Publications by authors named "Taikan Oboshi"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Pyridoxal in the Cerebrospinal Fluid May Be a Better Indicator of Vitamin B6-dependent Epilepsy Than Pyridoxal 5'-Phosphate.

Pediatr Neurol 2020 12 2;113:33-41. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Department of Child Neurology, Okayama University Hospital, Okayama, Japan; Department of Child Neurology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan.

Background: We aimed to demonstrate the biochemical characteristics of vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy, with a particular focus on pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and pyridoxal in the cerebrospinal fluid.

Methods: Using our laboratory database, we identified patients with vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy and extracted their data on the concentrations of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, pyridoxal, pipecolic acid, α-aminoadipic semialdehyde, and monoamine neurotransmitters. We compared the biochemical characteristics of these patients with those of other epilepsy patients with low pyridoxal 5'-phosphate concentrations.

Results: We identified seven patients with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy caused by an ALDH7A1 gene abnormality, two patients with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate homeostasis protein deficiency, and 28 patients with other epilepsies with low cerebrospinal fluid pyridoxal 5'-phosphate concentrations. Cerebrospinal fluid pyridoxal and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate concentrations were low in patients with vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy but cerebrospinal fluid pyridoxal concentrations were not reduced in most patients with other epilepsies with low cerebrospinal fluid pyridoxal 5'-phosphate concentrations. Increase in 3-O-methyldopa and 5-hydroxytryptophan was demonstrated in some patients with vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy, suggestive of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate deficiency in the brain.

Conclusions: Low cerebrospinal fluid pyridoxal concentrations may be a better indicator of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate deficiency in the brain in vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy than low cerebrospinal fluid pyridoxal 5'-phosphate concentrations. This finding is especially helpful in individuals with suspected pyridoxal 5'-phosphate homeostasis protein deficiency, which does not have known biomarkers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2020.08.020DOI Listing
December 2020

Methylprednisolone pulse therapy in 31 patients with refractory epilepsy: A single-center retrospective analysis.

Epilepsy Behav 2020 08 6;109:107116. Epub 2020 May 6.

National Epilepsy Center, NHO, Shizuoka Institute of Epilepsy and Neurological Disorders, Japan.

Purpose: We investigated the efficacy of methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MP) and responder characteristics in patients with refractory epilepsy.

Methods: We reviewed medical records of our center to identify patients with refractory epilepsy treated with MP other than continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep (CSWS), Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS), or Rasmussen's syndrome (RS) between 2004 and 2015. A course of MP consisted of intravenous methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg/day) on three consecutive days. Patients received multiple courses at intervals of four weeks. We examined seizure outcome, developmental outcome, antibodies to N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors (GluRs), cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)-albumin/serum-albumin ratio, and interictal electroencephalograms (EEGs). Responder to MP was defined as maintaining seizure reduction rate (SRR) ≥50% for three months after the first course of MP.

Results: Thirty-one consecutive patients treated with MP at our center were studied. Seizure types were focal onset impaired awareness seizure (FIAS) only (n = 23), FIAS with epileptic spasms (ES) (n = 7), and ES only (n = 1). Responder rate was 32.2% (10/31 patients), and seizure-free rate was 9.7% (3/31). Responders constituted 43.5% of patients without ES. No patient with ES was responder. Behavior and cognition also improved in 6 of 10 responders. History of seizure aggravation after inactivated vaccine before MP was found significantly higher rate in responder patients, comparing with nonresponder patients (p = 0.01).

Conclusion: Methylprednisolone pulse therapy may be considered for possible treatment in patients with focal epilepsy with drug-resistant seizures without ES, and it may improve cognitive function and behavioral comorbidities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2020.107116DOI Listing
August 2020

Comprehensive analysis of coding variants highlights genetic complexity in developmental and epileptic encephalopathy.

Nat Commun 2019 06 7;10(1):2506. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

Department of Human Genetics, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, 236-0004, Japan.

Although there are many known Mendelian genes linked to epileptic or developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (EE/DEE), its genetic architecture is not fully explained. Here, we address this incompleteness by analyzing exomes of 743 EE/DEE cases and 2366 controls. We observe that damaging ultra-rare variants (dURVs) unique to an individual are significantly overrepresented in EE/DEE, both in known EE/DEE genes and the other non-EE/DEE genes. Importantly, enrichment of dURVs in non-EE/DEE genes is significant, even in the subset of cases with diagnostic dURVs (P = 0.000215), suggesting oligogenic contribution of non-EE/DEE gene dURVs. Gene-based analysis identifies exome-wide significant (P = 2.04 × 10) enrichment of damaging de novo mutations in NF1, a gene primarily linked to neurofibromatosis, in infantile spasm. Together with accumulating evidence for roles of oligogenic or modifier variants in severe neurodevelopmental disorders, our results highlight genetic complexity in EE/DEE, and indicate that EE/DEE is not an aggregate of simple Mendelian disorders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-10482-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6555845PMC
June 2019

Quinidine therapy and therapeutic drug monitoring in four patients with KCNT1 mutations.

