Publications by authors named "Tahereh Pashaei"

31 Publications

Drug Abstinence Self-Efficacy Scale (DASES): psychometric properties of the Farsi version.

Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2021 Jan 3;16(1). Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Department of Communication Studies, imec-mict, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: Research has demonstrated that therapeutic interventions based on the self-efficacy theory produce positive outcomes for people who exhibit addictive behaviors, such as alcohol and drug use. Several questionnaires based on self-efficacy theory have been developed to evaluate the extent to which intervention programs can modify behavior. The present study describes the psychometric properties of the Farsi version of the Drug Abstinence Self-Efficacy Scale (DASES).

Design And Methods: The forward-backward approach was employed to translate the DASES from English into Farsi. A cross-sectional study was conducted, and the psychometric properties of the Farsi version of the DASES were measured. Using a cluster sampling method, 400 male people who use drugs aged 20 years or older were selected from 10 addiction treatment clinics in Mazandaran, Iran. The internal consistency and test-retest methods were used to measure the reliability of the DASES. Face and content validity were measured, and the construct validity of the DASES was assessed through both exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The data were analyzed using SPSS and AMOS.

Results: The results of the EFA indicated a four-factor solution for the DASES that accounted for 64.72% of the observed variance. The results obtained from the CFA demonstrated that the data fitted the model: the relative chi square (× 2/df) equaled 1.99 (p < 0.001), and the root mean square error of approximation equaled 0.071 (90% CI = 0.059-0.082). All the comparative indices of the model were equal to or greater than 0.90 (0.91, 0.93, 0.94, 0.93, and 0.90, respectively). The Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.90 to 0.93, proving a satisfactory reliability. Additionally, the intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.75 to 0.98, which is an acceptable result.

Conclusions: This study's results show that the Iranian version of the DASES has good psychometric properties and is appropriate for assessing substance use behaviors among Iranian addicted persons.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13011-020-00336-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7778789PMC
January 2021

Health literacy and its predictors among urban and rural adults in Bijar County.

J Educ Health Promot 2020 28;9:181. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

Background And Purpose: The World Health Organization has identified health literacy (HL) as one of the most important determinants of people's health. Therefore, this research aimed to investigate the status of HL and its predictors.

Materials And Methods: This research was a cross-sectional study that was performed on 600 adults in Bijar County, Iran. Cluster sampling was used to select the samples. Data were collected using the questionnaire of HL for Iranian adults. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, Student's -test, and multiple linear regression in SPSS 21.

Results: The mean score of HL was 3.6 out of 5; 69% and 29% of the samples had a moderate-to-high health status, respectively. Among the dimensions of HL, the highest and the lowest means were perception (3.94) and evaluation (3.21), respectively. Based on the multiple regression results, the variables (gender - = -0.142, confidence interval [CI]: -0.409 to -0.011, = 0.39; education level - = 0.391, CI: 0.149-0.287, = 0.00; and income level - = 0.203, CI: 0.00-0.00, = 0.01) were significantly positively associated with HL.

Conclusion: The results of this study can be applied to educational interventions through media and radio-television to increase public awareness. Education is also strongly recommended in terms of demographic variables and characteristics to promote HL in the society.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_116_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7482634PMC
July 2020

Redemption from plight: a qualitative study on reasons behind treatment decisions among Iranian male opioid users.

Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2020 08 8;15(1):57. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran, Hezar-Jerib Ave, Isfahan, 81746 73461, Iran.

Background: Opioid use remains a significant cause of harm to individual health. Perceived motives are of the main factors that help lead a patient into seeking treatment voluntarily to obviate that harm. The current study expands on the literature by exploring when and how male users of opioids become motivated to voluntarily seek treatment services.

Methods: In a qualitative study in Isfahan city from January 2018 to March 2019, 55 male participants who had already started a variety of treatment services to withdraw their dependence on opioids were recruited. Selection of participants was based on a maximum variation purposive sampling strategy. Each participant took part in a unstructured interview to identify his motives for seeking opioid use treatment. Interviews were undertaken in eight different treatment centers. An inductive thematic analysis method was used to analyze the interviews.

Results: The findings highlight that Iranian male opioid users have different motivations to seek treatment. To be precise, the findings illuminate three global themes and six themes as treatment-seeking motives among the participants including; motives related to family (reason for family and reason of family), quality of life (adverse effects on personal lifestyle and health) and economic motives (financial failure and job failure).

Conclusions: The findings can improve our understanding of the motives for seeking treatment from the perspective of opioid patients who entered themselves into treatment. Particularly, these findings could help policymakers and treatment providers to better understand opioid-use patient's perceived concerns and fears as motives for treatment-seeking.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13011-020-00299-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7414986PMC
August 2020

Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of Cardiovascular Management Self-efficacy Scale.

J Cardiovasc Nurs 2020 Feb 20. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Fatemeh Rajati, PhD Associate Professor, Research Center Environmental Determinants of Health, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Tahereh Sharifiebad, MS Student, Students Research Committee, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Kamran Tavakol, MD, PhD Professor Emeritus, School of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, DC. Afshin Almasi, PhD Assistant Professor, Research Center of Environmental Determinants of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Sahar Karami, BSc Student, Students Research Committee, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Hanieh Sadat Jamshidi, BSc Student, Students Research Committee, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Tahereh Pashaei, PhD Assistant Professor, Environmental Health Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran. Andrea Greco, PhD Assistant Professor, Department of Human and Social Sciences, University of Bergamo, Italy. Patrizia Steca, PhD Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy.

Background: Self-efficacy plays a major role in the management of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The original Cardiovascular Management Self-efficacy Scale (CMSS) was developed in 2016 in Italian patients with CVD; however, no such scale exists for Iranian patients with CVD.

Objective: We translated the CMSS into Persian and assessed its validity, reliability, and psychometric properties in Iranian patients with CVD.

Methods: This study was conducted for 4 months in 2017 on a group of consenting patients with CVD (N = 363) recruited from a cardiovascular hospital in Kermanshah, Iran. The reliability of the Persian CMSS was evaluated. We assessed validity, including face, content, construct, convergent, divergent, and discriminate validity, using the General Self-efficacy Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the 36-item Short Form Health Survey Scale. Known-group validity was assessed among patients with high blood pressure.

Results: The Persian CMSS had acceptable face and content validity. No floor or ceiling effects were found for the total scale. Cronbach α was calculated as .68. Test-retest reliability was confirmed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC1,3 = 0.98, P < .001). Using exploratory factor analysis, 3 subscales were identified, similar to the original version. Significant correlations were found between the Persian CMSS and both the General Self-efficacy Scale (r = 0.94, P < .001) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (r = -0.35, P < .05). Self-efficacy measured using the Persian CMSS was statistically different between 2 levels of patients' health status (P < .05). Patients with hypertension had a lower level of self-efficacy than those in the healthy group (P < .05).

Conclusions: The Persian version of CMSS provides a practical, reliable, and valid scale for evaluating self-efficacy in the clinical management of Persian Iranian patients with CVD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCN.0000000000000649DOI Listing
February 2020

Psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Cancer attitude inventory.

BMC Public Health 2019 Oct 29;19(1):1402. Epub 2019 Oct 29.

Department of Communication Sciences, imec-mict-Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: The Cancer Attitude inventory (CAI) was developed to measure attitudes toward cancer. The aim of the present study was to describe the development of the Persian version of the CAI and to evaluate its psychometric properties in an Iranian sample.

Methods: The forward-backward method was used to translate the CAI scale from English into Persian. After linguistic validation and a pilot check, a cross-sectional study was performed and psychometric properties of the Iranian version of the questionnaire were assessed. The scale validation was conducted with a convenience sample of 820 laypeople. Construct validity was assessed through both exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Internal consistency was assessed through Cronbach's alpha analysis and test-retest analysis.

Results: Five factors were identified in CAI: isolation, helplessness, fear of consequence, belief of control and independence, and fear of death. The results achieved from the CFA displayed that the data fit the model: the relative chi-square (× 2/df) = 2.98 (p < .001), and the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = .07 (90% CI = .06-.07). All comparative indices of the model had scores greater than .80, demonstrating a good fit to the data. Cronbach's Alpha and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) were .97, which is well above the acceptable threshold.

Conclusions: The results indicate that the Persian version of the CAI is practical, reliable and valid. Consequently, the instrument could be used in plans to create positive attitudes about cancer control and treatment among Persian people.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7756-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6819595PMC
October 2019

Mapping 123 million neonatal, infant and child deaths between 2000 and 2017.

