Publications by authors named "Taek Kyu Park"

119 Publications

Clinical Characteristics and Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality in Patients With Cardiogenic Shock: Results From the RESCUE Registry.

Circ Heart Fail 2021 Jun 15;14(6):e008141. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center (J.H.Y., K.H.C., T.K.P., J.M.L., Y.B.S., J.-Y.H., S.-H.C., H.-C.G.), Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: In the current era of mechanical circulatory support, limited data are available on prognosis of cardiogenic shock (CS) caused by various diseases. We investigated the characteristics and predictors of in-hospital mortality in Korean patients with CS.

Methods: The RESCUE study (Retrospective and Prospective Observational Study to Investigate Clinical Outcomes and Efficacy of Left Ventricular Assist Device for Korean Patients With CS) is a multicenter, retrospective, and prospective registry of patients that presented with CS. Between January 2014 and December 2018, 1247 patients with CS were enrolled from 12 major centers in Korea. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality.

Results: In-hospital mortality rate was 33.6%. The main causes of shock were ischemic heart disease (80.7%), dilated cardiomyopathy (6.1%), myocarditis (3.2%), and nonischemic ventricular arrhythmia (2.5%). Vasopressors were used in 1081 patients (86.7%). The most frequently used vasopressor was dopamine (63.4%) followed by norepinephrine (57.3%). An intraaortic balloon pump was used in 314 patients (25.2%) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenator in 496 patients (39.8%). In multivariable analysis, age ≥70years (odds ratio [OR], 2.73 [95% CI, 1.89-3.94], <0.001), body mass index <25 kg/m (OR, 1.52 [95% CI, 1.08-2.16], =0.017), cardiac arrest at presentation (OR, 2.16 [95% CI, 1.44-3.23], <0.001), vasoactive-inotrope score >80 (OR, 3.55 [95% CI, 2.54-4.95], <0.001), requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (OR, 4.14 [95% CI, 2.88-5.95], <0.001), mechanical ventilator (OR, 3.17 [95% CI, 2.16-4.63], <0.001), intraaortic balloon pump (OR, 1.55 [95% CI, 1.07-2.24], =0.020), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (OR, 1.85 [95% CI, 1.25-2.76], =0.002) were independent predictors for in-hospital mortality.

Conclusions: The in-hospital mortality of patients with CS remains high despite the high utilization of mechanical circulatory support. Age, low body mass index, cardiac arrest at presentation, amount of vasopressor, and advanced organ failure requiring various support devices were poor prognostic factors for in-hospital mortality. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02985008.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.120.008141DOI Listing
June 2021

Long-term Outcomes of Clopidogrel Monotherapy versus Prolonged Dual Antiplatelet Therapy beyond 12 Months after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in High-risk Patients.

J Korean Med Sci 2021 Apr 26;36(16):e106. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: There are no data on comparison between clopidogrel monotherapy and prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients at high-risk undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: Of 2,082 consecutive patients undergoing PCI using second-generation drug-eluting stent (DES), we studied 637 patients at high-risk either angiographically or clinically who received clopidogrel longer than 24 months and were event-free at 12 months after index PCI. Patients were divided into 2 groups: the clopidogrel monotherapy group and the prolonged DAPT group. The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), definite or probable stent thrombosis, or stroke between 12 months and 36 months after the index PCI.

Results: In propensity score-matched population (246 pairs), the cumulative rate of primary outcome was 4.5% in the clopidogrel monotherapy group and 4.9% in the prolonged DAPT group (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-2.75; = 0.643). There was no significant difference in all-cause death, MI, stent thrombosis, stroke between the clopidogrel monotherapy group and the prolonged DAPT group.

Conclusion: Compared with prolonged DAPT, clopidogrel monotherapy showed similar long-term outcomes in patients at high-risk after second-generation DES implantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2021.36.e106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8076847PMC
April 2021

Prognostic Implication of RV Coupling to Pulmonary Circulation for Successful Weaning From Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Critical Care Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore if right ventricular (RV) contractile function and its coupling to pulmonary circulation (PC) were associated with successful weaning from venoarterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) at maintenance of pump flow.

Background: Limited data are available on predictors of successful weaning from VA-ECMO. under full cardiac support of VA-ECMO.

Methods: A total of 79 patients with cardiogenic shock underwent transthoracic echocardiography to evaluate weaning from ECMO and were prospectively enrolled between 2016 and 2019. The noninvasively measured RV-PC coupling index was acquired by indexing tricuspid annular S' velocity, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), fractional area change (FAC), and RV free-wall longitudinal strain (FWLS) to right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP).

Results: Transthoracic echocardiography was performed at a median 3.0 days (range 1 to 6 days) after ECMO initiation at a median ECMO flow of 3.2 l/min (range 3.0 to 3.6 l/min). The RV-PC coupling matrix, tricuspid annular S'/RVSP, TAPSE/RVSP, and RV FWLS/RVSP exhibited satisfactory predictive performances for predicting successful weaning from ECMO. Using the best cutoff values derived from the area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve, tricuspid annular S'/RVSP demonstrated a significantly better predictive performance than conventional echocardiographic parameters (left ventricular ejection fraction >20%, left ventricular outflow tract time-velocity integral ≥10 cm, and mitral annular S' ≥6 cm/s).