Epileptic Disord 2019 Feb;21(1):48-54

National Epilepsy Center, NHO Shizuoka Institute of Epilepsy and Neurological Disorders, Shizuoka.

Several recent studies have reported potassium sodium-activated channel subfamily T member 1 (KCNT1) mutations in epilepsy patients on quinidine therapy. The efficacy and safety of quinidine for epilepsy treatment, however, remains controversial. We herein report the cases of four patients with KCNT1 mutations treated with quinidine. A reduction in seizures of more than 50% after quinidine treatment was observed in one patient with epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS), whereas two patients with EIMFS and one with focal epilepsy did not achieve apparent seizure reduction. The relationship between quinidine dose and serum quinidine concentration was inconsistent, particularly at high quinidine doses. One patient with EIMFS developed ventricular tachycardia the day after an increase in quinidine dose from 114 to 126 mg/kg/day. The serum trough quinidine concentration and the corrected QT interval (QTc) before arrhythmia onset were 2.4 μg/ml and 420 ms, respectively, and peak serum quinidine concentration after arrhythmia onset was 9.4 μg/ml. Another patient with EIMFS showed aberrant intraventricular conduction with a quinidine dose of 74.5 mg/kg/day and a serum trough concentration of 3.2 μg/ml. Given that serum quinidine levels may elevate sharply after a dose increase, careful monitoring of electrocardiographs and serum concentrations is required. Based on a review of previous reports and our experience with this case, quinidine should be considered as a promising drug for patients with EIMFS harbouring KCNT1 mutations, however, its efficacy remains controversial due to the limited number of cases, and more information on optimal serum concentrations and appropriate titration methods is required.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/epd.2019.1026DOI Listing
February 2019

Chronic dysfunction of blood-brain barrier in patients with post-encephalitic/encephalopathic epilepsy.

Seizure 2018 Dec 13;63:85-90. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Pediatrics, National Epilepsy Center, Shizuoka Institute of Epilepsy and Neurological Disorders, NHO, Shizuoka, Japan.

Purpose: This study aimed to elucidate the characteristics and effects of chronic blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction in patients with post-encephalitic/encephalopathic epilepsy (PEE), using brain images and the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)/serum albumin ratio (albumin quotient, QAlb) as a marker of BBB function.

Methods: We examined the albumin levels in CSF and serum samples from 312 patients with refractory epilepsy in our center between 2004 and 2015. Sixty samples from patients with PEE and 97 samples from age- and sex-matched disease controls (DC) were evaluated. We classified PEE patients into a widespread lesion group and a focal lesion group by severity on brain magnetic resonance images in the chronic phase after acute encephalitis/encephalopathy.

Results: Median QAlb was higher in PEE than in DC [median (range) ×10: PEE 3.6 (1.0-10.3) versus DC 2.7 (1.0-6.7), p = 0.007]. In a linear regression analysis of the relationship between QAlb and patient's age at CSF examination or duration of epilepsy, the slope of the regression line was greater in PEE than in DC. Furthermore, in patients under ten years of age, linear regression analysis of QAlb versus seizure frequency showed a weak but positive correlation. Among PEE patients, seizure frequency was higher in the widespread lesion group than in the focal lesion group [300 (4-3000) versus 30 (1-1500) seizures/month, p <  0.001].

Conclusion: Our study suggests that patients with PEE have more severe BBB dysfunction, and that the BBB dysfunction is associated with refractory epilepsy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2018.11.005DOI Listing
December 2018

A case of early onset epileptic encephalopathy with de novo mutation in SLC35A2: Clinical features and treatment for epilepsy.

Brain Dev 2017 Mar 12;39(3):256-260. Epub 2016 Oct 12.

Department of Pediatrics, National Epilepsy Center, Shizuoka Institute of Epilepsy and Neurological Disorders, NHO, Japan.

Introduction: Mutations of SLC35A2 that encodes Golgi-localized Uridine diphosphate (UDP)-galactose transporter at Xp11.23 lead to congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). Although patients with CDG generally have diverse systemic symptoms, patients with a SLC35A2 mutation manifest predominantly disorders of the central nervous system (CNS).

