Publications by authors named "Taisuke Nishimura"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Oxytocin levels and sex differences in autism spectrum disorder with severe intellectual disabilities.

Psychiatry Res 2019 03 27;273:67-74. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga, Japan.

There were few reports of oxytocin (OXT) concentrations of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients with severe intellectual disabilities. We measured serum OXT concentrations in 79 hospitalized patients with severe intellectual disabilities (16-60 years old, 50 males and 29 females, 54 ASD patients) and investigated the associations between serum OXT concentration, symptom scores, sex differences, and autism spectrum disorder. There were no significant effects of diagnosis, severity of intellectual disabilities, and total score of the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-J), the Childhood Autism Rating Scale-Tokyo Version (CARS-TV), and the Japanese version of the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R). However, there were sex differences in the correlations between OXT concentrations and subscale scores in the ASD group. The male ASD group (n = 39) showed negative correlations between RBS-R Self-injurious and Sameness subscale scores and serum OXT concentrations. In the female ASD group(n = 15), CARS-TV Nonverbal communication subscale scores and RBS-R Compulsive subscale scores were seen to positively correlate with serum OXT concentrations. These findings suggest that OXT functions differ in males and females with severe intellectual disabilities and that OXT partly affects autism and related to some of the repetitive behaviors and nonverbal communication, in ASD patients with severe intellectual disabilities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2018.12.139DOI Listing
March 2019

Gene Body Methylation Involved in Leaf Development.

Plant Cell Physiol 2018 07;59(7):1288-1289

Department of Bioengineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka 1603-1, Nagaoka, Niigata, Japan.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcy109DOI Listing
July 2018

Structural basis of transcriptional gene silencing mediated by Arabidopsis MOM1.

PLoS Genet 2012 Feb 9;8(2):e1002484. Epub 2012 Feb 9.

Department of Plant Biology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Shifts between epigenetic states of transcriptional activity are typically correlated with changes in epigenetic marks. However, exceptions to this rule suggest the existence of additional, as yet uncharacterized, layers of epigenetic regulation. MOM1, a protein of 2,001 amino acids that acts as a transcriptional silencer, represents such an exception. Here we define the 82 amino acid domain called CMM2 (Conserved MOM1 Motif 2) as a minimal MOM1 fragment capable of transcriptional regulation. As determined by X-ray crystallography, this motif folds into an unusual hendecad-based coiled-coil. Structure-based mutagenesis followed by transgenic complementation tests in plants demonstrate that CMM2 and its dimerization are effective for transcriptional suppression at chromosomal loci co-regulated by MOM1 and the siRNA pathway but not at loci controlled by MOM1 in an siRNA-independent fashion. These results reveal a surprising separation of epigenetic activities that enable the single, large MOM1 protein to coordinate cooperating mechanisms of epigenetic regulation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002484DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3276543PMC
February 2012

DNA methylation in plants: relationship to small RNAs and histone modifications, and functions in transposon inactivation.

Plant Cell Physiol 2012 May 1;53(5):766-84. Epub 2012 Feb 1.

PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012, Japan.

DNA methylation is a type of epigenetic marking that strongly influences chromatin structure and gene expression in plants and mammals. Over the past decade, DNA methylation has been intensively investigated in order to elucidate its control mechanisms. These studies have shown that small RNAs are involved in the induction of DNA methylation, that there is a relationship between DNA methylation and histone methylation, and that the base excision repair pathway has an important role in DNA demethylation. Some aspects of DNA methylation have also been shown to be shared with mammals, suggesting that the regulatory pathways are, in part at least, evolutionarily conserved. Considerable progress has been made in elucidating the mechanisms that control DNA methylation; however, many aspects of the mechanisms that read the information encoded by DNA methylation and mediate this into downstream regulation remain uncertain, although some candidate proteins have been identified. DNA methylation has a vital role in the inactivation of transposons, suggesting that DNA methylation is a key factor in the evolution and adaptation of plants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcs008DOI Listing
May 2012

Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the CMM2 region of the Arabidopsis thaliana Morpheus' molecule 1 protein.

Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun 2010 Aug 29;66(Pt 8):916-8. Epub 2010 Jul 29.

Department of Molecular Biology, University of Geneva, Switzerland.