Conclusions: Echocardiographic RV-PC coupling metrics exhibited a significantly better performance for predicting successful weaning from VA ECMO compared with conventional echocardiographic criteria at maintenance of pump flow.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmg.2021.02.018DOI Listing
April 2021

P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy after coronary stenting according to type of P2Y12 inhibitor.

Heart 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Cardiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, Korea (the Republic of).

Objective: To compare P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy after 3-month dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with 12-month DAPT according to the type of P2Y12 inhibitor in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: The Smart Angioplasty Research Team: Comparison Between P2Y12 Antagonist Monotherapy vs Dual Antiplatelet Therapy in Patients Undergoing Implantation of Coronary Drug-Eluting Stents (SMART-CHOICE) randomised trial compared 3-month DAPT followed by P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy with 12-month DAPT. In this trial, 2993 patients undergoing successful PCI with drug-eluting stent were enrolled in Korea. As a prespecified analysis, P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy after 3-month DAPT versus 12-month DAPT were compared among patients receiving clopidogrel and those receiving potent P2Y12 inhibitor (ticagrelor or prasugrel), respectively. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction or stroke at 12 months after the index procedure.

Results: Among 2993 patients (mean age 64 years), 58.2% presented with acute coronary syndrome. Clopidogrel was prescribed in 2312 patients (77.2%) and a potent P2Y12 inhibitor in 681 (22.8%). There were no significant differences in the primary endpoint between the P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy group and the DAPT group among patients receiving clopidogrel (3.0% vs 3.0%; HR: 1.02; 95% CI 0.64 to 1.65; p=0.93) as well as among patients receiving potent P2Y12 inhibitors (2.4% vs 0.7%; HR: 3.37; 95% CI 0.77 to 14.78; p=0.11; interaction p=0.1). Among patients receiving clopidogrel, P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy compared with DAPT showed consistent treatment effects across various subgroups for the primary endpoint. Among patients receiving potent P2Y12 inhibitors, the rate of bleeding (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium types 2- 5) was significantly lower in the P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy group than in the DAPT group (1.5% vs 5.0%; HR: 0.33; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.87; p=0.03).

Conclusions: Compared with 12-month DAPT, clopidogrel monotherapy after 3-month DAPT showed comparable cardiovascular outcomes in patients undergoing PCI.

Trial Registration Number: NCT02079194.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2020-318821DOI Listing
March 2021

Late Survival Benefit of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Compared With Medical Therapy in Patients With Coronary Chronic Total Occlusion: A 10-Year Follow-Up Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Mar 4;10(6):e019022. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Division of Cardiology Department of Medicine Heart Vascular and Stroke Institute Samsung Medical CenterSungkyunkwan University School of Medicine Seoul Republic of Korea.

Background As an initial treatment strategy, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO) did not show midterm survival benefits compared with optimal medical therapy (OMT). We sought to evaluate the benefit of PCI compared with OMT in patients with CTO over extended long-term follow-up. Methods and Results Between March 2003 and February 2012, 2024 patients with CTO were enrolled in a single-center registry and followed for ≈10 years. We excluded patients with CTO who underwent coronary artery bypass graft (n=477) and classified patients into the CTO-PCI group (n=883) or OMT group (n=664) according to initial treatment strategy. Patients with multivessel disease received PCI for obstructive non-CTO lesions in both groups. In the CTO-PCI group, 699 patients (79.2%) underwent successful revascularization. The CTO-PCI group had a lower 10-year rate of cardiac death (10.4% versus 22.3%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.44 [95% CI, 0.32-0.59]; <0.001) than the OMT group. After propensity score matching analyses, the CTO-PCI group had a lower 10-year rate of cardiac death (13.6% versus 20.8%; HR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.45-0.91]; =0.01) than the OMT group. The relative reduction in cardiac death at 10 years was mainly driven by a relative reduction between 3 and 10 years (8.3% versus 16.6%; HR, 0.43 [95% CI, 0.27-0.71]; <0.001) but not at 3 years (5.7% versus 5.0%; HR, 1.12 [95% CI, 0.63-2.00]; =0.71). The beneficial effects of CTO-PCI were consistent among subgroups. Conclusions As an initial treatment strategy, CTO-PCI might reduce late cardiac death compared with OMT in patients with CTO. Extended follow-up of randomized trials may confirm the findings of the present study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.019022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8174228PMC
March 2021

Differential Prognostic Implications of Vasoactive Inotropic Score for Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Complicated by Cardiogenic Shock According to Use of Mechanical Circulatory Support.

Crit Care Med 2021 May;49(5):770-780

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: To identify whether the prognostic implications of Vasoactive Inotropic Score according to use of mechanical circulatory support differ in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock.

Design: A multicenter retrospective and prospective observational cohort study.