Authors:
Roy Burstein Nathaniel J Henry Michael L Collison Laurie B Marczak Amber Sligar Stefanie Watson Neal Marquez Mahdieh Abbasalizad-Farhangi Masoumeh Abbasi Foad Abd-Allah Amir Abdoli Mohammad Abdollahi Ibrahim Abdollahpour Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader Michael R M Abrigo Dilaram Acharya Oladimeji M Adebayo Victor Adekanmbi Davoud Adham Mahdi Afshari Mohammad Aghaali Keivan Ahmadi Mehdi Ahmadi Ehsan Ahmadpour Rushdia Ahmed Chalachew Genet Akal Joshua O Akinyemi Fares Alahdab Noore Alam Genet Melak Alamene Kefyalew Addis Alene Mehran Alijanzadeh Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Mohammed J Almalki Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi Khalid Altirkawi Nelson Alvis-Guzman Adeladza Kofi Amegah Saeed Amini Arianna Maever Loreche Amit Zohreh Anbari Sofia Androudi Mina Anjomshoa Fereshteh Ansari Carl Abelardo T Antonio Jalal Arabloo Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Bahram Armoon Amit Arora Al Artaman Anvar Asadi Mehran Asadi-Aliabadi Amir Ashraf-Ganjouei Reza Assadi Bahar Ataeinia Sachin R Atre Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Martin Amogre Ayanore Samad Azari Ebrahim Babaee Arefeh Babazadeh Alaa Badawi Soghra Bagheri Mojtaba Bagherzadeh Nafiseh Baheiraei Abbas Balouchi Aleksandra Barac Quique Bassat Bernhard T Baune Mohsen Bayati Neeraj Bedi Ettore Beghi Masoud Behzadifar Meysam Behzadifar Yared Belete Belay Brent Bell Michelle L Bell Dessalegn Ajema Berbada Robert S Bernstein Natalia V Bhattacharjee Suraj Bhattarai Zulfiqar A Bhutta Ali Bijani Somayeh Bohlouli Nicholas J K Breitborde Gabrielle Britton Annie J Browne Sharath Burugina Nagaraja Reinhard Busse Zahid A Butt Josip Car Rosario Cárdenas Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Ester Cerin Wagaye Fentahun Chanie Pranab Chatterjee Dinh-Toi Chu Cyrus Cooper Vera M Costa Koustuv Dalal Lalit Dandona Rakhi Dandona Farah Daoud Ahmad Daryani Rajat Das Gupta Ian Davis Nicole Davis Weaver Dragos Virgil Davitoiu Jan-Walter De Neve Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Kebede Deribe Rupak Desai Aniruddha Deshpande Hanna Demelash Desyibelew Sagnik Dey Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Meghnath Dhimal Daniel Diaz Leila Doshmangir Andre R Duraes Laura Dwyer-Lindgren Lucas Earl Roya Ebrahimi Soheil Ebrahimpour Andem Effiong Aziz Eftekhari Elham Ehsani-Chimeh Iman El Sayed Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Maha El Tantawi Ziad El-Khatib Mohammad Hassan Emamian Shymaa Enany Sharareh Eskandarieh Oghenowede Eyawo Maha Ezalarab Mahbobeh Faramarzi Mohammad Fareed Roghiyeh Faridnia Andre Faro Ali Akbar Fazaeli Mehdi Fazlzadeh Netsanet Fentahun Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad João C Fernandes Irina Filip Florian Fischer Nataliya A Foigt Masoud Foroutan Joel Msafiri Francis Takeshi Fukumoto Nancy Fullman Silvano Gallus Destallem Gebremedhin Gebre Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Bradford D Gessner Birhanu Geta Peter W Gething Reza Ghadimi Keyghobad Ghadiri Mahsa Ghajarzadeh Ahmad Ghashghaee Paramjit Singh Gill Tiffany K Gill Nick Golding Nelson G M Gomes Philimon N Gona Sameer Vali Gopalani Giuseppe Gorini Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart Nicholas Graetz Felix Greaves Manfred S Green Yuming Guo Arvin Haj-Mirzaian Arya Haj-Mirzaian Brian James Hall Samer Hamidi Hamidreza Haririan Josep Maria Haro Milad Hasankhani Edris Hasanpoor Amir Hasanzadeh Hadi Hassankhani Hamid Yimam Hassen Mohamed I Hegazy Delia Hendrie Fatemeh Heydarpour Thomas R Hird Chi Linh Hoang Gillian Hollerich Enayatollah Homaie Rad Mojtaba Hoseini-Ghahfarokhi Naznin Hossain Mostafa Hosseini Mehdi Hosseinzadeh Mihaela Hostiuc Sorin Hostiuc Mowafa Househ Mohamed Hsairi Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi Mohammad Hasan Imani-Nasab Usman Iqbal Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Nazrul Islam Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam Mikk Jürisson Nader Jafari Balalami Amir Jalali Javad Javidnia Achala Upendra Jayatilleke Ensiyeh Jenabi John S Ji Yash B Jobanputra Kimberly Johnson Jost B Jonas Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak Ali Kabir Amaha Kahsay Hamed Kalani Rohollah Kalhor Manoochehr Karami Surendra Karki Amir Kasaeian Nicholas J Kassebaum Peter Njenga Keiyoro Grant Rodgers Kemp Roghayeh Khabiri Yousef Saleh Khader Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie Ejaz Ahmad Khan Junaid Khan Muhammad Shahzeb Khan Young-Ho Khang Khaled Khatab Amir Khater Mona M Khater Alireza Khatony Mohammad Khazaei Salman Khazaei Maryam Khazaei-Pool Jagdish Khubchandani Neda Kianipour Yun Jin Kim Ruth W Kimokoti Damaris K Kinyoki Adnan Kisa Sezer Kisa Tufa Kolola Soewarta Kosen Parvaiz A Koul Ai Koyanagi Moritz U G Kraemer Kewal Krishan Kris J Krohn Nuworza Kugbey G Anil Kumar Manasi Kumar Pushpendra Kumar Desmond Kuupiel Ben Lacey Sheetal D Lad Faris Hasan Lami Anders O Larsson Paul H Lee Mostafa Leili Aubrey J Levine Shanshan Li Lee-Ling Lim Stefan Listl Joshua Longbottom Jaifred Christian F Lopez Stefan Lorkowski Sameh Magdeldin Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek Azeem Majeed Afshin Maleki Reza Malekzadeh Deborah Carvalho Malta Abdullah A Mamun Navid Manafi Ana-Laura Manda Morteza Mansourian Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo Anthony Masaka Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Pallab K Maulik Benjamin K Mayala Mohsen Mazidi Martin McKee Ravi Mehrotra Kala M Mehta Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Atte Meretoja Tuomo J Meretoja Tomislav Mestrovic Ted R Miller Molly K Miller-Petrie Edward J Mills George J Milne G K Mini Seyed Mostafa Mir Hamed Mirjalali Erkin M Mirrakhimov Efat Mohamadi Dara K Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Naser Mohammad Gholi Mezerji Ammas Siraj Mohammed Shafiu Mohammed Ali H Mokdad Mariam Molokhia Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Mahmood Moosazadeh Ghobad Moradi Masoud Moradi Yousef Moradi Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Mehdi Moradinazar Paula Moraga Lidia Morawska Abbas Mosapour Seyyed Meysam Mousavi Ulrich Otto Mueller Atalay Goshu Muluneh Ghulam Mustafa Behnam Nabavizadeh Mehdi Naderi Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Azin Nahvijou Farid Najafi Vinay Nangia Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe Nahid Neamati Ionut Negoi Ruxandra Irina Negoi Josephine W Ngunjiri Huong Lan Thi Nguyen Long Hoang Nguyen Son Hoang Nguyen Katie R Nielsen Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Yirga Legesse Nirayo Molly R Nixon Chukwudi A Nnaji Marzieh Nojomi Mehdi Noroozi Shirin Nosratnejad Jean Jacques Noubiap Soraya Nouraei Motlagh Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo Kelechi E Oladimeji Andrew T Olagunju Meysam Olfatifar Solomon Olum Bolajoko Olubukunola Olusanya Mojisola Morenike Oluwasanu Obinna E Onwujekwe Eyal Oren Doris D V Ortega-Altamirano Alberto Ortiz Osayomwanbo Osarenotor Frank B Osei Aaron E Osgood-Zimmerman Stanislav S Otstavnov Mayowa Ojo Owolabi Mahesh P A Abdol Sattar Pagheh Smita Pakhale Songhomitra Panda-Jonas Animika Pandey Eun-Kee Park Hadi Parsian Tahereh Pashaei Sangram Kishor Patel Veincent Christian Filipino Pepito Alexandre Pereira Samantha Perkins Brandon V Pickering Thomas Pilgrim Majid Pirestani Bakhtiar Piroozi Meghdad Pirsaheb Oleguer Plana-Ripoll Hadi Pourjafar Parul Puri Mostafa Qorbani Hedley Quintana Mohammad Rabiee Navid Rabiee Amir Radfar Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Zohreh Rahimi Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Shadi Rahimzadeh Fatemeh Rajati Sree Bhushan Raju Azra Ramezankhani Chhabi Lal Ranabhat Davide Rasella Vahid Rashedi Lal Rawal Robert C Reiner Andre M N Renzaho Satar Rezaei Aziz Rezapour Seyed Mohammad Riahi Ana Isabel Ribeiro Leonardo Roever Elias Merdassa Roro Max Roser Gholamreza Roshandel Daem Roshani Ali Rostami Enrico Rubagotti Salvatore Rubino Siamak Sabour Nafis Sadat Ehsan Sadeghi Reza Saeedi Yahya Safari Roya Safari-Faramani Mahdi Safdarian Amirhossein Sahebkar Mohammad Reza Salahshoor Nasir Salam Payman Salamati Farkhonde Salehi Saleh Salehi Zahabi Yahya Salimi Hamideh Salimzadeh Joshua A Salomon Evanson Zondani Sambala Abdallah M Samy Milena M Santric Milicevic Bruno Piassi Sao Jose Sivan Yegnanarayana Iyer Saraswathy Rodrigo Sarmiento-Suárez Benn Sartorius Brijesh Sathian Sonia Saxena Alyssa N Sbarra Lauren E Schaeffer David C Schwebel Sadaf G Sepanlou Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Faramarz Shaahmadi Masood Ali Shaikh Mehran Shams-Beyranvand Amir Shamshirian Morteza Shamsizadeh Kiomars Sharafi Mehdi Sharif Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini Hamid Sharifi Jayendra Sharma Rajesh Sharma Aziz Sheikh Chloe Shields Mika Shigematsu Rahman Shiri Ivy Shiue Kerem Shuval Tariq J Siddiqi João Pedro Silva Jasvinder A Singh Dhirendra Narain Sinha Malede Mequanent Sisay Solomon Sisay Karen Sliwa David L Smith Ranjani Somayaji Moslem Soofi Joan B Soriano Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy Agus Sudaryanto Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Bryan L Sykes P N Sylaja Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Karen M Tabb Takahiro Tabuchi Nuno Taveira Mohamad-Hani Temsah Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi Zemenu Tadesse Tessema Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan Sathish Thirunavukkarasu Quyen G To Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone Bach Xuan Tran Khanh Bao Tran Irfan Ullah Muhammad Shariq Usman Olalekan A Uthman Amir Vahedian-Azimi Pascual R Valdez Job F M van Boven Tommi Juhani Vasankari Yasser Vasseghian Yousef Veisani Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Francesco S Violante Sergey Konstantinovitch Vladimirov Vasily Vlassov Theo Vos Giang Thu Vu Isidora S Vujcic Yasir Waheed Jon Wakefield Haidong Wang Yafeng Wang Yuan-Pang Wang Joseph L Ward Robert G Weintraub Kidu Gidey Weldegwergs Girmay Teklay Weldesamuel Ronny Westerman Charles Shey Wiysonge Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash Lauren Woyczynski Ai-Min Wu Gelin Xu Abbas Yadegar Tomohide Yamada Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Christopher Sabo Yilgwan Paul Yip Naohiro Yonemoto Javad Yoosefi Lebni Mustafa Z Younis Mahmoud Yousefifard Hebat-Allah Salah A Yousof Chuanhua Yu Hasan Yusefzadeh Erfan Zabeh Telma Zahirian Moghadam Sojib Bin Zaman Mohammad Zamani Hamed Zandian Alireza Zangeneh Taddese Alemu Zerfu Yunquan Zhang Arash Ziapour Sanjay Zodpey Christopher J L Murray Simon I Hay