Of the known epigenetic control regulators found in plants, the Morpheus' molecule 1 (MOM1) protein is atypical in that the deletion of MOM1 does not affect the level of epigenetic marks controlling the transcriptional status of the genome. A short 197-amino-acid fragment of the MOM1 protein sequence can complement MOM1 deletion when coupled to a nuclear localization signal, suggesting that this region contains a functional domain that compensates for the loss of the full-length protein. Numerous constructs centred on the highly conserved MOM1 motif 2 (CMM2) present in these 197 residues have been generated and expressed in Escherichia coli. Following purification and crystallization screening, diamond-shaped single crystals were obtained that diffracted to approximately 3.2 A resolution. They belonged to the trigonal space group P3(1)21 (or P3(2)21), with unit-cell parameters a=85.64, c=292.74 A. Structure determination is ongoing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S1744309110021068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2917290PMC
August 2010

Selective epigenetic control of retrotransposition in Arabidopsis.

Nature 2009 Sep 6;461(7262):427-30. Epub 2009 Sep 6.

Department of Plant Biology, University of Geneva, Sciences III, 30 Quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.

Retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements that populate chromosomes, where the host largely controls their activities. In plants and mammals, retrotransposons are transcriptionally silenced by DNA methylation, which in Arabidopsis is propagated at CG dinucleotides by METHYLTRANSFERASE 1 (MET1). In met1 mutants, however, mobilization of retrotransposons is not observed, despite their transcriptional activation. A post-transcriptional mechanism therefore seems to be preventing retrotransposition. Here we show that a copia-type retrotransposon (Evadé, French for 'fugitive') evaded suppression of its movement during inbreeding of hybrid epigenomes consisting of met1- and wild-type-derived chromosomes. Evadé (EVD) reinsertions caused a series of developmental mutations that allowed its identification. Genetic testing of host control of the EVD life cycle showed that transcriptional suppression occurred by CG methylation supported by RNA-directed DNA methylation. On transcriptional reactivation, subsequent steps of the EVD cycle were inhibited by plant-specific RNA polymerase IV/V and the histone methyltransferase KRYPTONITE (KYP). Moreover, genome resequencing demonstrated retrotransposition of EVD but no other potentially active retroelements when this combination of epigenetic mechanisms was compromised. Our results demonstrate that epigenetic control of retrotransposons extends beyond transcriptional suppression and can be individualized for particular elements.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature08328DOI Listing
September 2009

Cyclic olefin homopolymer-based microfluidics for protein crystallization and in situ X-ray diffraction.

Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 2009 Sep 6;65(Pt 9):913-20. Epub 2009 Aug 6.

Department of Molecular Biology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Microfluidics is a promising technology for the rapid identification of protein crystallization conditions. However, most of the existing systems utilize silicone elastomers as the chip material which, despite its many benefits, is highly permeable to water vapour. This limits the time available for protein crystallization to less than a week. Here, the use of a cyclic olefin homopolymer-based microfluidics system for protein crystallization and in situ X-ray diffraction is described. Liquid handling in this system is performed in 2 mm thin transparent cards which contain 500 chambers, each with a volume of 320 nl. Microbatch, vapour-diffusion and free-interface diffusion protocols for protein crystallization were implemented and crystals were obtained of a number of proteins, including chicken lysozyme, bovine trypsin, a human p53 protein containing both the DNA-binding and oligomerization domains bound to DNA and a functionally important domain of Arabidopsis Morpheus' molecule 1 (MOM1). The latter two polypeptides have not been crystallized previously. For X-ray diffraction analysis, either the cards were opened to allow mounting of the crystals on loops or the crystals were exposed to X-rays in situ. For lysozyme, an entire X-ray diffraction data set at 1.5 A resolution was collected without removing the crystal from the card. Thus, cyclic olefin homopolymer-based microfluidics systems have the potential to further automate protein crystallization and structural genomics efforts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S0907444909021489DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2733880PMC
September 2009

Divergent evolution of CHD3 proteins resulted in MOM1 refining epigenetic control in vascular plants.

PLoS Genet 2008 Aug 22;4(8):e1000165. Epub 2008 Aug 22.

