Publications by authors named "Taimour Y Langaee"

65 Publications

Newly diagnosed cardiovascular disease in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors: a retrospective analysis of patients at an academic tertiary care center.

Cardiooncology 2021 Mar 18;7(1):10. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, PO Box 100486, 1345 Center Drive, Gainesville, FL, 32610-0486, USA.

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are a novel class of anticancer agents that have demonstrated clinical response for both solid and hematological malignancies. ICIs are associated with development of immune-related adverse events including cardiotoxicity. We estimated the incidence of newly diagnosed cardiovascular disease in patients treated with ICIs at a large, tertiary care center.

Methods: All patients with a cancer diagnosis who received any ICI treatment in the University of Florida's Integrated Data Repository from 2011 to 2017 were included. Cardiovascular disease was defined as a new ICD diagnosis code for cardiomyopathy, heart failure, arrhythmia, heart block, pericardial disease, or myocarditis after initiation of ICI treatment.

Results: Of 102,701 patients with a diagnosis of malignancy, 424 patients received at least one ICI. Sixty-two (14.6%) patients were diagnosed with at least one new cardiovascular disease after initiation of ICI therapy. Of the 374 patients receiving one ICI, 21 (5.6%) developed heart failure. Of the 49 patients who received two ICIs sequentially, three (6.1%) developed heart failure and/or cardiomyopathy. Incident cardiovascular disease was diagnosed at a median of 63 days after initial ICI exposure. One patient developed myocarditis 28 days after receiving nivolumab. Mortality in ICI treated patients with a concomitant diagnosis of incident cardiovascular disease was higher compared to those who did not (66.1% vs. 41.4%, odds ratio = 2.77, 1.55-4.95, p = 0.0006).

Conclusions: This study suggests a high incidence of newly diagnosed cardiovascular disease after the initiation of ICI therapy in a real-world clinical setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40959-021-00097-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7977591PMC
March 2021

Examination of Metoprolol Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Across CYP2D6 Genotype-Derived Activity Scores.

CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol 2020 12 3;9(12):678-685. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translation Research, Center for Pharmacogenomics and Precision Medicine, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Recent CYP2D6 phenotype standardization efforts by CYP2D6 activity score (AS) are based on limited pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data. Using data from two independent clinical trials of metoprolol, we compared metoprolol PK and PD across CYP2D6 AS with the goal of determining whether the PK and PD data support the new phenotype classification. S-metoprolol apparent oral clearance (CLo), adjusted for clinical factors, was correlated with CYP2D6 AS (P < 0.001). The natural log of CLo was lower with an AS of 1 (7.6 ± 0.4 mL/minute) vs. 2-2.25 (8.3 ± 0.6 mL/minute; P = 0.012), similar between an AS of 1 and 1.25-1.5 (7.8 ± 0.5 mL/minute; P = 0.702), and lower with an AS of 1.25-1.5 vs. 2-2.25 (P = 0.03). There was also a greater reduction in heart rate with metoprolol among study participants with AS of 1 (-10.8 ± 5.5) vs. 2-2.25 (-7.1 ± 5.6; P < 0.001) and no significant difference between those with an AS of 1 and 1.25-1.5 (-9.2 ± 4.7; P = 0.095). These data highlight linear trends among CYP2D6 AS and metoprolol PK and PD, but inconsistencies with the phenotypes assigned by AS based on the current standards. Overall, this case study with metoprolol suggests that utilizing CYP2D6 AS, instead of collapsing AS into phenotype categories, may be the most precise approach for utilizing CYP2D6 pharmacogenomics in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/psp4.12563DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7762806PMC
December 2020

Age-Related Changes in miRNA Expression Influence GSTZ1 and Other Drug Metabolizing Enzymes.

Drug Metab Dispos 2020 07 1;48(7):563-569. Epub 2020 May 1.

Departments of Medicinal Chemistry (S.C.J., C.J.W., M.O.J.), Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research (T.Y.L.), Medicine (P.W.S.), Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (P.W.S.), and Molecular Genetics and Microbiology (L.A.G., R.R.), University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Previous work has shown that hepatic levels of human glutathione transferase zeta 1 (GSTZ1) protein, involved in tyrosine catabolism and responsible for metabolism of the investigational drug dichloroacetate, increase in cytosol after birth before reaching a plateau around age 7. However, the mechanism regulating this change of expression is still unknown, and previous studies showed that mRNA levels did not correlate with GSTZ1 protein expression. In this study, we addressed the hypothesis that microRNAs (miRNAs) could regulate expression of GSTZ1. We obtained liver samples from donors aged less than 1 year or older than 13 years and isolated total RNA for use in a microarray to identify miRNAs that were downregulated in the livers of adults compared with children. From a total of 2578 human miRNAs tested, 63 miRNAs were more than 2-fold down-regulated in adults, of which miR-376c-3p was predicted to bind to the 3' untranslated region of mRNA. There was an inverse correlation of miR-376c-3p and GSTZ1 protein expression in the liver samples. Using cell culture, we confirmed that miR-376c-3p could downregulate GSTZ1 protein expression. Our findings suggest that miR-376c-3p prevents production of GSTZ1 through inhibition of translation. These experiments further our understanding of GSTZ1 regulation. Furthermore, our array results provide a database resource for future studies on mechanisms regulating human hepatic developmental expression. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Hepatic glutathione transferase zeta 1 (GSTZ1) is responsible for metabolism of the tyrosine catabolite maleylacetoacetate as well as the investigational drug dichloroacetate. Through examination of microRNA (miRNA) expression in liver from infants and adults and studies in cells, we showed that expression of GSTZ1 is controlled by miRNA. This finding has application to the dosing regimen of the drug dichloroacetate. The miRNA expression profiles are provided and will prove useful for future studies of drug-metabolizing enzymes in infants and adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.120.090639DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7289049PMC
July 2020

Effect of plasma MicroRNA on antihypertensive response to beta blockers in the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) studies.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2019 Apr 10;131:93-98. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research, Center for Pharmacogenomics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. Electronic address:

β-blockers show variable efficacy as antihypertensives. Herein, we evaluated plasma miRNAs as biomarkers for defining antihypertensive response to β-blockers. Expression of 22 β-blocker pharmacodynamics-related miRNAs was assessed in baseline plasma samples from 30 responders and 30 non-responders to metoprolol from the PEAR-2 study (Discovery). Logistic regression was performed to identify miRNAs significantly associated with metoprolol response. Those miRNAs were profiled in baseline plasma samples from 25 responders and 25 non-responders to atenolol from the PEAR study (validation). In discovery, miR-101, miR-27a, miR-22, miR-19a, and let-7e were significantly associated with metoprolol response (P = 0.01, 0.017, 0.025, 0.025, and 0.04, respectively). In validation, miR-19a was significantly associated with atenolol response (P = 0.038). Meta-analysis between PEAR-2 and PEAR revealed significant association between miR-19a (P = 0.004), miR-101 (P = 0.006), and let-7e (P = 0.012) and β-blocker response. Hence, miR-19a, miR-101, and let-7e, which regulate β1-adrenergic receptor and other β-blocker pharmacodynamics-related genes, may be biomarkers for antihypertensive response to β-blockers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2019.02.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6467266PMC
April 2019

Targeted sequencing identifies a missense variant in the BEST3 gene associated with antihypertensive response to hydrochlorothiazide.