Nature 2019 10 16;574(7778):353-358. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2-to end preventable child deaths by 2030-we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends. Here we quantified, for the period 2000-2017, the subnational variation in mortality rates and number of deaths of neonates, infants and children under 5 years of age within 99 low- and middle-income countries using a geostatistical survival model. We estimated that 32% of children under 5 in these countries lived in districts that had attained rates of 25 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births by 2017, and that 58% of child deaths between 2000 and 2017 in these countries could have been averted in the absence of geographical inequality. This study enables the identification of high-mortality clusters, patterns of progress and geographical inequalities to inform appropriate investments and implementations that will help to improve the health of all populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1545-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6800389PMC
October 2019

Global, Regional, and National Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life-Years for 29 Cancer Groups, 1990 to 2017: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study.

Authors:
Christina Fitzmaurice Degu Abate Naghmeh Abbasi Hedayat Abbastabar Foad Abd-Allah Omar Abdel-Rahman Ahmed Abdelalim Amir Abdoli Ibrahim Abdollahpour Abdishakur S M Abdulle Nebiyu Dereje Abebe Haftom Niguse Abraha Laith Jamal Abu-Raddad Ahmed Abualhasan Isaac Akinkunmi Adedeji Shailesh M Advani Mohsen Afarideh Mahdi Afshari Mohammad Aghaali Dominic Agius Sutapa Agrawal Ayat Ahmadi Elham Ahmadian Ehsan Ahmadpour Muktar Beshir Ahmed Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari Tomi Akinyemiju Ziyad Al-Aly Assim M AlAbdulKader Fares Alahdab Tahiya Alam Genet Melak Alamene Birhan Tamene T Alemnew Kefyalew Addis Alene Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Fatemeh Allah Bakeshei Majid Abdulrahman Hamad Almadi Amir Almasi-Hashiani Ubai Alsharif Shirina Alsowaidi Nelson Alvis-Guzman Erfan Amini Saeed Amini Yaw Ampem Amoako Zohreh Anbari Nahla Hamed Anber Catalina Liliana Andrei Mina Anjomshoa Fereshteh Ansari Ansariadi Ansariadi Seth Christopher Yaw Appiah Morteza Arab-Zozani Jalal Arabloo Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Habtamu Abera Areri Al Artaman Hamid Asayesh Ephrem Tsegay Asfaw Alebachew Fasil Ashagre Reza Assadi Bahar Ataeinia Hagos Tasew Atalay Zerihun Ataro Suleman Atique Marcel Ausloos Leticia Avila-Burgos Euripide F G A Avokpaho Ashish Awasthi Nefsu Awoke Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Martin Amogre Ayanore Henok Tadesse Ayele Ebrahim Babaee Umar Bacha Alaa Badawi Mojtaba Bagherzadeh Eleni Bagli Senthilkumar Balakrishnan Abbas Balouchi Till Winfried Bärnighausen Robert J Battista Masoud Behzadifar Meysam Behzadifar Bayu Begashaw Bekele Yared Belete Belay Yaschilal Muche Belayneh Kathleen Kim Sachiko Berfield Adugnaw Berhane Eduardo Bernabe Mircea Beuran Nickhill Bhakta Krittika Bhattacharyya Belete Biadgo Ali Bijani Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed Charles Birungi Catherine Bisignano Helen Bitew Tone Bjørge Archie Bleyer Kassawmar Angaw Bogale Hunduma Amensisa Bojia Antonio M Borzì Cristina Bosetti Ibrahim R Bou-Orm Hermann Brenner Jerry D Brewer Andrey Nikolaevich Briko Nikolay Ivanovich Briko Maria Teresa Bustamante-Teixeira Zahid A Butt Giulia Carreras Juan J Carrero Félix Carvalho Clara Castro Franz Castro Ferrán Catalá-López Ester Cerin Yazan Chaiah Wagaye Fentahun Chanie Vijay Kumar Chattu Pankaj Chaturvedi Neelima Singh Chauhan Mohammad Chehrazi Peggy Pei-Chia Chiang Tesfaye Yitna Chichiabellu Onyema Greg Chido-Amajuoyi Odgerel Chimed-Ochir Jee-Young J Choi Devasahayam J Christopher Dinh-Toi Chu Maria-Magdalena Constantin Vera M Costa Emanuele Crocetti Christopher Stephen Crowe Maria Paula Curado Saad M A Dahlawi Giovanni Damiani Amira Hamed Darwish Ahmad Daryani José das Neves Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Asmamaw Bizuneh Demis Birhanu Wondimeneh Demissie Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez Afshin Derakhshani Kalkidan Solomon Deribe Rupak Desai Beruk Berhanu Desalegn Melaku Desta Subhojit Dey Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Meghnath Dhimal Daniel Diaz Mesfin Tadese Tadese Dinberu Shirin Djalalinia David Teye Doku Thomas M Drake Manisha Dubey Eleonora Dubljanin Eyasu Ejeta Duken Hedyeh Ebrahimi Andem Effiong Aziz Eftekhari Iman El Sayed Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Shaimaa I El-Jaafary Ziad El-Khatib Demelash Abewa Elemineh Hajer Elkout Richard G Ellenbogen Aisha Elsharkawy Mohammad Hassan Emamian Daniel Adane Endalew Aman Yesuf Endries Babak Eshrati Ibtihal Fadhil Vahid Fallah Omrani Mahbobeh Faramarzi Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi Andrea Farioli Farshad Farzadfar Netsanet Fentahun Eduarda Fernandes Garumma Tolu Feyissa Irina Filip Florian Fischer James L Fisher Lisa M Force Masoud Foroutan Marisa Freitas Takeshi Fukumoto Neal D Futran Silvano Gallus Fortune Gbetoho Gankpe Reta Tsegaye Gayesa Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Getnet Azeze Gedefaw Belayneh K Gelaw Birhanu Geta Sefonias Getachew Kebede Embaye Gezae Mansour Ghafourifard Alireza Ghajar Ahmad Ghashghaee Asadollah Gholamian Paramjit Singh Gill Themba T G Ginindza Alem Girmay Muluken Gizaw Ricardo Santiago Gomez Sameer Vali Gopalani Giuseppe Gorini Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart Ayman Grada Maximiliano Ribeiro Guerra Andre Luiz Sena Guimaraes Prakash C Gupta Rahul Gupta Kishor Hadkhale Arvin Haj-Mirzaian Arya Haj-Mirzaian Randah R Hamadeh Samer Hamidi Lolemo Kelbiso Hanfore Josep Maria Haro Milad Hasankhani Amir Hasanzadeh Hamid Yimam Hassen Roderick J Hay Simon I Hay Andualem Henok Nathaniel J Henry Claudiu Herteliu Hagos D Hidru Chi Linh Hoang Michael K Hole Praveen Hoogar Nobuyuki Horita H Dean Hosgood Mostafa Hosseini Mehdi Hosseinzadeh Mihaela Hostiuc Sorin Hostiuc Mowafa Househ Mohammedaman Mama Hussen Bogdan Ileanu Milena D Ilic Kaire Innos Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Kufre Robert Iseh Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam Farhad Islami Nader Jafari Balalami Morteza Jafarinia Leila Jahangiry Mohammad Ali Jahani Nader Jahanmehr Mihajlo Jakovljevic Spencer L James Mehdi Javanbakht Sudha Jayaraman Sun Ha Jee Ensiyeh Jenabi Ravi Prakash Jha Jost B Jonas Jitendra Jonnagaddala Tamas Joo Suresh