In the tRNS condition, MEP amplitudes were significantly increased immediately and 10 min after the intervention, while the motor performance was significantly improved 10 min after the intervention. The present study revealed that tRNS over the M1 region is effective for cortical excitability as well as for motor performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2019.04.049DOI Listing
July 2019

Effect of geographic accessibility to primary care on treatment status of hypertension.

PLoS One 2019 4;14(3):e0213098. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Center for Community-based Healthcare Research and Education (CoHRE), Organization for Research and Academic Information, Shimane University, Izumo City, Shimane, Japan.

Although primary care access is known to be an important factor when seeking care, its effect on individual health risk has not been evaluated by an appropriate spatial measure. This study examined whether geographic accessibility to primary care assessed by a sophisticated form of spatial measure is associated with a risk of hypertension and its treatment status among Japanese people in rural areas, where primary care is not yet established as specialization. We used an enhanced two-step floating catchment area method to calculate the neighborhood residential unit-level primary and secondary care accessibility for 52,029 subjects who participated in the 2015 annual health checkup held at 15 cities in Shimane Prefecture. Their hypertension level and treatment status were examined cross-sectionally with their neighborhood primary care and secondary care accessibility (computed with two separate distance-decay weight: slow and quick) by multivariable logistic regression controlling for demographics and neighborhood income level. The findings showed that greater geographic accessibility to primary care was associated with a decreased risk of hypertension in both slow and quick distance-decay weight, odds ratio (OR) = 0.989 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.984, 0.994), OR = 0.989 (95%CI = 0.984, 0.993), respectively. On the other hand, better secondary care accessibility was associated with an increased risk of hypertension and untreated hypertension; however, the effect of secondary care was mitigated by the effect of primary care accessibility in both slow and quick distance-decay model, hypertension: OR = 0.974 (95% CI = 0.957, 0.991), OR = 0.981 (95%CI = 0.970, 0.991), untreated hypertension: OR = 0.970 (95%CI = 0.944, 0.996), OR = 0.975 (95%CI = 0.959, 0.991), respectively. In addition, the results revealed that young and fit people were at a higher risk of untreated hypertension, which is a unique finding in the context of the Japanese healthcare system. Our findings indicate the importance of primary care even in Japan, where it is not yet established, and also emphasize the need for a culturally specific perspective in health equity.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0213098PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398859PMC
December 2019

Results from the Japan's 2018 report card on physical activity for children and youth.

J Exerc Sci Fit 2019 Jan 26;17(1):20-25. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Physical Activity for Health Group, School of Psychological, Sciences and Health, University of Strathclyde, Graham Hills Building (Room 531) 50 George Street Glasgow, G1 1QE, UK.

Background: The momentum to promote physical activity (PA) by various government agencies such as the Japan Sports Agency established in 2015, academic organizations, and companies is increasing towards the Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games. The goal of the 2018 Japan Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth is to assess and track levels of health behaviors related to PA in Japanese children and youth, facilitators and barriers for PA, and related health outcomes.

Methods: Nationally representative data were used to score the indicators.

Results: The 2018 Japan Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth consists of health behaviors and outcomes (7 indicators), and influences on health behaviors (4 indicators). The key four health behaviors and outcomes (Organized Sport Participation: B-; Active Transportation: A-; Physical fitness: A, Weight status: A) were favorable. Sedentary Behavior received C- grade, while 2 indicators (Overall Physical Activity, and Active Play) could not be graded. In the Influences domain, Family Influence and Community were graded as C-, while School (B+), Community and Environment (B-), and Government Strategies and Investments (B) were favorable.

Conclusions: The 2018 Japan Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth shows that Japanese children and youth have favorable levels of organized sport participation, active transportation to and from school, and physical fitness and weight status. Future nationally representative surveys on overall PA and active play are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jesf.2018.10.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6323183PMC
January 2019
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