Pharmacogenet Genomics 2018 11;28(11):251-255

Departments of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research and Center for Pharmacogenomics.

Chromosome 12q15 was identified in Genetic Epidemiology of Response Assessment (GERA) and replicated in Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) for its association with blood pressure (BP) response to hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ). However, the functional variant is unknown and we aimed to identify the likely functional variants through targeted sequencing. The chromosome 12q15 region was sequenced in 397 best and worst responders to HCTZ in PEAR (N=199) and GERA (N=198) hypertensive study participants. Logistic regression was used for the association analysis adjusting for age, sex, race, and principal components 1 and 2. For validation, the significant single nucleotide polymorphism was tested for association with the change in systolic (ΔSBP) and diastolic BP (ΔDBP) post-treatment in the entire PEAR (N=370) and GERA (N=570) cohorts. A novel missense polymorphism (G>A, Pro383Leu) in BEST3, rs61747221, was significantly associated with better HCTZ response (P=0.0021, odds ratio=2.05). It was validated in the entire cohort of PEAR (ΔSBP: P=0.021, β=-1.60, ΔDBP: P=0.023, β=-1.08) and GERA (ΔSBP: P=0.028, β=-1.95, ΔDBP: P=0.032, β=-1.28). BEST3 encodes the calcium sensitive chloride channel in the vascular smooth muscle implicated in the regulation of BP, especially in response to vasoconstrictors like angiotensin II. These results suggest that BEST3 is involved in the chronic BP lowering mechanism of thiazides and highlight its importance as a genetic predictor of the BP response to thiazide diuretics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FPC.0000000000000353DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6262886PMC
November 2018

Blood pressure signature genes and blood pressure response to thiazide diuretics: results from the PEAR and PEAR-2 studies.

BMC Med Genomics 2018 Jun 20;11(1):55. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Center for Pharmacogenomics, Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, P.O.Box 100484, Gainesville, FL, 32610-0486, USA.

Background: Recently, 34 genes had been associated with differential expression relative to blood pressure (BP)/ hypertension (HTN). We hypothesize that some of the genes associated with BP/HTN are also associated with BP response to antihypertensive treatment with thiazide diuretics.

Methods: We assessed these 34 genes for association with differential expression to BP response to thiazide diuretics with RNA sequencing in whole blood samples from 150 hypertensive participants from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) and PEAR-2 studies. PEAR white and PEAR-2 white and black participants (n = 50 for each group) were selected based on the upper and lower quartile of BP response to hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and to chlorthalidone.

Results: FOS, DUSP1 and PPP1R15A were differentially expressed across all cohorts (meta-analysis p-value < 2.0 × 10), and responders to HCTZ or chlorthalidone presented up-regulated transcripts. Rs11065987 in chromosome 12, a trans-eQTL for expression of FOS, PPP1R15A and other genes, is also associated with BP response to HCTZ in PEAR whites (SBP: β = - 2.1; p = 1.7 × 10; DBP: β = - 1.4; p = 2.9 × 10).

Conclusions: These findings suggest FOS, DUSP1 and PPP1R15A as potential molecular determinants of antihypertensive response to thiazide diuretics.

Trial Registration: NCT00246519 , NCT01203852 www.clinicaltrials.gov.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12920-018-0370-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6011347PMC
June 2018

Whole Transcriptome Sequencing Analyses Reveal Molecular Markers of Blood Pressure Response to Thiazide Diuretics.

Sci Rep 2017 11 22;7(1):16068. Epub 2017 Nov 22.

Center for Pharmacogenomics and Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Thiazide diuretics (TD) are commonly prescribed anti-hypertensives worldwide. However, <40% of patients treated with thiazide monotherapy achieve BP control. This study uses whole transcriptome sequencing to identify novel molecular markers associated with BP response to TD. We assessed global RNA expression levels in whole blood samples from 150 participants, representing patients in the upper and lower quartile of BP response to TD from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) (50 whites) and from PEAR-2 (50 whites and 50 blacks). In each study cohort, we performed poly-A RNA-sequencing in baseline samples from 25 responders and 25 non-responders to hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) or chlorthalidone. At FDR adjusted p-value < 0.05, 29 genes were differentially expressed in relation to HCTZ or chlorthalidone BP response in whites. For each differentially expressed gene, replication was attempted in the alternate white group and PEAR-2 blacks. CEBPD (meta-analysis p = 1.8 × 10) and TSC22D3 (p = 1.9 × 10) were differentially expressed in all 3 cohorts, and explain, in aggregate, 21.9% of response variability to TD. This is the first report of the use of transcriptome-wide sequencing data to identify molecular markers of antihypertensive drug response. These findings support CEBPD and TSC22D3 as potential biomarkers of BP response to TD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-16343-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5700078PMC
November 2017

SIRT1/HERC4 Locus Associated With Bisphosphonate-Induced Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: An Exome-Wide Association Analysis.

J Bone Miner Res 2018 01 16;33(1):91-98. Epub 2017 Oct 16.

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research and Center for Pharmacogenomics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a rare, but serious drug side effect, mainly associated with the use of intravenous (iv) bisphosphonates (BPs). The purpose of this study was to identify genetic variants associated with ONJ in patients of European ancestry treated with iv BPs using whole-exome sequencing (WES). The WES phase 1 included 44 multiple myeloma patients (22 ONJ cases and 22 controls) and WES phase 2 included 17 ONJ patients with solid tumors. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for age, sex, and principal components for ancestry. Meta-analysis of WES phase 1 and 2 was performed to estimate the combined ORs. In silico analyses were then performed to identify expression quantitative loci (eQTL) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are in high linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the top SNPs. The associations of the potentially functional SNPs were replicated and validated in an independent case-control study of 48 patients of European ancestry treated with iv BPs (19 ONJ cases and 29 controls). The top SNPs in the exome-wide association meta-analysis were two SNPs on chromosome 10: SIRT1 SNP rs7896005 and HERC4 SNP rs3758392 with identical OR of 0.07 (0.01-0.46; p = 3.83 × 10 ). In the in silico functional analyses, two promoter region SNPs (rs7894483 and rs3758391) were identified to be in high LD with the index SNPs and are eQTLs for SIRT1 gene in whole blood in the GTEx database. The ORs were 0.30 (0.10-0.88), 0.26 (0.12-0.55), and 0.26 (0.12-0.55) for the WES top SNP rs7896005 and two promoter SNPs rs7894483 and rs3758391, respectively, in the replication sample. In summary, we identified the SIRT1/HERC4 locus on chromosome 10 to be associated with iv BP-induced ONJ and two promoter SNPs that might be the potential genetic markers for this association. © 2017 The Authors.Journal of Bone and Mineral Research Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.3285DOI Listing
January 2018

Matrix Metalloproteinase Polymorphisms in Patients with Floppy Mitral Valve/Mitral Valve Prolapse (FMV/MVP) and FMV/MVP Syndrome.