Setting/patient: The REtrospective and prospective observational Study to investigate Clinical oUtcomes and Efficacy registry includes 1,247 patients with cardiogenic shock from 12 centers in Korea. A total of 836 patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock were finally selected, and the study population was stratified by quartiles of Vasoactive Inotropic Score (< 10, 10-30, 30-90, and > 90) for the present study.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: Primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality and secondary endpoint was follow-up mortality. Among the study population, 326 patients (39.0%) received medical treatment alone, 218 (26.1%) received intra-aortic balloon pump, and 292 (34.9%) received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. In-hospital mortality occurred in 305 patients (36.5%) and was significantly higher in patients with higher Vasoactive Inotropic Score (15.6%, 20.8%, 40.2%, and 67.3%, for < 10, 10-30, 30-90, and > 90; p < 0.001). Vasoactive Inotropic Score showed better ability to predict in-hospital mortality in acute myocardial infarction patients with cardiogenic shock who received medical treatment alone (area under the curve: 0.797; 95% CI, 0.728-0.865) than in those who received intra-aortic balloon pump (area under the curve, 0.704; 95% CI, 0.625-0.783) or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (area under the curve, 0.644; 95% CI, 0.580-0.709). The best cutoff value of Vasoactive Inotropic Score for the prediction of in-hospital mortality also differed according to the use of mechanical circulatory support (16.5, 40.1, and 84.0 for medical treatment alone, intra-aortic balloon pump, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, respectively). There was a significant interaction between Vasoactive Inotropic Score as a continuous value and the use of mechanical circulatory support including intra-aortic balloon pump (interaction-p = 0.006) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (interaction-p < 0.001) for all-cause mortality during follow-up.

Conclusions: High Vasoactive Inotropic Score was associated with significantly higher in-hospital and follow-up mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock. The predictive value of Vasoactive Inotropic Score for mortality was significantly higher in acute myocardial infarction patients with cardiogenic shock treated by medical treatment alone than in those treated by mechanical circulatory support such as intra-aortic balloon pump or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000004815DOI Listing
May 2021

Sex difference in long-term clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention: A propensity-matched analysis of National Health Insurance data in Republic of Korea.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Feb 6. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Medical Device Management and Research, Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences & Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objective: We investigated the gender difference in the 5-year outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using an unselected population data.

Background: Sex-specific outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is not consistent among studies.

Methods: A total of 48,783 patients were enrolled from a Korean nationwide cohort of PCI in year 2011. Outcomes adjusted with age and propensity for clinical characteristics were compared. Primary outcome was 5-year cumulative incidence of all-cause death. Nonfatal major adverse clinical event (MACE) consisting of revascularization, shock, or stroke was also assessed.

Results: In unadjusted analysis, women were older and had higher frequency of comorbidities including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes compared to men (p < .001, all). Women had higher 5-year death risk than men (21.8 vs. 17.3%; hazard ratio [HR] 1.29, 95% confidential interval [CI] 1.23-1.34). In propensity score-matched analysis (N = 28,924), women had lower 5-year death risk (20.2 vs. 26.1%, HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.71-0.78). This lower death risk in women was consistent in subgroup analyses of age, risk factors, and clinical diagnosis including angina or acute myocardial infarction (p < .05, all).

Conclusions: Older age and more common comorbidities in women contributed to the apparent worse outcome after PCI in women. After adjusting these disadvantages, women had better outcome after PCI than men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29511DOI Listing
February 2021

Effects of Prolonged Dual Antiplatelet Therapy in ST-Segment Elevation vs. Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

Circ J 2021 May 9;85(6):817-825. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine.

Background: The benefits and risks of prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) have not been studied extensively across a broad spectrum of acute coronary syndromes. In this study we investigated whether treatment effects of prolonged DAPT were consistent in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) vs. non-STEMI (NSTEMI).Methods and Results:As a post hoc analysis of the SMART-DATE trial, effects of ≥12 vs. 6 months DAPT were compared among 1,023 patients presenting with STEMI and 853 NSTEMI patients. The primary outcome was a composite of recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) or stent thrombosis at 18 months after the index procedure. Compared with the 6-month DAPT group, the rate of the composite endpoint was significantly lower in the ≥12-month DAPT group (1.2% vs. 3.8%; hazard ratio [HR] 0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12-0.77; P=0.012). The treatment effect of ≥12- vs. 6-month DAPT on the composite endpoint was consistent among NSTEMI patients (0.2% vs. 1.2%, respectively; HR 0.20, 95% CI 0.02-1.70; P=0.140; P=0.718). In addition, ≥12-month DAPT increased Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) Type 2-5 bleeding among both STEMI (4.4% vs. 2.0%; HR 2.18, 95% CI 1.03-4.60; P=0.041) and NSTEMI (5.1% vs. 2.2%; HR 2.37, 95% CI 1.08-5.17; P=0.031; P=0.885) patients.

Conclusions: Compared with 6-month DAPT, ≥12-month DAPT reduced recurrent MI or stent thrombosis regardless of the type of MI at presentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-20-0704DOI Listing
May 2021

Safety of 3-Month Dual Antiplatelet Therapy After Implantation of Ultrathin Sirolimus-Eluting Stents With Biodegradable Polymer (Orsiro): Results From the SMART-CHOICE Trial.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 01 21;10(1):e018366. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Samsung Medical Center Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine Seoul Korea.