Laboratory of Plant Genetics, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Arabidopsis MOM1 is required for the heritable maintenance of transcriptional gene silencing (TGS). Unlike many other silencing factors, depletion of MOM1 evokes transcription at selected loci without major changes in DNA methylation or histone modification. These loci retain unusual, bivalent chromatin properties, intermediate to both euchromatin and heterochromatin. The structure of MOM1 previously suggested an integral nuclear membrane protein with chromatin-remodeling and actin-binding activities. Unexpected results presented here challenge these presumed MOM1 activities and demonstrate that less than 13% of MOM1 sequence is necessary and sufficient for TGS maintenance. This active sequence encompasses a novel Conserved MOM1 Motif 2 (CMM2). The high conservation suggests that CMM2 has been the subject of strong evolutionary pressure. The replacement of Arabidopsis CMM2 by a poplar motif reveals its functional conservation. Interspecies comparison suggests that MOM1 proteins emerged at the origin of vascular plants through neo-functionalization of the ubiquitous eukaryotic CHD3 chromatin remodeling factors. Interestingly, despite the divergent evolution of CHD3 and MOM1, we observed functional cooperation in epigenetic control involving unrelated protein motifs and thus probably diverse mechanisms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2507757PMC
August 2008

Epigenetic transitions in plants not associated with changes in DNA or histone modification.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2007 May-Jun;1769(5-6):393-8. Epub 2007 Mar 12.

Laboratory of Plant Genetics, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.

Covalent modifications of DNA and histones correlate with chromatin compaction and with its transcriptional activity and contribute to mitotic and meiotic heritability of epigenetic traits. However, there are intriguing examples of the transition of epigenetic states in plants that appear to be uncoupled from the conventional mechanisms of chromatin-mediated regulation of transcription. Further study of the molecular mechanism and biological significance of such atypical epigenetic regulation may uncover novel aspects of epigenetic gene regulation and better define its role in plant development and environmental adaptation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbaexp.2007.03.002DOI Listing
July 2007

The Arabidopsis STV1 protein, responsible for translation reinitiation, is required for auxin-mediated gynoecium patterning.

Plant Cell 2005 Nov 14;17(11):2940-53. Epub 2005 Oct 14.

Department of Botany, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

Ribosomal protein L24 (RPL24) is implicated in translation reinitiation of polycistronic genes. A newly isolated Arabidopsis thaliana short valve1 (stv1) mutant, in which one of the RPL24-encoding genes, RPL24B, is deleted, shows specific defects in the apical-basal patterning of the gynoecium, in addition to phenotypes induced by ribosome deficiency. A similar gynoecium phenotype is caused by mutations in the auxin response factor (ARF) genes ETTIN (ETT) and MONOPTEROS (MP), which have upstream open reading frames (uORFs) in their 5'-transcript leader sequences. Gynoecia of a double mutant of stv1 and a weak ett mutant allele are similar to those of a strong ett allele, and transformation with a uORF-eliminated ETT construct partially suppressed the stv1 gynoecium phenotype, implying that STV1 could influence ETT translation through its uORFs. Analyses of 5'-leader-reporter gene fusions showed that the uORFs of ETT and MP negatively regulate the translation of the downstream major ORFs, indicating that translation reinitiation is an important step for the expression of these proteins. Taken together, we propose that perturbation of translation reinitiation of the ARF transcripts causes the defects in gynoecium patterning observed in the stv1 mutant.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1105/tpc.105.036533DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1276021PMC
November 2005

An Arabidopsis ACT2 dominant-negative mutation, which disturbs F-actin polymerization, reveals its distinctive function in root development.

Plant Cell Physiol 2003 Nov;44(11):1131-40

Department of Botany, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 Japan.

Eight functional actin genes are present in Arabidopsis: The functional characterization of these genes in loss-of-function mutants is difficult, because highly conserved isovariants are generally expressed in the same tissue. We isolated a novel semi-dominant mutant allele (act2-2D) of an actin gene, ACT2, with a missense mutation which causes an amino acid substitution at the surface of the ACT2 protein. ACT2 promoter::ACT2-2D transgenic plants showed the same phenotype as act2-2D, indicating that act2-2D is a dominant-negative mutant. act2-2D exhibited defects in the initiation and elongation of root hairs, the elongation of root epidermal cells, and growth in aerial portions. Specifically, radial cell expansion was reduced and occasional cell death occurred in trichoblasts but not in atrichoblasts of the root epidermis. In contrast, cell division patterns in the root meristem were not affected. act2-3, a loss-of-function ACT2 mutant, did not develop most of these morphological abnormalities. Actin filament (F-actin) bundles in root epidermal cells of act2-2D were shorter than in the wild type and in the loss-of-function mutant. We conclude that defective F-actin polymerization caused the aberrant cell morphology in a dominant-negative manner, and that ACT2 functions in cell elongation and root hair formation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcg158DOI Listing
November 2003