Case Report: A female infant aged 12months was referred to our center because of intractable seizures. The patient was born with birth weight of 3228g after 40weeks of unremarkable gestation. At the age of 2months, she had partial seizures evolving to epileptic spasms. Her electroencephalogram showed hypsarrhythmia. Her seizures were refractory to antiepileptic drugs. At referral to our center at 12months, she had developmental delay (no head control), widely spaced inverted nipples, external strabismus, and bilateral heterochromia of irises. Blood examinations were normal. Brain magnetic resonance imaging findings included cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, thinning of the corpus callosum, and arachnoid pouch. Whole-exome sequencing detected a de novo frameshift mutation c.950delG (p.Gly317Alafs*32) at exon 4 in SLC35A2. Seizures subsided after the second adrenocorticotropic hormones (ACTH) therapy at 18months. At the age of 36months, although she had intellectual disability with no meaningful words, she was seizure-free and was able to sit without support and showed smiling face a lot.

Conclusion: This report reviewed the clinical features of patients with a SLC35A2 mutation. ACTH therapy may be effective for refractory epilepsy in these patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2016.09.009DOI Listing
March 2017

Antibodies against peptides of NMDA-type GluR in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with epileptic spasms.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2016 Nov 13;20(6):865-873. Epub 2016 Jul 13.

National Epilepsy Center, Shizuoka Institute of Epilepsy and Neurological Disorders, NHO, 886 Urushiyama, Aoi-ku, Shizuoka 420-8688, Japan.

Objective: We investigated the contribution of antibodies against N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor (GluR) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to the clinical features of patients with epileptic spasms (ES).

Methods: CSF samples were collected from 33 patients with ES with median (range) age 1.8 (0.2-8.5) years. Thirty patients without ES with 3.5 (0.5-7.0) years were also studied as disease controls. The CSF levels of antibodies against peptides of NMDA-type GluR subunits (GluN2B & GluN1) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: The levels of antibodies against the n-terminal of GluN2B (GluN2B-NT2), c-terminal of GluN2B (GluN2B-CT) and n-terminal of GluN1 (GluN1-NT), were significantly higher in patients with ES than in disease controls (p < 0.01, p < 0.01 & p = 0.03). Levels of antibodies to GluN2B-NT2 & CT were not related with ACTH therapy nor conventional CSF factors (cell counts, protein level, etc). Levels of antibodies to GluN2B-NT2 & CT showed evidence of correlation within a linear regression model with intervals from the onset to the examination of CSF until 25 months (p = 0.01 & p = 0.01). The correlation was significant in patients with unknown cause (p = 0.01). Five of 33 patients (four unknown cause & one chromosomal anomaly) had higher level of antibodies to GluN2B-NT2 exceeding mean + 1 SD of all ES patients, and they had poor motor (score 0) and cognitive outcomes (score 0 or 1).

Conclusion: The CSF level of antibodies against GluN2B in ES patients with unknown cause was estimated to increase after onset. We hypothesize that some ES patients may have immune process after the onset of ES.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpn.2016.07.006DOI Listing
November 2016

Usefulness of ketogenic diet in a girl with migrating partial seizures in infancy.

Brain Dev 2016 Jun 11;38(6):601-4. Epub 2016 Jan 11.

National Epilepsy Center, NHO, Shizuoka Institute of Epilepsy and Neurological Disorders, Japan.

Migrating partial seizures in infancy (MPSI) are an age-specific epilepsy syndrome characterized by migrating focal seizures, which are intractable to various antiepileptic drugs and cause severe developmental delay. We report a case of MPSI with heterozygous missense mutation in KCNT1, which was successfully managed by ketogenic diet. At age 2months, the patient developed epilepsy initially manifesting focal seizures with eye deviation and apnea, then evolving to secondarily generalized clonic convulsion. Various antiepileptic drugs including phenytoin, valproic acid, zonisamide, clobazam, levetiracetam, vitamin B6, and carbamazepine were not effective, but high-dose phenobarbital allowed discontinuation of midazolam infusion. Ictal scalp electroencephalogram showed migrating focal seizures. MPSI was suspected and she was transferred to our hospital for further treatment. Potassium bromide (KBr) was partially effective, but the effect was transient. High-dose KBr caused severe adverse effects such as over-sedation and hypercapnia, with no further effects on the seizures. At age 9months, we started a ketogenic diet, which improved seizure frequency and severity without obvious adverse effects, allowing her to be discharged from hospital. Ketogenic diet should be tried in patients with MPSI unresponsive to antiepileptic drugs. In MPSI, the difference in treatment response in patients with and those without KCNT1 mutation remains unknown. Accumulation of case reports would contribute to establish effective treatment options for MPSI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2015.12.012DOI Listing
June 2016