Cardiology 2017;138(3):179-185. Epub 2017 Jul 28.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Background: It has been suggested that collagen abnormalities of the mitral valve are present in patients with floppy mitral valve (FMV)/mitral valve prolapse (MVP). Genetic factors determining collagen synthesis and degradation have not been well defined in these patients. This study was undertaken to determine whether selective polymorphisms of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) or transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), with known or putative effects on collagen turnover, are more frequent in FMV/MVP.

Methods: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in select genes related to collagen turnover, including MMP2 rs2285053, MMP2 rs243865, TGFβ1 rs1800469, and TGFβ2 rs900, were determined in 98 patients with FMV/MVP who had severe mitral regurgitation and compared to 99 controls.

Results: MMP2 rs243865 was the only SNP significantly associated with FMV/MVP as compared to the control (odds ratio 2.07, 95% CI 1.23-3.50, p = 0.006). MMP2 rs228503 was the only SNP significantly associated with the FMV/MVP syndrome as compared to patients with FMV/MVP without the syndrome (odds ratio 2.41, 95% CI 1.08-5.40, p = 0.032).

Conclusion: The frequency of certain MMP2 polymorphisms is higher in patients with the FMV/MVP syndrome and patients with FMV/MVP without the syndrome. The data suggest that a genetic predisposition that alters collagen turnover may play a role in the pathogenesis and development of FMV/MVP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000477656DOI Listing
August 2018

Impact of the CYP2C19 genotype on voriconazole exposure in adults with invasive fungal infections.

Pharmacogenet Genomics 2017 05;27(5):190-196

aDepartment of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research bCenter for Pharmacogenomics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida cUniversity of Florida Health Shands Hospital, Gainesville dDepartment of Pharmaceutics eCenter for Pharmacometrics and Systems Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Orlando fDepartment of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology gDepartment of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Objectives: Voriconazole, a first-line agent for the treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFIs), is metabolized by CYP2C19. A significant proportion of patients fail to achieve therapeutic trough concentrations with standard weight-based voriconazole dosing, placing them at increased risk for treatment failure, which can be life threatening. We sought to test the association between the CYP2C19 genotype and subtherapeutic voriconazole concentrations in adults with IFIs.

Patient And Methods: Adults receiving weight-based voriconazole dosing for the treatment of IFIs were genotyped for the CYP2C19*2, *3, and *17 polymorphisms, and CYP2C19 metabolizer phenotypes were inferred. Steady-state voriconazole trough plasma concentrations and the prevalence of subtherapeutic troughs (<2 mg/l) were compared between patients with the CYP2C19*17/*17 (ultrarapid metabolizer, UM) or *1/*17 (rapid metabolizer, RM) genotype versus those with other genotypes. Logistic regression, adjusting for clinical factors, was performed to estimate the odds of subtherapeutic concentrations.

Results: Of 70 patients included (mean age 52.5±18 years), 39% were RMs or UMs. Compared with patients with the other phenotypes, RMs/UMs had a lower steady-state trough concentration (4.26±2.2 vs. 2.86±2.3, P=0.0093) and a higher prevalence of subtherapeutic troughs (16 vs. 52%, P=0.0028), with an odds ratio of 5.6 (95% confidence interval: 1.64-19.24, P=0.0044).

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that adults with the CYP2C19 RM or UM phenotype are more likely to have subtherapeutic concentrations with weight-based voriconazole dosing. These results corroborate previous findings in children and support the potential clinical utility of CYP2C19 genotype-guided voriconazole dosing to avoid underexposure in RMs and UMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FPC.0000000000000277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5391994PMC
May 2017

CES1P1 variant -816A>C is not associated with hepatic carboxylesterase 1 expression and activity or antihypertensive effect of trandolapril.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2016 Jun 26;72(6):681-7. Epub 2016 Feb 26.

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research, University of Florida, 1600 SW Archer Road, RM PG-23, Gainesville, FL, 32610-0486, USA.

Purpose: The majority of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are synthesized as ester prodrugs that must be converted to their active forms in vivo in order to exert therapeutic effects. Hepatic carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) is the primary enzyme responsible for the bioactivation of ACEI prodrugs in humans. The genetic variant -816A>C (rs3785161) is a common variant located in the promoter region of the CES1P1 gene. Previous studies report conflicting results with regard to the association of this variant and therapeutic outcomes of CES1 substrate drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the variant -816A>C on the activation of the ACEI prodrug trandolapril in human livers and the blood pressure (BP)-lowering effect of trandolapril in hypertensive patients.

Methods: The -816A>C genotypes and CES1 expression and activity on trandolapril activation were determined in 100 individual human liver samples. Furthermore, the association of the -816A>C variant and the BP lowering effect of trandolapril was evaluated in hypertensive patients who participated in the International Verapamil SR Trandolapril Study (INVEST).

Results: Our in vitro study demonstrated that hepatic CES1 expression and activity did not differ among different -816A>C genotypes. Moreover, we were unable to identify a clinical association between the BP lowering effects of trandolapril and -816A>C genotypes.

Conclusions: We conclude that the -816A>C variant is not associated with interindividual variability in CES1 expression and activity or therapeutic response to ACEI prodrugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00228-016-2029-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4865408PMC
June 2016

Pharmacogenomic Genome-Wide Meta-Analysis of Blood Pressure Response to β-Blockers in Hypertensive African Americans.

Hypertension 2016 Mar 4;67(3):556-63. Epub 2016 Jan 4.

From the Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research and Center for Pharmacogenomics (Y.G., C.W.M., T.Y.L., J.G.G., R.M.C.-D., J.A.J.), Department of Community Health and Family Medicine, College of Medicine (K.H., S.O.F.S., R.W.C., J.G.G.), and Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, College of Medicine (R.M.C.-D., J.A.J.), University of Florida, Gainesville; Department of Epidemiology, Human Genetics & Environmental Sciences, Center for Human Genetics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (Z.W., E.B.); Department of Medicine and Program in Personalized & Genomic Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore (A.L.B.); Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Department of Health Sciences Research (K.R.B.) and Division of Nephrology and Hypertension (S.T.T.), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; and Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, IL. (A.B.C.).