Banayya Jungari Mikk Jürisson Ali Kabir Farin Kamangar André Karch Narges Karimi Ansar Karimian Amir Kasaeian Gebremicheal Gebreslassie Kasahun Belete Kassa Tesfaye Dessale Kassa Mesfin Wudu Kassaw Anil Kaul Peter Njenga Keiyoro Abraham Getachew Kelbore Amene Abebe Kerbo Yousef Saleh Khader Maryam Khalilarjmandi Ejaz Ahmad Khan Gulfaraz Khan Young-Ho Khang Khaled Khatab Amir Khater Maryam Khayamzadeh Maryam Khazaee-Pool Salman Khazaei Abdullah T Khoja Mohammad Hossein Khosravi Jagdish Khubchandani Neda Kianipour Daniel Kim Yun Jin Kim Adnan Kisa Sezer Kisa Katarzyna Kissimova-Skarbek Hamidreza Komaki Ai Koyanagi Kristopher J Krohn Burcu Kucuk Bicer Nuworza Kugbey Vivek Kumar Desmond Kuupiel Carlo La Vecchia Deepesh P Lad Eyasu Alem Lake Ayenew Molla Lakew Dharmesh Kumar Lal Faris Hasan Lami Qing Lan Savita Lasrado Paolo Lauriola Jeffrey V Lazarus James Leigh Cheru Tesema Leshargie Yu Liao Miteku Andualem Limenih Stefan Listl Alan D Lopez Platon D Lopukhov Raimundas Lunevicius Mohammed Madadin Sameh Magdeldin Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Azeem Majeed Afshin Maleki Reza Malekzadeh Ali Manafi Navid Manafi Wondimu Ayele Manamo Morteza Mansourian Mohammad Ali Mansournia Lorenzo Giovanni Mantovani Saman Maroufizadeh Santi Martini S Martini Tivani Phosa Mashamba-Thompson Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Motswadi Titus Maswabi Manu Raj Mathur Colm McAlinden Martin McKee Hailemariam Abiy Alemu Meheretu Ravi Mehrotra Varshil Mehta Toni Meier Yohannes A Melaku Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles Hagazi Gebre Meles Addisu Melese Mulugeta Melku Peter T N Memiah Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Shahin Merat Tuomo J Meretoja Tomislav Mestrovic Bartosz Miazgowski Tomasz Miazgowski Kebadnew Mulatu M Mihretie Ted R Miller Edward J Mills Seyed Mostafa Mir Hamed Mirzaei Hamid Reza Mirzaei Rashmi Mishra Babak Moazen Dara K Mohammad Karzan Abdulmuhsin Mohammad Yousef Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi Hiwa Mohammadi Moslem Mohammadi Mahdi Mohammadian Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani Milad Mohammadoo-Khorasani Reza Mohammadpourhodki Ammas Siraj Mohammed Jemal Abdu Mohammed Shafiu Mohammed Farnam Mohebi Ali H Mokdad Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Mahmood Moosazadeh Maryam Moossavi Ghobad Moradi Mohammad Moradi-Joo Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Farhad Moradpour Lidia Morawska Joana Morgado-da-Costa Naho Morisaki Shane Douglas Morrison Abbas Mosapour Seyyed Meysam Mousavi Achenef Asmamaw Muche Oumer Sada S Muhammed Jonah Musa Ashraf F Nabhan Mehdi Naderi Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Gabriele Nagel Azin Nahvijou Gurudatta Naik Farid Najafi Luigi Naldi Hae Sung Nam Naser Nasiri Javad Nazari Ionut Negoi Subas Neupane Polly A Newcomb Haruna Asura Nggada Josephine W Ngunjiri Cuong Tat Nguyen Leila Nikniaz Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Yirga Legesse Nirayo Molly R Nixon Chukwudi A Nnaji Marzieh Nojomi Shirin Nosratnejad Malihe Nourollahpour Shiadeh Mohammed Suleiman Obsa Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo In-Hwan Oh Andrew T Olagunju Tinuke O Olagunju Mojisola Morenike Oluwasanu Abidemi E Omonisi Obinna E Onwujekwe Anu Mary Oommen Eyal Oren Doris D V Ortega-Altamirano Erika Ota Stanislav S Otstavnov Mayowa Ojo Owolabi Mahesh P A Jagadish Rao Padubidri Smita Pakhale Amir H Pakpour Adrian Pana Eun-Kee Park Hadi Parsian Tahereh Pashaei Shanti Patel Snehal T Patil Alyssa Pennini David M Pereira Cristiano Piccinelli Julian David Pillay Majid Pirestani Farhad Pishgar Maarten J Postma Hadi Pourjafar Farshad Pourmalek Akram Pourshams Swayam Prakash Narayan Prasad Mostafa Qorbani Mohammad Rabiee Navid Rabiee Amir Radfar Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Mahdi Rahimi Muhammad Aziz Rahman Fatemeh Rajati Saleem M Rana Samira Raoofi Goura Kishor Rath David Laith Rawaf Salman Rawaf Robert C Reiner Andre M N Renzaho Nima Rezaei Aziz Rezapour Ana Isabel Ribeiro Daniela Ribeiro Luca Ronfani Elias Merdassa Roro Gholamreza Roshandel Ali Rostami Ragy Safwat Saad Parisa Sabbagh Siamak Sabour Basema Saddik Saeid Safiri Amirhossein Sahebkar Mohammad Reza Salahshoor Farkhonde Salehi Hosni Salem Marwa Rashad Salem Hamideh Salimzadeh Joshua A Salomon Abdallah M Samy Juan Sanabria Milena M Santric Milicevic Benn Sartorius Arash Sarveazad Brijesh Sathian Maheswar Satpathy Miloje Savic Monika Sawhney Mehdi Sayyah Ione J C Schneider Ben Schöttker Mario Sekerija Sadaf G Sepanlou Masood Sepehrimanesh Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Faramarz Shaahmadi Hosein Shabaninejad Mohammad Shahbaz Masood Ali Shaikh Amir Shamshirian Morteza Shamsizadeh Heidar Sharafi Zeinab Sharafi Mehdi Sharif Ali Sharifi Hamid Sharifi Rajesh Sharma Aziz Sheikh Reza Shirkoohi Sharvari Rahul Shukla Si Si Soraya Siabani Diego Augusto Santos Silva Dayane Gabriele Alves Silveira Ambrish Singh Jasvinder A Singh Solomon Sisay Freddy Sitas Eugène Sobngwi Moslem Soofi Joan B Soriano Vasiliki Stathopoulou Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Takahiro Tabuchi Ken Takahashi Omid Reza Tamtaji Mohammed Rasoul Tarawneh Segen Gebremeskel Tassew Parvaneh Taymoori Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi Mohamad-Hani Temsah Omar Temsah Berhe Etsay Tesfay Fisaha Haile Tesfay Manaye Yihune Teshale Gizachew Assefa Tessema Subash Thapa Kenean Getaneh Tlaye Roman Topor-Madry Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone Eugenio Traini Bach Xuan Tran Khanh Bao Tran Afewerki Gebremeskel Tsadik Irfan Ullah Olalekan A Uthman Marco Vacante Maryam Vaezi Patricia Varona Pérez Yousef Veisani Simone Vidale Francesco S Violante Vasily Vlassov Stein Emil Vollset Theo Vos Kia Vosoughi Giang Thu Vu Isidora S Vujcic Henry Wabinga Tesfahun Mulatu Wachamo Fasil Shiferaw Wagnew Yasir Waheed Fitsum Weldegebreal Girmay Teklay Weldesamuel Tissa Wijeratne Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash Tewodros Eshete Wonde Adam Belay Wondmieneh Hailemariam Mekonnen Workie Rajaram Yadav Abbas Yadegar Ali Yadollahpour Mehdi Yaseri Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Alex Yeshaneh Mohammed Ahmed Yimam Ebrahim M Yimer Engida Yisma Naohiro Yonemoto Mustafa Z Younis Bahman Yousefi Mahmoud Yousefifard Chuanhua Yu Erfan Zabeh Vesna Zadnik Telma Zahirian Moghadam Zoubida Zaidi Mohammad Zamani Hamed Zandian Alireza Zangeneh Leila Zaki Kazem Zendehdel Zerihun Menlkalew Zenebe Taye Abuhay Zewale Arash Ziapour Sanjay Zodpey Christopher J L Murray