Background This study sought to investigate the safety of 3-month dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients receiving ultrathin sirolimus-eluting stents with biodegradable polymer (Orsiro). Methods and Results The SMART-CHOICE (Smart Angioplasty Research Team: Comparison Between P2Y12 Antagonist Monotherapy vs Dual Anti- platelet Therapy in Patients Undergoing Implantation of Coronary Drug-Eluting Stents) randomized trial compared 3-month DAPT followed by P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy with 12-month DAPT in 2993 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. The present analysis was a prespecified subgroup analysis for patients receiving Orsiro stents. As a post hoc analysis, comparisons between Orsiro and everolimus-eluting stents were also done among patients receiving 3-month DAPT. Of 972 patients receiving Orsiro stents, 481 patients were randomly assigned to 3-month DAPT and 491 to 12-month DAPT. At 12 months, the target vessel failure, defined as a composite of cardiac death, target vessel-related myocardial infarction, or target vessel revascularization, occurred in 8 patients (1.7%) in the 3-month DAPT group and in 14 patients (2.9%) in the 12-month DAPT group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.58; 95% CI, 0.24-1.39; =0.22). In whole population who were randomly assigned to receive 3-month DAPT (n=1495), there was no significant difference in the target vessel failure between the Orsiro group and the everolimus-eluting stent group (n=1014) (1.7% versus 1.8%; HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.41-2.22; =0.92). Conclusions In patients receiving Orsiro stents, clinical outcomes at 1 year were similar between the 3-month DAPT followed by P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy and 12-month DAPT strategies. With 3-month DAPT, there was no significant difference in target vessel failure between Orsiro and everolimus-eluting stents. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02079194.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.018366DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955499PMC
January 2021

Echocardiographic Predictors of Successful Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Weaning After Refractory Cardiogenic Shock.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2021 Apr 13;34(4):414-422.e4. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; Department of Critical Care Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Limited data are available regarding echocardiographic predictors for successful weaning from venoarterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We sought to determine whether echocardiographic parameters during ECMO flow study could predict successful weaning from ECMO.

Methods: A total of 92 ECMO patients from a multicenter ECMO registry underwent VA-ECMO flow study with transthoracic echocardiography before a weaning trial. During VA-ECMO flow study, flow was decreased by 30%-50% of the initial flow for 15 minutes, and echocardiography was performed both at baseline and after flow reduction. Changes of echocardiographic parameters were compared between the successful and failed weaning group.

Results: Sixty-four of the 92 patients were able to be weaned from VA-ECMO successfully. During VA-ECMO flow study, both lateral e' and tricuspid annular S' velocity improved significantly in the successful weaning group, while such findings were not observed in the failed weaning group. From univariable analysis, left heart decompression, improvement of lateral e' velocity, and improvement of tricuspid annular S' velocity showed significant association with successful VA-ECMO weaning. Predictability of the model with the change of lateral e' and tricuspid annular S' according to the reduction of ECMO flow for successful weaning from VA-ECMO is much higher than that of the model with conventional echocardiographic predictors from previous studies (left ventricular ejection fraction > 20%-25%, left ventricular time-velocity integral ≥ 10 cm, mitral annulus S' ≥ 6 cm/sec).

Conclusions: Improvement of lateral e' velocity and tricuspid annular S' velocity during VA-ECMO flow study may better represent cardiac reserve from a recovering heart than conventional echocardiographic parameters at minimal flow. Assessment of tissue Doppler parameters during ECMO flow study is a simple and feasible method to guide physicians on the optimal time to wean from ECMO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.echo.2020.12.002DOI Listing
April 2021

Clinical Outcomes of Early Extubation Strategy in Patients Undergoing Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation as a Bridge to Heart Transplantation.

J Korean Med Sci 2020 Nov 2;35(42):e346. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) might be considered a bridge therapy in patients who are expected to have short waiting times for heart transplantation. We investigated the clinical outcomes of patients who underwent VA-ECMO as a bridge to heart transplantation and whether the deployment of an early extubation ECMO strategy is beneficial.

Methods: Between November 2006 and December 2018, we studied 102 patients who received VA-ECMO as a bridge to heart transplantation. We classified these patients into an early extubation ECMO group (n = 24) and a deferred extubation ECMO group (n = 78) based on the length of the intubated period on VA-ECMO (≤ 48 hours or > 48 hours). The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality.

Results: The median duration of early extubation VA-ECMO was 10.0 (4.3-17.3) days. The most common cause for patients to be put on ECMO was dilated cardiomyopathy (65.7%) followed by ischemic cardiomyopathy (11.8%). In-hospital mortality rates for the deferred extubation and early extubation groups, respectively, were 24.4% and 8.3% ( = 0.147). During the study period, in the deferred extubation group, 60 (76.9%) underwent transplantation, while 22 (91.7%) underwent transplantation in the early extubation group. Delirium occurred in 83.3% and 33.3% of patients from the deferred extubation and early extubation groups ( < 0.001) and microbiologically confirmed infection was identified in 64.1% and 41.7% of patients from the two groups ( = 0.051), respectively.

Conclusion: VA-ECMO as a bridge therapy seems to be feasible for deployment in patients with a short waiting time for heart transplantation. Deployment of the early extubation ECMO strategy was associated with reductions in delirium and infection in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7606881PMC
November 2020

The incidence and clinical features of PEGylated filgrastim-induced acute aortitis in patients with breast cancer.

Sci Rep 2020 10 29;10(1):18647. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, #81 Irwon-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, 06351, Republic of Korea.