African Americans suffer a higher prevalence of hypertension compared with other racial/ethnic groups. In this study, we performed a pharmacogenomic genome-wide association study of blood pressure (BP) response to β-blockers in African Americans with uncomplicated hypertension. Genome-wide meta-analysis was performed in 318 African American hypertensive participants in the 2 Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses studies: 150 treated with atenolol monotherapy and 168 treated with metoprolol monotherapy. The analysis adjusted for age, sex, baseline BP and principal components for ancestry. Genome-wide significant variants with P<5×10(-8) and suggestive variants with P<5×10(-7) were evaluated in an additional cohort of 141 African Americans treated with the addition of atenolol to hydrochlorothiazide treatment. The validated variants were then meta-analyzed in these 3 groups of African Americans. Two variants discovered in the monotherapy meta-analysis were validated in the add-on therapy. African American participants heterozygous for SLC25A31 rs201279313 deletion versus wild-type genotype had better diastolic BP response to atenolol monotherapy, metoprolol monotherapy, and atenolol add-on therapy: -9.3 versus -4.6, -9.6 versus -4.8, and -9.7 versus -6.4 mm Hg, respectively (3-group meta-analysis P=2.5×10(-8), β=-4.42 mm Hg per variant allele). Similarly, LRRC15 rs11313667 was validated for systolic BP response to β-blocker therapy with 3-group meta-analysis P=7.2×10(-8) and β=-3.65 mm Hg per variant allele. In this first pharmacogenomic genome-wide meta-analysis of BP response to β-blockers in African Americans, we identified novel variants that may provide valuable information for personalized antihypertensive treatment in this group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.115.06345DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4752391PMC
March 2016

CYP2C19 and CES1 polymorphisms and efficacy of clopidogrel and aspirin dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease.

J Neurosurg 2016 Jun 20;124(6):1746-51. Epub 2015 Nov 20.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, College of Medicine, and.

OBJECT Symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) has a high risk of recurrent stroke. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP2C19 and CES1 are associated with adverse outcomes in cardiovascular patients, but have not been studied in ICAD. The authors studied CYP2C19 and CES1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in symptomatic ICAD patients. METHODS Genotype testing for CYP2C19*2, (*)3, (*)8, (*)17 and CES1 G143E was performed on 188 adult symptomatic ICAD patients from 3 medical centers who were medically managed with clopidogrel and aspirin. Testing was performed prospectively at 1 center, and retrospectively from a DNA sample biorepository at 2 centers. Multiple logistic regression and Cox regression analysis were performed to assess the association of these SNPs with the primary endpoint, which was a composite of transient ischemic attack (TIA), stroke, myocardial infarction, or death within 12 months. RESULTS The primary endpoint occurred in 14.9% of the 188 cases. In multiple logistic regression analysis, the presence of the CYP2C19 loss of function (LOF) alleles *2, *3, and *8 in the medically managed patients was associated with lower odds of primary endpoint compared with wild-type homozygotes (odds ratio [OR] 0.13, 95% CI 0.03-0.62, p = 0.0101). Cox regression analysis demonstrated the CYP2C19 LOF carriers had a lower risk for the primary endpoint, with hazard ratio (HR) of 0.27 (95% CI 0.08-0.95), p = 0.041. A sensitivity analysis of a secondary composite endpoint of TIA, stroke, or death demonstrated a significant trend in multiple logistic regression analysis of CYP2C19 variants, with lower odds of secondary endpoint in patients carrying at least 1 LOF allele (*2, *3, *8) than in wild-type homozygotes (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.06-1.16, p = 0.078). Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the carriers of CYP2C19 LOF alleles had a lower risk forthe secondary composite endpoint (HR 0.22, 95% CI 0.05-1.04, p = 0.056). CONCLUSIONS This is the first study examining genetic variants and their effects in symptomatic ICAD. Variant alleles of CYP2C19 (*2, *3, *8) were associated with lower odds of the primary and secondary composite endpoints. However, the direction of the association was opposite of what is expected based on this SNP. This may reflect an incomplete understanding of this genetic variation and its effect in symptomatic ICAD and warrants further investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2015.6.JNS15795DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4915569PMC
June 2016

PTPRD gene associated with blood pressure response to atenolol and resistant hypertension.

J Hypertens 2015 Nov;33(11):2278-85

aDepartment of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research and Center for Pharmacogenomics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida USA bDepartment of Medicine and Program in Personalized and Genomic Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland, USA cDepartment of Medicine, University of Helsinki, and University Central Hospital of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland dBHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK eDepartment of Community Health and Family Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA fInstitute for Molecular Medicine Finland, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. gCollege of Medicine, Mayo Clinic Rochester, Rochester, Minnesota USA hCenter for Human Genetics, University of Texas at Houston, Houston, Texas, USA iRIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama, Japan jSchool of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA kDivision of Cardiovascular Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Objective: The aim of this study is to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influencing blood pressure (BP) response to the β-blocker atenolol.

Methods: Genome-wide association analysis of BP response to atenolol monotherapy was performed in 233 white participants with uncomplicated hypertension in the pharmacogenomic evaluation of antihypertensive responses study. Forty-two polymorphisms with P less than 10 for association with either diastolic or systolic response to atenolol monotherapy were validated in four independent groups of hypertensive individuals (total n = 2114).

Results: In whites, two polymorphisms near the gene PTPRD (rs12346562 and rs1104514) were associated with DBP response to atenolol (P = 3.2 × 10 and P = 5.9 × 10, respectively) with directionally opposite association for response to hydrochlorothiazide in another group of 228 whites (P = 0.0018 and P = 0.00012). A different polymorphism (rs10739150) near PTPRD was associated with response to atenolol in 150 black hypertensive individuals (P = 8.25 × 10). rs12346562 had a similar trend in association with response to bisoprolol (a different β-blocker) in 207 Finnish men in the genetics of drug responsiveness in essential hypertension study. In addition, an intronic single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs4742610) in the PTPRD gene was associated with resistant hypertension in whites and Hispanics in the international verapamil SR trandolapril study (meta-analysis P = 3.2 × 10).

Conclusion: PTPRD was identified as a novel locus potentially associated with BP response to atenolol and resistant hypertension in multiple ethnic groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000000714DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4788379PMC
November 2015

Osteonecrosis of the Jaw in the United States Food and Drug Administration's Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS).

J Bone Miner Res 2016 Feb 4;31(2):336-40. Epub 2015 Sep 4.