JAMA Oncol 2019 12;5(12):1749-1768

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle.

Importance: Cancer and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are now widely recognized as a threat to global development. The latest United Nations high-level meeting on NCDs reaffirmed this observation and also highlighted the slow progress in meeting the 2011 Political Declaration on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases and the third Sustainable Development Goal. Lack of situational analyses, priority setting, and budgeting have been identified as major obstacles in achieving these goals. All of these have in common that they require information on the local cancer epidemiology. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study is uniquely poised to provide these crucial data.

Objective: To describe cancer burden for 29 cancer groups in 195 countries from 1990 through 2017 to provide data needed for cancer control planning.

Evidence Review: We used the GBD study estimation methods to describe cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). Results are presented at the national level as well as by Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income, educational attainment, and total fertility rate. We also analyzed the influence of the epidemiological vs the demographic transition on cancer incidence.

Findings: In 2017, there were 24.5 million incident cancer cases worldwide (16.8 million without nonmelanoma skin cancer [NMSC]) and 9.6 million cancer deaths. The majority of cancer DALYs came from years of life lost (97%), and only 3% came from years lived with disability. The odds of developing cancer were the lowest in the low SDI quintile (1 in 7) and the highest in the high SDI quintile (1 in 2) for both sexes. In 2017, the most common incident cancers in men were NMSC (4.3 million incident cases); tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer (1.5 million incident cases); and prostate cancer (1.3 million incident cases). The most common causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for men were TBL cancer (1.3 million deaths and 28.4 million DALYs), liver cancer (572 000 deaths and 15.2 million DALYs), and stomach cancer (542 000 deaths and 12.2 million DALYs). For women in 2017, the most common incident cancers were NMSC (3.3 million incident cases), breast cancer (1.9 million incident cases), and colorectal cancer (819 000 incident cases). The leading causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for women were breast cancer (601 000 deaths and 17.4 million DALYs), TBL cancer (596 000 deaths and 12.6 million DALYs), and colorectal cancer (414 000 deaths and 8.3 million DALYs).

Conclusions And Relevance: The national epidemiological profiles of cancer burden in the GBD study show large heterogeneities, which are a reflection of different exposures to risk factors, economic settings, lifestyles, and access to care and screening. The GBD study can be used by policy makers and other stakeholders to develop and improve national and local cancer control in order to achieve the global targets and improve equity in cancer care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.2996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777271PMC
December 2019

Understanding the relapse process: exploring Iranian women's substance use experiences.

Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2019 06 18;14(1):27. Epub 2019 Jun 18.

Department of Communication Sciences, imec-mict-Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: Relapse is one of the main challenges that must be tackled in the drug addiction treatment. Different factors contribute to the relapse process but it remains unclear how relapse occursin women. Describing the relapse phenomenon in women might be of interest to practitioners and academics. The aim of this study was to explore the relapse experiences of Iranian women with a substance use disorder.

Methods: Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with women with a substance use disorder. The interviews contained open-ended questions regarding relapse experiences during previous treatment. Interviews were digitally recorded. Data were analyzed using the content analysis method.

Results: In total, 20 women who use drugs took part in the study. The mean age of the women was 34.57 (age range = 9.6 years), and the minimum age of participants was 23 years. The following five main themes were explored: socioeconomic backgrounds, physical complications of drug withdrawal, psychological burden of drug withdrawal, family atmosphere, and cultural factors. The findings highlighted the different treatment needs in women with a substance use disorder.

Conclusions: Based on the interviews, it seems necessary to develop female-specific comprehensive treatment programs by putting more emphasis on pain treatment intervention, relapse prevention, the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders, couples counseling, and financial support. Furthermore, policymakers should be committed to providing a nonjudgmental social environment to remove or reduce stigma of women with drug use problems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13011-019-0216-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6582531PMC
June 2019

Validation of the Farsi version of the medical outcomes study-social support survey for mammography.

BMC Public Health 2018 Nov 20;18(1):1280. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Faculty of Medicine, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

Background: Social support can provide psychosocial benefits to promote positive health behaviors such as mammography screening. The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Mammography Social Support (MSS) scale among Iranian woman.

Methods: Participants were selected from women referring to healthcare centers in Sanandaj, Iran. A total of 434 questionnaires were completed (response rate 91%). The study sample for study 1 included 204 participants for the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). Construct validity was determined by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using a study sample of 230 women in study 2. The reliability coefficient for each scale was calculated using Cronbach's alpha, corrected item-total correlations and test-retest respectively.

Results: CFA affirmed the three-factor structure of the MSS in measuring the functional dimensions of social support for mammography behavior consisting of 19 items. Initial results of the CFA did not fully support the proposed three-factor model. After the model was modified, the fit indices indicated, x was 2.3, Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.96, Tucker- Lewis Index (TLI) = 0.95 providing a strong fit to the data. Cronbach's alphas for the subscales ranged from 0.82 and 0.90, whereas the alpha for the overall scale was 0.91. The 2-week test-retest reliability of MSS was 0.95.

Conclusion: This study provides evidence for the psychometric properties to support the Farsi version of the MSS when applied to Iranian women. Exploring the three-factor model in relation to related concepts is suggested for future studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-6174-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6247754PMC
November 2018

Development and psychometric properties of the methamphetamine decisional balance scale (METH-DBS) for young adults.

Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2018 10 29;13(1):38. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Communication Sciences, Faculty of Political and Social Sciences, imec-mict-Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: Drug misuse is a major problem that has an extreme negative effect on people's health. Methamphetamine (MA) is frequently used by young adults, despite its harmful consequences. The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) has been known to be very effective in explaining both the achievement and cessation of several health-related behaviors. Therefore, in this study, the TTM was used toward the domain of immoderate MA use among young adults. This study aimed to test the validity and reliability of a decisional balance scale for MA use in young adults.

Methods: A multi-phase scale development approach was used to develop the scale. First, 41 university students enrolled in a qualitative study that generated content for a primary set of a 40-item instrument. In order to produce a pre-final version of the instrument, face and content validity were calculated in the next step. The instrument validation was assessed with a sample of 250 university students. Then, the construct validity (exploratory and confirmatory), convergent validity, discriminate validity, internal consistency applying test-retest reliability, and Cronbach's alpha of the scale were measured.

Results: Forty items were initially generated from the qualitative data. After content validity, this amount was reduced to 25 items. The exploratory factor analysis revealed four factors (self and other cons, coping and social pros) containing 21 items that jointly accounted for 55.24% of the observed variance. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated a model with appropriate fitness for the data. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the dimensions ranged from .74 to .87, and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) ranged from .83 to .91, which is within acceptable ranges.