Although PEGylated filgrastim-induced aortitis is very rare and unknown clinically, some cases were reported and increasing, especially in breast cancer patients. The present study investigated the prevalence, clinical features and treatment of aortitis induced by PEGylated filgrastim in patients with breast cancer. A total of 2068 consecutive patients who underwent neoadjuvant/adjuvant chemotherapy with PEGylated filgrastim for breast cancer were enrolled. From the medical record, clinical, laboratory, medication, and imaging evaluation findings were collected. PEGylated filgrastim-induced aortitis was established in 0.3% of the study population. Common clinical presentations included extremely high fever and chest/back pain with high levels of inflammatory markers without any signs of infection. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography scans revealed typical enhancing wall thickening and periaortic soft tissue infiltration at various levels of aorta. All patients improved rapidly after treatment with modest doses of prednisolone (0.5 mg/kg/day) without any complications. Clinicians should be aware of aortitis as a possible complication of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor therapy, especially PEGylated filgrastim, given the frequent misdiagnoses in neutropenic patients undergoing chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75620-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7596224PMC
October 2020

Consensus Statement on Coronary Intervention during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic: from the Korean Society of Interventional Cardiology (KSIC).

Korean Circ J 2020 Nov;50(11):974-983

Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious disease caused by the novel virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. The first case developed in December, 2019 in Wuhan, China; several months later, COVID-19 has become pandemic, and there is no end in sight. This disaster is also causing serious health problems in the area of cardiovascular intervention. In response, the Korean Society of Interventional Cardiology formed a COVID-19 task force to develop practice guidelines. This special article introduces clinical practice guidelines to prevent secondary transmission of COVID-19 within facilities; the guidelines were developed to protect patients and healthcare workers from this highly contagious virus. We hope these guidelines help healthcare workers and cardiovascular disease patients around the world cope with the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4070/kcj.2020.0283DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7596212PMC
November 2020

Survival and causes of death for Takayasu's arteritis in Korea: A retrospective population-based study.

Int J Rheum Dis 2021 Jan 22;24(1):69-73. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Objective: Few studies have evaluated survival of Takayasu's arteritis (TAK; M31.4) in Korea. The purpose of this study was to assess the survival rate (SR) and causes of death for TAK.

Methods: Newly diagnosed TAK data (N = 2731) were collected from the National Health Insurance Service in Korea from 2006 through 2017. The Kaplan-Meier method was used. Korean death data was used from 2006 through 2018.

Results: The mean age was 48.1 (±16.9) years. The proportion of female patients was 74.4%. The most common cause of death in TAK was diseases of the circulatory system. The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year SRs were 97.5%, 94.7%, 91.7%, and 84.7%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year SRs by gender were 97.8%, 95.6%, 92.9%, and 86.3%, respectively, among females and 96.8%, 92.2%, 88.4%s and 79.7%, respectively, among males (P < .001).

Conclusions: The overall 10-year SR was about 85%. The 10-year SR in males was lower than that in females. The most common cause of death in TAK was diseases of the circulatory system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1756-185X.14005DOI Listing
January 2021

Differential effects of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients presented with acute coronary syndrome vs. stable ischaemic heart disease after coronary artery bypass grafting.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 81 Irwon-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 06351, Republic of Korea.

Aims: The current study sought to evaluate whether long-term clinical outcomes according to the use of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) or single antiplatelet therapy (SAPT) differed between acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and stable ischaemic heart disease (SIHD) patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG).

Methods And Results: Between January 2001 and December 2017, 3199 patients with ACS (55.3%) and 2583 with SIHD (44.7%) who underwent isolated CABG were enrolled. The study population was stratified using DAPT or SAPT in ACS patients and SIHD patients. The primary outcome was a cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction (MI) at 5 years. After CABG, DAPT was more frequently used in patients with ACS than in those with SIHD [n = 1960 (61.3%) vs. n = 1313 (50.8%), P < 0.001]. Among patients with ACS, the DAPT group showed a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular death or MI at 5 years than the SAPT group [DAPT vs. SAPT, 4.0% vs. 7.8%, hazard ratio (HR) 0.521, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.339-0.799; P = 0.003]. In contrast, among patients with SIHD, there was no significant difference in the rate of cardiovascular death or MI at 5 years between the use of DAPT and SAPT (4.0% vs. 4.0%, HR 0.991, 95% CI 0.604-1.626; P = 0.971). These findings were robust to multiple sensitivity analyses and competing risk analysis. In the subgroup analysis, the use of DAPT was associated with a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular death or MI among SIHD patients with a previous percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), with a significant interaction between the use of DAPT and PCI history (interaction P = 0.011).

Conclusion: Among ACS patients who underwent CABG, the use of DAPT was associated with lower cardiovascular death or MI than the use of SAPT, but this was not the case in SIHD patients.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03870815.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjcvp/pvaa080DOI Listing
July 2020

Automated Algorithm Using Pre-Intervention Fractional Flow Reserve Pullback Curve to Predict Post-Intervention Physiological Results.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2020 11 14;13(22):2670-2684. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: This study sought to develop an automated algorithm using pre-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) fractional flow reserve (FFR) pullback recordings to predict post-PCI physiological results in the pre-PCI phase.