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a serious adverse drug event that was initially reported with intravenous bisphosphonates (BPs) and more recently with other classes of drugs such as receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) inhibitor, antiangiogenic agents, and mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) inhibitors. The purpose of this study is to analyze the ONJ cases and the associated drugs in the US Food and Drug Administration's adverse event reporting system (FAERS). The FAERS database was queried for the adverse drug events reported from the first quarter of 2010 to the first quarter of 2014. The reporting odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each queried drug. A total of 17,119 unique ONJ cases were identified. In the overall analysis, the drugs with the highest reporting ORs were BPs: pamidronate (OR = 498.9), zoledronate (OR = 171.7), and alendronate (OR = 63.6), whereas denosumab had lower ORs than all the BPs except for etidronate. The antiangiogenic and m-TOR inhibitors had the lowest ORs. In cancer patients who were treated for prevention of skeletal-related events (SREs), the reporting ORs for zoledronate and denosumab were 125.2 and 4.9, respectively. In patients with osteoporosis, the ORs were 1.1 (1.0-1.18) for zoledronate and 0.63 (0.56-0.70) for denosumab, respectively. Our analysis of the FAERS database showed that the intravenous BPs were associated with the highest risk for ONJ, RANKL inhibitor was associated with risk comparable to BPs used for osteoporosis such as etidronate, and the antiangiogenic agents and m-TOR inhibitors were associated with the lowest risk for ONJ. The high risk for ONJ with zoledronate and denosumab was mainly observed in those who were treated for prevention of SREs, whereas there was limited evidence for such risk in those who were treated for osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.2693DOI Listing
February 2016

The influence of human GSTZ1 gene haplotype variations on GSTZ1 expression.

Pharmacogenet Genomics 2015 May;25(5):239-45

aDepartment of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research, Center for Pharmacogenomics, College of Pharmacy bDepartment of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy cDepartment of Medicine, College of Medicine dDepartment of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA eDepartment of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background/objectives: The zeta-1 family isoform of GST biotransforms the investigational drug dichloroacetate (DCA) and certain other halogenated carboxylic acids. Haplotype variability in GSTZ1 influences the kinetics and, possibly, the toxicity of DCA. DCA metabolism correlates with expression of the GSTZ1 protein, so it is important to document variables that affect expression. Following up on a limited previous study, we tested the hypothesis that a coding single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), the lysine (K) amino acid (E32>K) in GSTZ1 haplotypes linked to a promoter region SNP results in lower hepatic expression of GSTZ1.

Materials And Methods: The influence of K carrier and non-K carrier haplotypes on GSTZ1 expression was determined by analyzing 78 liver samples from individuals aged 7-84 years of various racial and ethnic backgrounds. GSTZ1 expression data were analyzed on the basis of the presence or absence of lysine 32.

Results: GSTZ1 protein expression differed significantly between K carrier and non-K carrier haplotypes (P=0.001) in Whites, but not in African-Americans (P=0.277). We attribute this difference in GSTZ1 expression among K carrier haplotypes in Whites to the linkage disequilibrium between the K or A allele from the G>A SNP (rs7975), within the promoter G>A-1002 SNP (rs7160195) A allele. There is no linkage disequilibrium between these two polymorphisms in African-Americans.

Conclusion: We conclude that the lower expression of GSTZ1 in Whites who possess the K carrier haplotype results in lower enzymatic activity and slower metabolism of DCA, compared with those who possess the non-K carrier haplotype. These results further define safe, genetics-based dosing regimens for chronic DCA administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FPC.0000000000000129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4382440PMC
May 2015

Loss of heterozygosity at the CYP2D6 locus in breast cancer: implications for tamoxifen pharmacogenetic studies.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2015 Feb 31;107(2). Epub 2015 Jan 31.

Center for Pharmacogenomics, Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (JAJ, ISH, TYL).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/dju437DOI Listing
February 2015

Pyrosequencing of the CYP2C9 -1766T>C polymorphism as a means of detecting the CYP2C9*8 allele.

Pharmacogenomics 2014 Sep;15(13):1717-22

Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

The CYP2C9 c.449G>A (p.R150H, rs7900194) polymorphism, which confers the CYP2C9*8 allele, is common in persons of African descent and results in reduced clearance of the narrow therapeutic index drugs, warfarin and phenytoin. Because of significant homology in DNA sequence at the 449G>A locus among CYP2C genes, the 449G>A variant cannot be reliably detected via PCR-based genotyping assays that require a short PCR product, such as pyrosequencing. Herein, we propose genotyping for the CYP2C9 c.-1766T>C polymorphism via pyrosequencing as an alternative and accurate means of identifying the CYP2C9*8 allele.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/pgs.14.130DOI Listing
September 2014

Floppy mitral valve/mitral valve prolapse syndrome: Beta-adrenergic receptor polymorphism may contribute to the pathogenesis of symptoms.

J Cardiol 2015 May 22;65(5):434-8. Epub 2014 Sep 22.

The Ohio State University, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA; Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece. Electronic address:

Background: Certain patients with floppy mitral valve (FMV)/mitral valve prolapse (MVP) may have symptoms that cannot be explained on the severity of mitral valvular regurgitation (MVR) alone; hypersensitivity to adrenergic stimulation has been suggested in this group defined as the FMV/MVP syndrome.

Methods: Ninety-eight patients (75 men, 23 women) with mitral valve surgery for FMV/MVP were studied. Of those 41 (42%) had symptoms consistent with FMV/MVP syndrome [29 men (39%), 12 women (52%)]; median age of symptom onset was 30 years (range 10-63 years) and median duration of symptoms prior to valve surgery was 16 years (range 3-50 years). Ninety-nine individuals (70 men, 29 women) without clinical evidence of any disease were used as controls. Genotyping of β1 and β2 adrenergic receptors was performed.

Results: β-Adrenergic receptor genotypes (β1 and β2) were similar between control and overall FMV/MVP patients. Subgroup analysis of patients, however, demonstrated that the genotype C/C at position 1165 resulting in 389 Arg/Arg of the β1 receptor was more frequent in women compared to those without FMV/MVP syndrome and to normal control women (p<0.025). This polymorphism may be related to hypersensitivity to adrenergic stimulation as reported previously in these patients.

Conclusion: This study shows a large proportion of patients with FMV/MVP, predominantly women, had symptoms consistent with the FMV/MVP syndrome for many years prior to the development of significant MVR, and thus symptoms cannot be attributed to the severity of MVR alone. Further, women with FMV/MVP syndrome, symptoms at least partially may be related to β1-adrenergic receptor polymorphism, which has been shown previously to be associated with a hyperresponse to adrenergic stimulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jjcc.2014.07.020DOI Listing
May 2015

The influence of the CYP2C19*10 allele on clopidogrel activation and CYP2C19*2 genotyping.

Pharmacogenet Genomics 2014 Aug;24(8):381-6

aDepartment of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research, Center for Pharmacogenomics, University of Florida College of Pharmacy, Gainesville, Florida bDepartment of Clinical, Social, and Administrative Sciences, University of Michigan College of Pharmacy, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA cKey Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China dNational Institute of Environmental Health Science, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA.