Conclusion: The findings showed that the Methamphetamine Decisional Balance Scale is a valid and reliable scale that increases our ability to study motivational factors related to MA use among young adult. Consequently, the instrument could be applied in both practice and future studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13011-018-0175-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6206728PMC
October 2018

Perceived barriers to methadone maintenance treatment among Iranian opioid users.

Int J Equity Health 2018 06 11;17(1):75. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Enviromental Health Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Science, Sanandaj, Iran.

Background: Opioid use is a severe problem in Iran. Despite methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) programs being one of the most important treatment strategies for reducing individual and public harms associated with opioid use, a large proportion of Iranian patients refuse to participate in such treatment programs.

Methods: The present study aims to explore the beliefs and attitudes toward MMT programs of opioid-dependent patients who were participating or had participated in methadone therapy. In-depth interviews were conducted with 23 opioid users between 27 and 58 years of age from Kurdistan provinces.

Results: Overall, six themes were discovered to be key barriers relating to methadone treatment, including financial barriers related to methadone treatment, lack of awareness about methadone treatment, negative attitudes regarding using methadone, worries about methadone's side effects, social stigma ascribed to methadone therapy, and systemic barriers to methadone treatment.

Conclusion: Our study revealed that the cost of treatment is a major obstacle to attending and continuing at MMT programs and that addicts and their families are not always accurately informed about the duration of MMT programs and the side effects of methadone treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-018-0787-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5996552PMC
June 2018

New Educational Model to Promote Breast Cancer-Preventive Behaviors (ASSISTS): Development and First Evaluation.

Cancer Nurs 2019 Jan/Feb;42(1):E44-E51

Author Affiliations: Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences (Dr Khazaee-Pool), Zanjan; Environmental Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences (Dr Pashaei); Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences (Dr Pashaei); Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences (Dr Pashaei), Sanandaj, Iran; Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Dr Alizadeh), Iran; Department of Communication Studies, Research Group for Media & ICT (MICT-IMEC), Ghent University (Dr Ponnet); and Department of Communication Studies, Media, ICT/Interpersonal Relations in Organizations and Society (MIOS), University of Antwerp (Dr Ponnet), Belgium.

Background: The prevalence of breast cancer in Iran has increased. An effective approach to decrease the burden of breast cancer is prevention.

Objective: The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an educational model, called the ASSISTS, for promoting breast cancer-preventive behaviors in women.

Methods: A multiphase method was used to develop the model designed to promote breast cancer prevention behaviors. A conceptual model was generated based on a secondary analysis of qualitative data. Then, a structural equation model technique was used to test the relationships among the model constructs.

Results: The analysis revealed that 7 constructs could be extracted, namely, perceived social support, attitude, motivation, self-efficacy, information seeking, stress management, and self-care. Based on these constructs, a conceptual model was built and tested using structural equation modeling. The model fit was good, and the model confirmed significant relationships among the 7 constructs of breast cancer prevention.

Conclusion: Findings revealed that self-care behavior and stress management are influenced directly by attitude, motivation, self-efficacy, information seeking, and social support. In addition, women seek more information when they are motivated, have more self-efficacy, have a more positive attitude toward breast cancer prevention, and experience more social support.

Implication For Practice: Cancer nurses can be at the forefront of breast cancer prevention. Because they can play a pivotal role in providing information, they can reduce women's stress and increase their self-care behavior. In addition, their social support can positively influence Iranian women's attitude, motivation, and self-care behavior. Furthermore, implementing educational programs based on this model might encourage women to practice preventive behaviors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NCC.0000000000000560DOI Listing
January 2020

Correction to: Decisional Balance Inventory (DBI) Adolescent Form for Smoking: Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version.

BMC Public Health 2017 11 30;17(1):919. Epub 2017 Nov 30.

Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Correction: After publication of the article [1], it has been brought to our attention that the first and last names of the third author were transposed in the original article. The author was published as "Ponnet Koen" where in fact the correct name is "Koen Ponnet". The original article has been revised to reflect this.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4927-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5709851PMC
November 2017

Development and psychometric properties of a questionnaire to measure drug users' attitudes toward methadone maintenance treatment (DUAMMT) in Iran.

BMC Public Health 2017 11 28;17(1):906. Epub 2017 Nov 28.

Department of Communication Studies, IMEC-MICT, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: Assessing drug users' attitudes towards different kinds of addiction treatment is necessary to design tailored strategies. The aim of the present study is to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a new scale, called the DUAMMT, for assessing drug users' attitudes toward methadone maintenance treatment in Iran.

Methods: A multi-phase development method was applied in developing an instrument from February to December 2016. The item generation and scale development were performed through literature review, a qualitative approach, and interviews with an expert panel. Then, the psychometric properties of the scale were evaluated by means of cross-sectional studies with drug users. We performed an exploratory factor analysis, a confirmatory factor analysis, and item-scale correlations; and we tested the internal consistency of the scale. Furthermore, test-retest reliability was evaluated among an Iranian sample of drug users.

Results: The mean age of participants was 34.12 years. The exploratory factor analysis revealed four factors (perceived barriers, perceived concerns, methadone side effects, and perceived positive effects) containing 17 items that jointly accounted for 60.53% of the observed variance. The confirmatory factor analysis showed a model with appropriate fitness for the data. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the subscales ranged from .70 to .79. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) ranged from .774 to .970, which is well above the acceptable threshold.

Conclusions: The findings of the present study suggest that the DUAMMT is a valid and reliable instrument to measure drug users' attitudes toward methadone maintenance treatment. The DUAMMT can be applied at the start of treatment so that clinical intervention can be targeted to promote retention in treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4911-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5704378PMC
November 2017

Adverse events following immunization with pentavalent vaccine: experiences of newly introduced vaccine in Iran.

BMC Immunol 2017 08 23;18(1):42. Epub 2017 Aug 23.

Department of Communication Studies, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: The most important factors that affect the incidence of vaccine-related complications are the constituent biological components of the vaccine, injection site reactions, age and sex. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence rate of adverse events following immunization with pentavalent vaccine (DTPw-Hep B-Hib (PRP-T) vaccine (pentavac) (adsorbed) is manufactured by Serum Institute of India ltd), which was introduced in Iran in November 2014. It is important to monitor vaccine-related adverse events because of the role of vaccine safety in immunization program success.

Methods: This study was a mixed cohort study that included 1119 children less than 1 year of age. In 2015, the children were referred to Hamadan health centers to receive pentavalent vaccine at 2, 4 and 6 months of age. The data were collected from the parents of the children using a questionnaire that was administered either face-to-face or by telephone. The cumulative incidence of side effects and risk ratio was reported with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Chi-squared tests and logistic regressions were used to investigate the association between the variables.

Results: The cumulative incidence rate of pentavalent-related adverse events during 48 h following immunization was estimated to be 15.8% for swelling, 10.9% for redness, 44.2% for pain, 12.6% for mild fever, 0.1% for high fever, 20.0% for drowsiness, 15.0% for loss of appetite, 32.9% for irritability, 4.6% for vomiting and 5.5% for persistent crying. There is no evidence for the occurrence of convulsion and encephalopathy among children who receive pentavalent vaccines.

Conclusion: Further large studies with long time follow up are required to address rare events include convulsions, encephalopathy or persistent crying. However, Findings urge immunization programs to use pentavalent vaccinations and to continue implementing the current immunization program in children under 1 year of age.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12865-017-0226-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5569531PMC
August 2017

Exploring breast cancer preventive lifestyle and social support of Iranian women: a study protocol for a mixed-methods approach.

Int J Equity Health 2017 06 7;16(1):97. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, Neyshabur, Iran.

Background: It is widely accepted that a healthy lifestyle may decrease the probability of developing cancer. This study aimed to describe a study protocol that makes it possible to explore preventive health lifestyles of Iranian women and their received social support for the purpose of developing cultural strategies to increase breast cancer prevention.

Methods: A mixed-methods study will be accomplished in two sequential parts. First, a cross-sectional study will be conducted in which 2,250 Iranian women are recruited by using a random multistage cluster sampling of 20 health care centers. Structured face-to-face interviews will be conducted to obtain information on the participants' health lifestyle and perceived social support. Data will be analyzed using both multivariate regression and structural equation modeling techniques. Then, a qualitative study will be conducted among employed women using a purposive sampling design. Data will be collected by means of focus groups and semi-structured interviews and will be analyzed using a conventional content analysis approach. The results of the quantitative and qualitative study will be used to develop breast cancer preventive strategies.

Discussion: Researchers need to acquire knowledge regarding the lifestyle and perceived social support of Iranian women that will foster culturally competent approaches to promote healthy lifestyles to develop breast cancer preventive strategies. Examining breast cancer preventive lifestyles provides valuable information for designing applicable intervention programs for improving women's health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-017-0592-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5463352PMC
June 2017

Decisional Balance Inventory (DBI) Adolescent Form for Smoking: Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version.