Background: Both FFR and percent FFR increase measured after PCI showed incremental prognostic implications. However, there is no current method to predict post-PCI physiological results using physiological assessment in the pre-PCI phase.

Methods: An automated algorithm that analyzes instantaneous FFR gradient per unit time (dFFR(t)/dt) was developed from the derivation cohort (n = 30). Using dFFR(t)/dt, the pattern of atherosclerotic disease in each patient was classified into 3 groups (major, mixed, and minor FFR gradient groups) in both the internal validation cohort with constant pullback method (n = 234) and the external validation cohort with nonstandardized pullback methods (n = 252). All patients in the validation cohorts underwent PCI on the basis of pre-PCI FFR ≤0.80. Suboptimal post-PCI physiological results were defined as both post-PCI FFR <0.84 and percent FFR increase ≤15%. From the derivation cohort, cutoffs of dFFR(t)/dt for major and minor FFR gradient were 0.035/s and 0.015/s, respectively.

Results: In validation cohorts, dFFR(t)/dt showed significant correlations with percent FFR increase (R = 0.801; p < 0.001) and post-PCI FFR (R = 0.099; p = 0.029). In both the internal and external validation cohorts, the major FFR gradient group showed significantly higher post-PCI FFR and percent FFR increase compared with those in the mixed or minor FFR gradient groups (all p values <0.001). The proportions of suboptimal post-PCI physiological results were significantly different among 3 groups (10.4% vs. 25.8% vs. 45.7% for the major, mixed, and minor FFR gradient groups, respectively; p < 0.001) in validation cohorts. Absence of major FFR gradient lesion (odds ratio: 2.435, 95% [CI]: 1.252 to 4.734; p = 0.009) and presence of minor FFR gradient lesion (odds ratio: 2.756, 95% confidence interval: 1.629 to 4.664; p < 0.001) were independent predictors for suboptimal post-PCI physiological results.

Conclusions: The automated algorithm analyzing pre-PCI pullback curve was able to predict post-PCI physiological results. The incidence of suboptimal post-PCI physiological results was significantly different according to algorithm-based classifications in the pre-PCI physiological assessment. (Automated Algorithm Detecting Physiologic Major Stenosis and Its Relationship with Post-PCI Clinical Outcomes [Algorithm-PCI]; NCT04304677).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2020.06.062DOI Listing
November 2020

Predictors of Survival to Discharge After Successful Weaning From Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Patients With Cardiogenic Shock.

Circ J 2020 11 10;84(12):2205-2211. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine.

Background: This study identified predictors of hospital mortality after successful weaning of patients with cardiogenic shock off venoarterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support.Methods and Results:Adult patients who received peripheral VA ECMO from January 2012 to April 2017 were reviewed retrospectively. After excluding patients who died on ECMO support, predictors for survival to discharge were investigated in patients who were successfully weaned off ECMO. Of 191 patients successfully weaned off ECMO, 143 (74.9%) survived to discharge. The prevalence of a history of stroke and coronary artery disease, as well as ECMO-related complications, including newly developed stroke and sepsis, was a higher in patients who did not survive to discharge than in those who did. On the day of ECMO weaning, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score and serum lactate were higher in patients who did not survive to discharge, although there was no significant difference in blood pressure and the use of vasoactive drugs between the 2 groups. On multivariable analysis, stroke and sepsis during ECMO support, a lower Glasgow Coma Scale and acute kidney injury requiring continuous renal replacement therapy after weaning were significant predictors for in-hospital mortality.

Conclusions: Complications that occurred during ECMO and the presence of extracardiac organ dysfunction after weaning were associated with in-hospital mortality in patients with cardiogenic shock who were successfully weaned off ECMO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-20-0550DOI Listing
November 2020

The Impact of Hypoxic Hepatitis on Clinical Outcomes after Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.

J Clin Med 2020 Sep 16;9(9). Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 06351, Korea.

Although there have been several reports regarding the association between hypoxic hepatic injury and clinical outcomes in patients who underwent conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), limited data are available in the setting of extracorporeal CPR (ECPR). Patients who received ECPR due to either in- or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest from May 2004 through December 2018 were eligible. Hypoxic hepatitis (HH) was defined as an increased aspartate aminotransferase or alanine aminotransferase level to more than 20 times the upper normal range. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. In addition, we assessed poor neurological outcome defined as a Cerebral Performance Categories score of 3 to 5 at discharge and the predictors of HH occurrence. Among 365 ECPR patients, 90 (24.7%) were identified as having HH. The in-hospital mortality and poor neurologic outcomes in the HH group were significantly higher than those of the non-HH group (72.2% vs. 54.9%, = 0.004 and 77.8% vs. 63.6%, = 0.013, respectively). As indicators of hepatic dysfunction, patients with hypoalbuminemia (albumin < 3 g/dL) or coagulopathy (international normalized ratio > 1.5) had significantly higher mortalities than those of their counterparts ( = 0.005 and < 0.001, respectively). In multivariable logistic regression, age and acute kidney injury requiring continuous renal replacement therapy were predictors for development of HH ( = 0.046 and < 0.001 respectively). Furthermore age, arrest due to ischemic heart disease, initial shockable rhythm, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, lowflow time, continuous renal replacement therapy, and HH were significant predictors for in-hospital mortality. HH was a frequent complication and associated with poor clinical outcomes in ECPR patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092994DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7565649PMC
September 2020

Clinical relevance and prognostic implications of contrast quantitative flow ratio in patients with coronary artery disease.