Background/objectives: The polymorphic hepatic enzyme CYP2C19 catalyzes the metabolism of clinically important drugs such as clopidogrel, proton-pump inhibitors, and others and clinical pharmacogenetic testing for clopidogrel is increasingly common. The CYP2C19*10 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is located 1 bp upstream the CYP2C19*2 SNP. Despite the low frequency of the CYP2C19*10 allele, its impact on metabolism of CYP2C19 substrates and CYP2C19*2 genotyping makes it an important SNP to consider for pharmacogenetic testing of CYP2C19. However, the effect of the CYP2C19*10 allele on clopidogrel metabolism has not been explored to date.

Methods: We measured the enzymatic activity of the CYP2C19.10 protein against clopidogrel. DNA samples from two clinical studies were genotyped for CYP2C19*2 and *10 by pyrosequencing genotyping method.

Results: The catalytic activity of CYP2C19.10 in the biotransformation of clopidogrel and 2-oxo-clopidogrel was significantly decreased relative to the wild-type CYP2C19.1B. We also reported that the CYP2C19*10 SNP interferes with the CYP2C19*2 TaqMan genotyping assay, resulting in miscalling of CYP2C19*10/*2 as CYP2C19*2/*2.

Conclusions: Our data provide evidence that CYP2C19.10 variant partially metabolizes clopidogrel and 2-oxo-clopidogrel, and the presence of CYP2C19*10 allele affects the CY2C19*2 TaqMan genotyping assay and results in misclassification of CYP2C19*10/*2 as CYP2C19*2/*2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FPC.0000000000000068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4090277PMC
August 2014

Clinical pharmacogenetics implementation: approaches, successes, and challenges.

Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2014 Mar 10;166C(1):56-67. Epub 2014 Mar 10.

Current challenges exist to widespread clinical implementation of genomic medicine and pharmacogenetics. The University of Florida (UF) Health Personalized Medicine Program (PMP) is a pharmacist-led, multidisciplinary initiative created in 2011 within the UF Clinical Translational Science Institute. Initial efforts focused on pharmacogenetics, with long-term goals to include expansion to disease-risk prediction and disease stratification. Herein we describe the processes for development of the program, the challenges that were encountered and the clinical acceptance by clinicians of the genomic medicine implementation. The initial clinical implementation of the UF PMP began in June 2012 and targeted clopidogrel use and the CYP2C19 genotype in patients undergoing left heart catheterization and percutaneous-coronary intervention (PCI). After 1 year, 1,097 patients undergoing left heart catheterization were genotyped preemptively, and 291 of those underwent subsequent PCI. Genotype results were reported to the medical record for 100% of genotyped patients. Eighty patients who underwent PCI had an actionable genotype, with drug therapy changes implemented in 56 individuals. Average turnaround time from blood draw to genotype result entry in the medical record was 3.5 business days. Seven different third party payors, including Medicare, reimbursed for the test during the first month of billing, with an 85% reimbursement rate for outpatient claims that were submitted in the first month. These data highlight multiple levels of success in clinical implementation of genomic medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.c.31390DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4076109PMC
March 2014

Gene-centric meta-analyses for central adiposity traits in up to 57 412 individuals of European descent confirm known loci and reveal several novel associations.

Hum Mol Genet 2014 May 17;23(9):2498-510. Epub 2013 Dec 17.

Gillings School of Global Public Health.

Waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are surrogate measures of central adiposity that are associated with adverse cardiovascular events, type 2 diabetes and cancer independent of body mass index (BMI). WC and WHR are highly heritable with multiple susceptibility loci identified to date. We assessed the association between SNPs and BMI-adjusted WC and WHR and unadjusted WC in up to 57 412 individuals of European descent from 22 cohorts collaborating with the NHLBI's Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) project. The study population consisted of women and men aged 20-80 years. Study participants were genotyped using the ITMAT/Broad/CARE array, which includes ∼50 000 cosmopolitan tagged SNPs across ∼2100 cardiovascular-related genes. Each trait was modeled as a function of age, study site and principal components to control for population stratification, and we conducted a fixed-effects meta-analysis. No new loci for WC were observed. For WHR analyses, three novel loci were significantly associated (P < 2.4 × 10(-6)). Previously unreported rs2811337-G near TMCC1 was associated with increased WHR (β ± SE, 0.048 ± 0.008, P = 7.7 × 10(-9)) as was rs7302703-G in HOXC10 (β = 0.044 ± 0.008, P = 2.9 × 10(-7)) and rs936108-C in PEMT (β = 0.035 ± 0.007, P = 1.9 × 10(-6)). Sex-stratified analyses revealed two additional novel signals among females only, rs12076073-A in SHC1 (β = 0.10 ± 0.02, P = 1.9 × 10(-6)) and rs1037575-A in ATBDB4 (β = 0.046 ± 0.01, P = 2.2 × 10(-6)), supporting an already established sexual dimorphism of central adiposity-related genetic variants. Functional analysis using ENCODE and eQTL databases revealed that several of these loci are in regulatory regions or regions with differential expression in adipose tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddt626DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3988452PMC
May 2014

Impact of TCF7L2 single nucleotide polymorphisms on hydrochlorothiazide-induced diabetes.

Pharmacogenet Genomics 2013 Dec;23(12):697-705

aDepartment of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee bDepartment of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research cDepartment of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research, Center for Pharmacogenomics dDepartment of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida eOffice of Clinical Pharmacology, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA.

Objective: Thiazide diuretics have been associated with increased risk for new onset diabetes (NOD), but pharmacogenetic markers of thiazide-induced NOD are not well studied. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the transcription factor 7-like 2 gene (TCF7L2) represent the strongest and most reproducible genetic associations with diabetes. We investigated the association of tag SNPs in TCF7L2 with thiazide-induced NOD.

Methods: We identified cases that developed NOD and age, sex, and race/ethnicity-matched controls from the INternational VErapamil SR-Trandolapril STudy (INVEST). INVEST compared cardiovascular outcomes between two antihypertensive treatment strategies in ethnically diverse patients with hypertension and coronary artery disease. We genotyped 101 TCF7L2 tag SNPs and used logistic regression to test for pharmacogenetic (SNP×hydrochlorothiazide treatment) interactions. Permuted interaction P values were corrected with the PACT test and adjusted for diabetes-related variables.

Results: In INVEST whites, we observed three TCF7L2 SNPs with significant SNP×treatment interactions for NOD. The strongest pharmacogenetic interaction was observed for rs7917983 [synergy index 3.37 (95% CI 1.72-6.59), P=5.0×10, PACT=0.03], which was associated with increased NOD risk in hydrochlorothiazide-treated patients [odds ratio 1.53 (1.04-2.25), P=0.03] and decreased NOD risk in non hydrochlorothiazide-treated patients [odds ratio 0.48 (0.27-0.86), P=0.02]. The TCF7L2 SNP rs4506565, previously associated with diabetes, showed a similar, significant pharmacogenetic association.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that hydrochlorothiazide treatment is an environmental risk factor that increases diabetes risk beyond that attributed to TCF7L2 variation in white, hypertensive patients. Further study and replication of our results is needed to confirm pharmacogenetic influences of TCF7L2 SNPs on thiazide-induced NOD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FPC.0000000000000012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3893755PMC
December 2013

Atenolol induced HDL-C change in the pharmacogenomic evaluation of antihypertensive responses (PEAR) study.