BMC Public Health 2017 05 25;17(1):507. Epub 2017 May 25.

Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: One effective model for studying cigarette smoking cessation is the transtheoretical model (TTM). In order to assess to what degree interventions can make variations in individuals' behavior, several questionnaires have been developed based on the TTM. This study aims to describe the development of the Persian version of the Decisional Balance Inventory (DBI) for smoking cessation in Iran and to evaluate its psychometric properties.

Design And Methods: The forward-backward technique was used to translate the DBI from English into Persian. After linguistic validation and a pilot test among 30 male smoking young adults, a cross-sectional study was performed, and psychometric properties of the Persian version of the DBI were assessed. Using a convenience sampling method, 120 male smokers between 16 and 24 years of age were recruited from three factories in Nowshahr, Iran. In order to assess the reliability of the DBI, internal consistency and test-retest methods were performed. Additionally, face and content validity were assessed, and the construct validity of the DBI was calculated by performing both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Data were analyzed using SPSS and AMOS.

Results: The mean age of the sample (n = 120) was 20.19 (SD = 2.13) years. The mean scores for the content validity index (CVI) and the content validity ratio (CVR) were .94 and .89, respectively. The results of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) showed a three-factor solution for the DBI that accounted for 55.4% of observed variance. The results achieved from the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) displayed that the data fit the model: the relative chi-square (×2/df) = 1.733 (p < .001) and the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = .07 (90% CI = .05-.105). All comparative indices of the model including GFI, AGFI, CFI, NNFI, and NFI were more than .80 (.87, .83, .91, .89, and .81, respectively). The Cronbach's alpha ranged from .78 to .83, indicating an acceptable reliability. Furthermore, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) ranged from .72 to .89, confirming a satisfactory result.

Conclusions: The results from the present study indicate that the Persian version of the DBI has good psychometric properties and is suitable to measure smoking behaviors among Iranian adolescent and young adult smokers. Consequently, the instrument could be used in planning cigarette smoking cessation interventions among Iranian adolescents and young adults.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4425-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5445340PMC
May 2017

General self-efficacy and diabetes management self-efficacy of diabetic patients referred to diabetes clinic of Aq Qala, North of Iran.

J Diabetes Metab Disord 2017 15;16. Epub 2017 Feb 15.

Abadan School of Medical Sciences, Abadan, Iran.

Background: Self-efficacy is one of the factors involved in successful self-care of diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate general self-efficacy and diabetes management self-efficacy and to determine their association with glycemic control in diabetic individuals, referred to the diabetes clinic of Aq Qala city, North of Iran.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 251 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were enrolled using census method. Data collection tools consisted of Sherer General Self-Efficacy Scale (SGSES) and Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale (DMSES) with minor demographic adjustments and hemoglobin AC test. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and analytical techniques include independent -test, Spearman correlation coefficient and linear regression were applied for further data analysis.

Results: The mean and standard deviation age of subjects was 56.17 ± 10.45 years. The mean level of HbAC of studied subject was 8.35 ± 2.02%. There was a negative correlation between age and general self-efficacy and diabetes self-efficacy while, there was a positive correlation between general self-efficacy and diabetes self-efficacy ( < 0.001). Results of the regression analysis showed that duration of the disease was the only variable which had a significant effect on the level of hemoglobin A1C ( < 0.001), so that for each year of having the disease, the level of hemoglobin AC increased by 0.084% (CI 95% = 0.048-0.121).

Conclusions: General self-efficacy and diabetes self-efficacy does not affect glycemic control in diabetic individuals. The duration of the disease is the only affecting variable on glycemic control by its worsening in diabetic individuals. Interventions are recommended to help glycemic control in individuals who are having this disease for longer periods. Moreover, further studies on the affecting factors on poor glycemic control of diabetic patients as well as the role of time variable, are recommended.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40200-016-0285-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5312542PMC
February 2017

Psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Time to Relapse Questionnaire (TRQ) in substance use disorder.

Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 2016 11 10;42(6):682-688. Epub 2016 Jun 10.

b Department of Public Health, School of Health , Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences , Sanandaj , Iran.

Background: Predicting time to relapse provides an opportunity for the development of relapse prevention interventions in drug users.

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to describe the development of the Persian version of the 9-item Time to Relapse Questionnaire (TRQ) and to evaluate its psychometric properties in an Iranian sample of treatment-seeking individuals with substance dependence (n = 150).

Methods: The forward-backward method was used to translate the TRQ scale from English into Persian. After linguistic validation and a pilot check, a cross-sectional study was performed, and psychometric properties of the Iranian version of the questionnaire were assessed. The reliability was evaluated by Cronbach's alpha and test-retest analyses. In addition, the factor structure of the scale was extracted by applying confirmatory factor analysis.

Results: The mean age of participants was 40.52 (SD = 11.30) years. The mean scores for the content validity index (CVI) and the content validity ratio (CVR) were 0.93 and 0.81, respectively. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) demonstrated that the three-factor model of the TRQ was a good fit for the data and thus replicated the factor structure of the original English language TRQ. Cronbach's alpha presented good internal consistency (alpha = 0.76), and test-retest reliability of the TRQ instrument with 2-week intervals was appropriate (ICC = 0.84).

Conclusion: The findings demonstrate that the Persian version of the TRQ is a reliable and valid scale for measuring time to relapse in Iranian drug users. The TRQ can be applied at the start of treatment so that clinical interventions can be targeted toward the different relapse styles.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00952990.2016.1172593DOI Listing
November 2016

Assessing Breast Cancer Risk among Iranian Women Using the Gail Model.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2016 ;17(8):3759-62

Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran E-mail :

Background: Breast cancer risk assessment is a helpful method for estimating development of breast cancer at the population level.

Materials And Methods: In this cross-sectional study, participants consisted of a group of 3,847 volunteers (mean ± SD age: 463 ± 7.59 years) in a convenience sample of women referred to health centers af liated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran. The risk of breast cancer was estimated by applying the National Cancer Institute's online version of the Gail Risk Assessment Tool.

Results: Some 24.9% of women reported having one rst-degree female relative with breast cancer, with 8.05% of them having two or more rst-degree relatives with breast cancer. The mean five-year risk of breast cancer for all participants was 1.61±0.73%, and 9.36% of them had a five-year risk of breast cancer >1.66%. The mean lifetime risk of breast cancer was 11.7±3.91%.

Conclusions: The Gail model is useful for assessing probability of breast cancer in Iranian women. Based on the their breast cancer risk, women may decide to accept further screening services.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
January 2017

Predictors of time to relapse in amphetamine-type substance users in the matrix treatment program in Iran: a Cox proportional hazard model application.

BMC Psychiatry 2016 07 26;16:265. Epub 2016 Jul 26.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

Background: The aim of this study was to determine which predictors influence the risk of relapse among a cohort of amphetamine-type substance (ATS) users in Iran.

Methods: A Cox proportional hazards model was conducted to determine factors associated with the relapse time in the Matrix treatment program provided by the Iranian National Center of Addiction Studies (INCAS) between March 2010 and October 2011.

Results: Participating in more treatment sessions was associated with a lower probability of relapse. On the other hand, patients with less family support, longer dependence on ATS, and those with an experience of casual sex and a history of criminal offenses were more likely to relapse.

Conclusion: This study broadens our understanding of factors influencing the risk of relapse in ATS use among an Iranian sample. The findings can guide practitioners during the treatment program.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-016-0973-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4960917PMC
July 2016

Development and psychometric testing of a new instrument to measure factors influencing women's breast cancer prevention behaviors (ASSISTS).

BMC Womens Health 2016 07 22;16:40. Epub 2016 Jul 22.

Department of Communication Studies and Sociology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: Breast cancer preventive behaviors have an extreme effect on women's health. Despite the benefits of preventive behaviors regarding breast cancer, they have not been implemented as routine care for healthy women. To assess this health issue, a reliable and valid scale is needed. The aim of the present study is to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a new scale, called the ASSISTS, in order to identify factors that affect women's breast cancer prevention behaviors.

Methods: A multi-phase instrument development method was performed to develop the questionnaire from February 2012 to September 2014. The item pool was generated based on secondary analyses of previous qualitative data. Then, content and face validity were applied to provide a pre-final version of the scale. The scale validation was conducted with a sample of women recruited from health centers affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The construct validity (both exploratory and confirmatory), convergent validity, discriminate validity, internal consistency reliability and test-retest analysis of the questionnaire were tested.