Int J Cardiol 2021 02 8;325:23-29. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: We sought to evaluate the diagnostic performance of contrast quantitative flow ratio (cQFR) in all-comer patients with coronary artery disease, and to compare the vessel-oriented composite outcomes (VOCO) according to cQFR values.

Method: 599 vessels with 452 patients who underwent clinically indicated fractional flow reserve (FFR) and cQFR measurement were evaluated. The cQFR, derived from 3-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography combined with TIMI frame-counts was compared with FFR as a reference standard. The risk of VOCO at 2 years, a composite of cardiac death, target-vessel myocardial infarction, and ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization, was compared according to cQFR and FFR value.

Results: cQFR strongly correlated with FFR (r=0.860, p<0.001) and showed diagnostic accuracy of 91.2% to predict FFR≤0.80. cQFR showed significantly higher c-index to predict FFR≤0.80 (0.953, 95%CI 0.937-0.969) than %DS, percent area stenosis, resting distal coronary pressure/aortic pressure, and fixed QFR (p<0.001). Diagnostic accuracy of cQFR was not different according to various subgroups including non-culprit vessel of acute coronary syndrome and diabetes mellitus. Vessels with low cQFR (≤0.80) showed a significantly higher risk of VOCO at 2-year compared to those with high cQFR (>0.80) (HR 4.650, 95%CI 1.254-17.240, p=0.022). Discriminatory ability of cQFR for VOCO was similar with that of FFR (0.672 vs. 0.643, p=0.147).

Conclusion: cQFR showed excellent correlation and diagnostic accuracy with FFR in diverse clinical presentations or patient characteristics. Low cQFR was significantly associated with a higher risk of VOCO at 2 years compared with high cQFR and cQFR showed similar discriminatory ability for VOCO with FFR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2020.09.002DOI Listing
February 2021

Technical Feasibility and Safety of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for True Ostial Left Anterior Descending Artery-Chronic Total Occlusion.

Can J Cardiol 2021 03 20;37(3):458-466. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Division of Cardiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for true ostial left anterior descending artery (LAD)-chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesions poses technical challenges owing to its inherent anatomic features.

Methods: In total, 270 consecutive patients who underwent PCI for ostial LAD-CTO at 13 major cardiac centers in South Korea were included. Ostial LAD-CTO was strictly defined as a LAD-CTO lesion whose proximal cap was within 1 mm from the carina of the distal left main coronary artery (LMCA) bifurcation.

Results: Ostial LAD-CTOs were frequently accompanied by stumpless lesion entry (43.4%), whereas significant bending within the occluded segment was less frequent (14.4%). The overall technical success rate was 85.9%, and serious in-hospital adverse events occurred in 5.6%. The retrograde approach tended to contribute more frequently to success in patients with concomitant LMCA disease, stumpless CTO, interventional collaterals, and higher Japanese-CTO scores. Apparent dissection or hematoma requiring rescue procedure at the LMCA or left circumflex artery occurred in 14 patients (5.2%), with a higher tendency in patients who had LMCA disease (12.1% vs 4.2%) and stumpless entry (9.4% vs 2.0%) than in those without. Among patients who were successfully treated, with an average of 1.7 stents, target-vessel failure occurred in 23 patients (9.9%) during a median 3.3 years of follow-up.

Conclusions: In this first large-scale analysis of true ostial LAD-CTO, PCI was feasible with a high technical success rate and favourable mid-term outcomes. Clinically relevant inflow vessel injury can occur during PCI and should be an important technical consideration regarding safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2020.08.009DOI Listing
March 2021

Optimal strategy for side branch treatment in patients with left main coronary bifurcation lesions.

Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) 2021 Aug 18;74(8):691-699. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Introduction And Objectives: There are no guidelines regarding the most appropriate approach for provisional side branch (SB) intervention in left main (LM) bifurcation lesions.

Methods: The present prospective, randomized, open-label, multicenter trial compared conservative vs aggressive strategies for provisional SB intervention during LM bifurcation treatment. Although the trial was designed to enroll 700 patients, it was prematurely terminated due to slow enrollment. For 160 non-true bifurcation lesions, a 1-stent technique without kissing balloon inflation was applied in the conservative strategy, whereas a 1-stent technique with mandatory kissing balloon inflation was applied in the aggressive strategy. For 46 true bifurcation lesions, a stepwise approach was applied in the conservative strategy (after main vessel stenting, SB ballooning when residual stenosis> 75%; then, SB stenting if residual stenosis> 50% or there was a dissection). An elective 2-stent technique was applied in the aggressive strategy. The primary outcome was a 1-year target lesion failure (TLF) composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, or target lesion revascularization.

Results: Among non-true bifurcation lesions, the conservative strategy group used a smaller amount of contrast dye than the aggressive strategy group. There were no significant differences in 1-year TLF between the 2 strategies among non-true bifurcation lesions (6.5% vs 4.9%; HR, 1.31; 95%CI, 0.35-4.88; P=.687) and true bifurcation lesions (17.6% vs 21.7%; HR, 0.76; 95%CI, 0.20-2.83; P=.683).