PLoS One 2013 7;8(10):e76984. Epub 2013 Oct 7.

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research and Center for Pharmacogenomics, University of Florida, College of Pharmacy, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.

We sought to identify novel pharmacogenomic markers for HDL-C response to atenolol in participants with mild to moderate hypertension. We genotyped 768 hypertensive participants from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) study on the Illumina HumanCVD Beadchip. During PEAR, participants were randomized to receive atenolol or hydrochlorothiazide. Blood pressure and cholesterol levels were evaluated at baseline and after treatment. This study focused on participants treated with atenolol monotherapy. Association with atenolol induced HDL-C change was evaluated in 232 whites and 152 African Americans using linear regression. No SNPs achieved a Bonferroni corrected P-value. However, we identified 13 regions with consistent association across whites and African Americans. The most interesting of these regions were seven with prior associations with HDL-C, other metabolic traits, or functional implications in the lipid pathway: GALNT2, FTO, ABCB1, LRP5, STARD3NL, ESR1, and LIPC. Examples are rs2144300 in GALNT2 in whites (P=2.29x10(-4), β=-1.85 mg/dL) and rs12595985 in FTO in African Americans (P=2.90x10(-4), β=4.52 mg/dL), both with consistent regional association (P<0.05) in the other race group. Additionally, baseline GALNT2 expression differed by rs2144300 genotype in whites (P=0.0279). In conclusion, we identified multiple gene regions associated with atenolol induced HDL-C change that were consistent across race groups, several with functional implications or prior associations with HDL-C.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0076984PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3792156PMC
August 2014

Genetic variants associated with warfarin dose in African-American individuals: a genome-wide association study.

Lancet 2013 Aug 5;382(9894):790-6. Epub 2013 Jun 5.

Section of Genetic Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: VKORC1 and CYP2C9 are important contributors to warfarin dose variability, but explain less variability for individuals of African descent than for those of European or Asian descent. We aimed to identify additional variants contributing to warfarin dose requirements in African Americans.

Methods: We did a genome-wide association study of discovery and replication cohorts. Samples from African-American adults (aged ≥18 years) who were taking a stable maintenance dose of warfarin were obtained at International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium (IWPC) sites and the University of Alabama at Birmingham (Birmingham, AL, USA). Patients enrolled at IWPC sites but who were not used for discovery made up the independent replication cohort. All participants were genotyped. We did a stepwise conditional analysis, conditioning first for VKORC1 -1639G→A, followed by the composite genotype of CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3. We prespecified a genome-wide significance threshold of p<5×10(-8) in the discovery cohort and p<0·0038 in the replication cohort.

Findings: The discovery cohort contained 533 participants and the replication cohort 432 participants. After the prespecified conditioning in the discovery cohort, we identified an association between a novel single nucleotide polymorphism in the CYP2C cluster on chromosome 10 (rs12777823) and warfarin dose requirement that reached genome-wide significance (p=1·51×10(-8)). This association was confirmed in the replication cohort (p=5·04×10(-5)); analysis of the two cohorts together produced a p value of 4·5×10(-12). Individuals heterozygous for the rs12777823 A allele need a dose reduction of 6·92 mg/week and those homozygous 9·34 mg/week. Regression analysis showed that the inclusion of rs12777823 significantly improves warfarin dose variability explained by the IWPC dosing algorithm (21% relative improvement).

Interpretation: A novel CYP2C single nucleotide polymorphism exerts a clinically relevant effect on warfarin dose in African Americans, independent of CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3. Incorporation of this variant into pharmacogenetic dosing algorithms could improve warfarin dose prediction in this population.

Funding: National Institutes of Health, American Heart Association, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Wisconsin Network for Health Research, and the Wellcome Trust.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60681-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3759580PMC
August 2013

Pharmacogenomic association of nonsynonymous SNPs in SIGLEC12, A1BG, and the selectin region and cardiovascular outcomes.

Hypertension 2013 Jul 20;62(1):48-54. Epub 2013 May 20.

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research and Center for Pharmacogenomics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

We sought to identify novel pharmacogenetic markers associated with cardiovascular outcomes in patients with hypertension on antihypertensive therapy. We genotyped a 1:4 case:control cohort (n=1345) on the Illumina HumanCVD Beadchip from the INternational VErapamil SR-Trandolapril STudy (INVEST), where participants were randomized to a β-blocker strategy or a calcium channel blocker strategy. Genome-spanning single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)×treatment interaction analyses of nonsynonymous SNPs were conducted in white and Hispanic race/ethnic groups. Top hits from whites were tested in Hispanics for consistency. A genetic risk score was constructed from the top 3 signals and tested in the Nordic Diltiazem study. SIGLEC12 rs16982743 and A1BG rs893184 had a significant interaction with treatment strategy for adverse cardiovascular outcomes (INVEST whites and Hispanics combined interaction P=0.0038 and 0.0036, respectively). A genetic risk score, including rs16982743, rs893184, and rs4525 in F5, was significantly associated with treatment-related adverse cardiovascular outcomes in whites and Hispanics from the INVEST study and in the Nordic Diltiazem study (meta-analysis interaction P=2.39×10(-5)). In patients with a genetic risk score of 0 or 1, calcium channel blocker treatment was associated with lower risk (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]=0.60 [0.42-0.86]), and in those with a genetic risk score of 2 to 3, calcium channel blocker treatment was associated with higher risk (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]=1.31 [1.08-1.59]). These results suggest that cardiovascular outcomes may differ based on SIGLEC12, A1BG, F5 genotypes, and antihypertensive treatment strategy. These specific genetic associations and our risk score provide insight into a potential approach to personalized antihypertensive treatment selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.111.00823DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3686553PMC
July 2013

Association of variants in NEDD4L with blood pressure response and adverse cardiovascular outcomes in hypertensive patients treated with thiazide diuretics.

J Hypertens 2013 Apr;31(4):698-704

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research and Center for Pharmacogenomics, University of Florida, College of Pharmacy, Gainesville, Florida 32610-0486, USA.

Objective: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NEDD4L may influence the ability of the NEDD4L protein to reduce epithelial sodium channel expression. A variant in NEDD4L, rs4149601, was associated with antihypertensive response and cardiovascular outcomes during treatment with thiazide diuretics and β-blockers in a Swedish population. We sought to further evaluate associations between NEDD4L polymorphisms, blood pressure response and cardiovascular outcomes with thiazide diuretics and β-blockers.