Results: Fifty-eight items were initially extracted from the secondary analysis of previous qualitative data. After content validity, this was reduced to 49 items. The exploratory factor analysis revealed seven factors (Attitude, supportive systems, self-efficacy, information seeking, stress management, stimulant and self-care) containing 33 items that jointly accounted for 60.62 % of the observed variance. The confirmatory factor analysis showed a model with appropriate fitness for the data. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the subscales ranged from 0.68 to 0.85, and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) ranged from 0.71 to 0.98; which is well above the acceptable thresholds.

Conclusion: The findings showed that the designed questionnaire was a valid and reliable instrument for assessing factors affecting women's breast cancer prevention behaviors that can be used both in practice and in future studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12905-016-0318-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4957322PMC
July 2016

Relapse and Risk-taking among Iranian Methamphetamine Abusers Undergoing Matrix Treatment Model.

Addict Health 2016 ;8(1):49-60

Assistant Professor, Department of Public Health, School of Health, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

Background: This study investigated the correlation between risk-taking and relapse among methamphetamine (MA) abusers undergoing the Matrix Model of treatment.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on male patients who were stimulant drug abusers undergoing the matrix treatment in the National Center for Addiction Research. A sampling was done using the availability method including 92 male patients. Demographic questionnaires and drug abuse related questionnaire were completed for each patient. Then, Bart's balloon risk-taking test was administered to the patients.

Findings: Participants had a mean age ± standard deviation (SD) of 27.59 ± 6.60 years with an age range of 17-29 years. Unemployment, unmarried status, criminal offense, and also addiction family history increased the probability of relapse. In addition, a greater adjusted score of the risk-taking test increased the odds of relapse by more than 97%. The simultaneous abuse of opium and stimulants compared to the abuse of stimulants only, revealed no statistically significant differences for relapse. Patients with higher risk-taking behavior had a more probability of relapse.

Conclusion: This finding indirectly implies the usefulness of Bart's risk-taking test in assessing risk-taking behavior in stimulant drug abusers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4836763PMC
June 2016

Daughters at Risk of Female Genital Mutilation: Examining the Determinants of Mothers' Intentions to Allow Their Daughters to Undergo Female Genital Mutilation.

PLoS One 2016 31;11(3):e0151630. Epub 2016 Mar 31.

Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is still a common practice in many countries in Africa and the Middle East. Understanding the determinants of FGM can lead to more active interventions to prevent this harmful practice. The goal of this study is to explore factors associated with FGM behavior among Iranian mothers and their daughters. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, we examined the predictive value of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and several socio-demographic variables in relation to mothers' intentions to mutilate their daughters. A paper-and-pencil survey was conducted among 300 mothers (mean age = 33.20, SD = 9.09) who had at least one daughter and who lived in Ravansar, a county in Kermanshah Province in Iran. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the relationships among the study variables. Our results indicate that attitude is the strongest predictor of mothers' intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM, followed by subjective norms. Compared to younger mothers, older mothers have more positive attitudes toward FGM, perceive themselves as having more control over their behavior and demonstrate a greater intention to allow their daughter to undergo FGM. Furthermore, we found that less educated mothers and mothers living in rural areas had more positive attitudes toward FGM and feel more social pressure to allow FGM. The model accounts for 93 percent of the variance in the mothers' intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM. Intervention programs that want to decrease FGM might focus primarily on converting mothers' neutral or positive feelings toward FGM into negative attitudes and on alleviating the perceived social pressure to mutilate one's daughter. Based on our findings, we provide recommendations about how to curtail mothers' intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0151630PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4816284PMC
August 2016

Emotional intelligence as a predictor of self-efficacy among students with different levels of academic achievement at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences.

J Adv Med Educ Prof 2015 Apr;3(2):50-5

Department of Educational Science and Psychology, Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran;

Introduction: studies have indicated that emotional intelligence is positively related to self-efficacy and can predict the academic achievement. The present study aimed to investigate the role of emotional intelligence in identifying self-efficacy among the students of Public Health School with different levels of academic achievement.

Methods: This correlational study was conducted on all the students of Public Health School. 129 students were included in the study through census method. Data were collected using Emotional Intelligence and self-efficacy questionnaires and analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis by SPSS 14.

Results: The average score of students with high academic achievement was higher in self-efficacy (39.78±5.82) and emotional intelligence (117.07±10.33) variables and their components than that of students with low academic achievement (39.17±5.91, 112.07±13.23). The overall emotional intelligence score to predict self-efficacy explanation was different among students with different levels of academic achievement (p<0.001). Self-efficacy structure was explained through self-awareness and self-motivation components in students with low academic achievement (r=0.571). In students with high academic achievement, self-awareness, self-motivation and social consciousness played an effective role in explaining self-efficacy (r=0.677, p<0.001).

Conclusion: Emotional intelligence and self-efficacy play an important role in achieving academic success and emotional intelligence can explain self-efficacy. Therefore, it is recommended to teach emotional intelligence skills to students with low academic achievement through training workshops.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4403564PMC
April 2015

Predictors of treatment retention in a major methadone maintenance treatment program in iran: a survival analysis.

J Res Health Sci 2014 ;14(4):291-5

Department of Psychiatry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: To identify correlates related to retention time of a cohort study of the opioid-dependent patients participating in the Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) program offered by a major addiction treatment clinic in Tehran, Iran between April 2007 and March 2011.

Methods: Several parametric Survival models assuming Weibull, Log-normal and Log-logistic distributions were compared to search for association between covariates and risk of relapse and dropping out of treatment among 198 patient participants.

Results: According to Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), Log-normal model had the best fitting. Estimates of this model indicated that increase in average methadone dosage was associated with longer retention time. Correlates associated with shorter retention time were suffering from mental disorders, using stimulant drugs, being poly-substance dependents and having prior treatments.

Conclusions: Findings of this study provide support for giving more attention to patients who are poly-substance or stimulant-drug dependents, have non-substance psychiatric comorbidity and the ones with addiction treatment history. Independent of patient characteristics, retention improved as the dose of methadone increased.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
October 2015

A theory-based exercise intervention in patients with heart failure: A protocol for randomized, controlled trial.

J Res Med Sci 2013 Aug;18(8):659-67

Department of Public Health, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

Background: Regular exercise has been associated with improved quality of life (QoL) in patients with heart failure (HF). However, less is known on the theoretical framework, depicting how educational intervention on psychological, social, and cognitive variables affects physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a social cognitive theory-based (SCT-based) exercise intervention in patients with HF.

Materials And Methods: This is a randomized controlled trial, with measurements at baseline, immediately following the intervention, and at 1, 3, and 6 months follow-up. Sixty patients who are referred to the cardiac rehabilitation (CR) unit and meet the inclusion criteria will be randomly allocated to either an intervention group or a usual-care control group. Data will be collected using various methods (i.e., questionnaires, physical tests, paraclinical tests, patients' interviews, and focus groups). The patients in the intervention group will receive eight face-to-face counseling sessions, two focus groups, and six educational sessions over a 2-month period. The intervention will include watching videos, using book and pamphlets, and sending short massage services to the participants. The primary outcome measures are PA and QoL. The secondary outcome measures will be the components of SCT, heart rate and blood pressure at rest, body mass index, left ventricular ejection fraction, exercise capacity, and maximum heart rate.

Conclusion: The findings of this trial may assist with the development of a theoretical model for exercise intervention in CR. The intervention seems to be promising and has the potential to bridge the gap of the usually limited and incoherent provision of educational care in the CR setting.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3872604PMC
August 2013

Assessing the validity and reliability of the farsi version of inventory drug-taking situations.

Iran J Psychiatry 2013 Jun;8(2):80-5

Department of Health education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran ; Addiction Research Center, Tehran University of Medical sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Inventory Drug-Taking Situations (IDTS) is a universal instrument used to determine high-risk situations resulting in drug abuse. The aim of this study was to translate this questionnaire to Farsi, and to assess its validity and reliability by applying it to Iranian drug users.

Methods: As a psychometric study, 300 drug users participated in a treatment program in National Center of Addiction Studies filled in a version of Inventory of Drug Taking Situations. We assessed face and content validity, internal consistency, and reliability based on the completed questionnaires, using test-retest method and confirmatory factor analysis.

Results: Internal consistency analysis confirmed that all subscales of IDTS were reliable (Cronbach alpha was ranging from 0.7 to 0.81). Analyses indicated that each of the subscales was unifactorial; however, unpleasant emotions had a second eigenvalue that was nearly large enough to be a second factor. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the fit of the data to the original version of IDTS. Based on goodness of fit indices, we found that all factors were fitted (χ2/df = 1.43, GFI = 0.98, RMSEA = 0.038). The test-retest reliability was satisfactory(r > 0.6).

Conclusion: The Farsi version of Inventory of Drug Taking Situations was shown to be a valid and reliable instrument to apply in clinical and research settings in Iran.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3796298PMC
June 2013