Methods: Four SNPs, rs4149601, rs292449, rs1008899 and rs75982813, were genotyped in 767 patients from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) clinical trial and association was assessed with blood pressure response to hydrochlorothiazide and atenolol. One SNP, rs4149601, was also genotyped in 1345 patients from the International Verapmil SR Trandolapril Study (INVEST), and association was examined with adverse cardiovascular outcomes relative to hydrochlorothiazide treatment.

Results: Significant associations or trends were found between rs4149601, rs292449, rs75982813 and rs1008899 and decreases in blood pressure in whites on hydrochlorothiazide, and a significant association was observed with increasing copies of the GC rs4149601-rs292449 haplotype and greater blood pressure response to hydrochlorothiazide in whites (P = 0.0006 and 0.006, SBP and DBP, respectively). Significant associations were also seen with rs4149601 and an increased risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes in whites not treated with hydrochlorothiazide [P = 0.022, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 10.65 (1.18-96.25)].

Conclusion: NEDD4L rs4149601, rs292449 and rs75982813 may be predictors for blood pressure response to hydrochlorothiazide in whites, and NEDD4L rs4149601 may be a predictor for adverse cardiovascular outcomes in whites not treated with hydrochlorothiazide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0b013e32835e2a71DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3756535PMC
April 2013

Loci influencing blood pressure identified using a cardiovascular gene-centric array.

Hum Mol Genet 2013 Apr 8;22(8):1663-78. Epub 2013 Jan 8.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Blood pressure (BP) is a heritable determinant of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). To investigate genetic associations with systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP), we genotyped ∼50 000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that capture variation in ∼2100 candidate genes for cardiovascular phenotypes in 61 619 individuals of European ancestry from cohort studies in the USA and Europe. We identified novel associations between rs347591 and SBP (chromosome 3p25.3, in an intron of HRH1) and between rs2169137 and DBP (chromosome1q32.1 in an intron of MDM4) and between rs2014408 and SBP (chromosome 11p15 in an intron of SOX6), previously reported to be associated with MAP. We also confirmed 10 previously known loci associated with SBP, DBP, MAP or PP (ADRB1, ATP2B1, SH2B3/ATXN2, CSK, CYP17A1, FURIN, HFE, LSP1, MTHFR, SOX6) at array-wide significance (P < 2.4 × 10(-6)). We then replicated these associations in an independent set of 65 886 individuals of European ancestry. The findings from expression QTL (eQTL) analysis showed associations of SNPs in the MDM4 region with MDM4 expression. We did not find any evidence of association of the two novel SNPs in MDM4 and HRH1 with sequelae of high BP including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) or stroke. In summary, we identified two novel loci associated with BP and confirmed multiple previously reported associations. Our findings extend our understanding of genes involved in BP regulation, some of which may eventually provide new targets for therapeutic intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/dds555DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3657476PMC
April 2013

Lack of association of the HMGA1 IVS5-13insC variant with type 2 diabetes in an ethnically diverse hypertensive case control cohort.

J Transl Med 2013 Jan 9;11:12. Epub 2013 Jan 9.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, Nashiville, TN 37232-0575, USA.

Background: Recently, the high-mobility group A1 gene (HMGA1) variant IVS5-13insC has been associated with type 2 diabetes, but reported associations are inconsistent and data are lacking in Hispanic and African American populations. We sought to investigate the HMGA1-diabetes association and to characterize IVS5-13insC allele frequencies and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in 3,070 Caucasian, Hispanic, and African American patients from the INternational VErapamil SR-Trandolapril STudy (INVEST).

Methods: INVEST was a randomized, multicenter trial comparing two antihypertensive treatment strategies in an ethnically diverse cohort of hypertensive, coronary artery disease patients. Controls, who were diabetes-free throughout the study, and type 2 diabetes cases, either prevalent or incident, were genotyped for IVS5-13insC using Taqman®, confirmed with Pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing. For LD analysis, genotyping for eight additional HMGA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was performed using the Illumina® HumanCVD BeadChip. We used logistic regression to test association of the HMGA1 IVS5-13insC and diabetes, adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and percentage European, African, and Native American ancestry.

Results: We observed IVS5-13insC minor allele frequencies consistent with previous literature in Caucasians and African Americans (0.03 in cases and 0.04 in controls for both race/ethnic groups), and higher frequencies in Hispanics (0.07 in cases and 0.07 in controls). The IVS5-13insC was not associated with type 2 diabetes overall (odds ratio 0.98 [0.76-1.26], p=0.88) or in any race/ethnic group. Pairwise LD (r2) of IVS5-13insC and rs9394200, a SNP previously used as a tag SNP for IVS5-13insC, was low (r2=0.47 in Caucasians, r2=0.25 in Hispanics, and r2=0.06 in African Americans). Furthermore, in silico analysis suggested a lack of functional consequences for the IVS5-13insC variant.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that IVS5-13insC is not a functional variant and not associated with type 2 diabetes in an ethnically diverse, hypertensive, coronary artery disease population. Larger, more adequately powered studies need to be performed to confirm our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1479-5876-11-12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3558451PMC
January 2013

CXCL5 polymorphisms are associated with variable blood pressure in cardiovascular disease-free adults.

Hum Genomics 2012 Aug 2;6. Epub 2012 Aug 2.

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.

Objective: Leukocyte count has been associated with blood pressure, hypertension, and hypertensive complications. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in the CXCL5 gene, which encodes the neutrophilic chemokine ENA-78, are associated with blood pressure in cardiovascular disease (CVD)-free adults and that these polymorphisms are functional.

Methods And Results: A total of 192 community-dwelling participants without CVD or risk equivalents were enrolled. Two CXCL5 polymorphisms (-156 G > C (rs352046) and 398 G > A (rs425535)) were tested for associations with blood pressure. Allele-specific mRNA expression in leukocytes was also measured to determine whether heterozygosity was associated with allelic expression imbalance. In -156 C variant carriers, systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 7 mmHg higher than in -156 G/G wild-type homozygotes (131 ± 17 vs. 124 ± 14 mmHg; P = 0.008). Similarly, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was 4 mmHg higher in -156 C variant carriers (78 ± 11 vs. 74 ± 11 mmHg; P = 0.013). In multivariate analysis of SBP, age, sex, body mass index, and the -156 G > C polymorphism were identified as significant variables. Age, sex, and the -156 G > C SNP were further associated with DBP, along with white blood cells. Allelic expression imbalance and significantly higher circulating ENA-78 concentrations were noted for variant carriers.

Conclusion: CXCL5 gene polymorphisms are functional and associated with variable blood pressure in CVD-free individuals. The role of CXCL5 as a hypertension- and CVD-susceptibility gene should be further explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1479-7364-6-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3505480PMC
August 2012
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