Conclusions: In patients with a LM bifurcation lesion, conservative and aggressive strategies for a provisional SB approach have similar 1-year TLF rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rec.2020.06.011DOI Listing
August 2021

Optimal Timing of Venoarterial-Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients Suffering From Refractory Cardiogenic Shock.

Circ J 2020 08 17;84(9):1502-1510. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine.

Background: Although there is an increase in the use of mechanical circulatory support devices to rescue patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by refractory cardiogenic shock (CS), the optimal timing of the application remains controversial. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes between venoarterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) insertion before and after coronary revascularization in AMI patients with refractory CS.Methods and Results:A total of 253 patients with AMI who underwent revascularization therapy with VA-ECMO were included. The study population was stratified into extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (E-CPR) before revascularization (N=106, reference cohort) and refractory CS without E-CPR before revascularization (n=147, comparison cohort). Patients with refractory CS but without E-CPR before revascularization were further divided into VA-ECMO before revascularization (N=50) and VA-ECMO after revascularization (n=97). The primary endpoint was a composite of in-hospital mortality, left ventricular assist device implantation, and heart transplantation. The primary endpoint occurred in 60 patients (40.8%) of the comparison cohort and 51 patients (48.1%) of the reference cohort. Among the comparison cohort, the primary endpoint was significantly lower in VA-ECMO before revascularization than in VA-ECMO after revascularization (32.0% vs. 49.5%, OR 0.480, 95% CI 0.235-0.982, P=0.045). A similar trend was observed after a 1-year follow up.

Conclusions: Early initiation of VA-ECMO before revascularization therapy might improve clinical outcomes in patients with AMI complicated by refractory CS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-20-0259DOI Listing
August 2020

Consensus statement on coronary intervention during the coronavirus disease 19 pandemic: from the Korean Society of Interventional Cardiology.

Korean J Intern Med 2020 07 1;35(4):749-757. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious disease caused by the novel virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The first case developed in December, 2019 in Wuhan, China; several months later, COVID-19 has become pandemic, and there is no end in sight. This disaster is also causing serious health problems in the area of cardiovascular intervention. In response, the Korean Society of Interventional Cardiology formed a COVID-19 task force to develop practice guidelines. This special article introduces clinical practice guidelines to prevent secondary transmission of COVID-19 within facilities; the guidelines were developed to protect patients and healthcare workers from this highly contagious virus. We hope these guidelines help healthcare workers and cardiovascular disease patients around the world cope with the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3904/kjim.2020.290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7373961PMC
July 2020

Clinical Implications of Early Exercise Treadmill Testing after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in the Drug-eluting Stent Era.

J Korean Med Sci 2020 Jul 13;35(27):e229. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Limited data are available on the clinical meaning of early routine exercise treadmill testing (ETT) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the drug-eluting stent era. We aimed to determine the clinical utility and implications of early routine ETT after PCI.

Methods: This was a single-center, prospective cohort study. A total of 776 patients underwent ETT within 3 months after index PCI were analyzed. We classified patients into ETT positive (+) and negative (-) groups and compared major adverse cardiac events (MACE) including all-cause death, myocardial infarction, and coronary revascularization.

Results: The median follow-up duration was 19.6 months (interquartile range, 15.4 to 33.5 months). ETT was positive for 63 patients (17.1%) with single-vessel disease (VD) and 150 patients (36.9%) with multi-VD. Previous PCI, absence of thrombotic lesion, multi-VD, and residual Synergy Between PCI With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) score > 8 were independent predictors of ETT (+). Compared with the ETT (-) group, the ETT (+) group was associated with increased risk of MACE for patients with single-VD (18.1% vs. 52.3%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-6.49; = 0.03) and residual SYNTAX score ≤ 8 (26.5% vs. 42.1%; adjusted HR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.09-3.30; = 0.02), but not for patients with multi-VD and residual SYNTAX score > 8.

Conclusion: Early routine ETT after PCI might be helpful for predicting clinical outcomes in patients with single-VD and residual SYNTAX score ≤ 8 but not multi-VD and residual SYNTAX score > 8.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7358060PMC
July 2020

Residual functional SYNTAX score by quantitative flow ratio and improvement of exercise capacity after revascularization.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Mar 3;97(4):E454-E466. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the association between improvement in exercise capacity and functional completeness of revascularization, determined by residual functional SYNTAX score (rFSS), which is the sum of residual SYNTAX score of the vessels with post- percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) quantitative flow ratio (QFR) ≤0.80.

Background: In patients with stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD), the efficacy of PCI in improving exercise capacity has been under debate and the differential effect of PCI for exercise capacity, according to functional completeness of revascularization, has not been evaluated.

Methods: Among patients enrolled in the QFR multicenter registry, 110 patients who underwent routine exercise treadmill tests before and after PCI were analyzed. Patients were classified into functional complete revascularization (CR) group (rFSS = 0) and functional incomplete revascularization (IR) group (rFSS ≥ 1). Increase of exercise time after PCI was compared between the two groups. Improvement of exercise capacity was defined as ≥10% increase of exercise time after PCI.

Results: Functional CR was achieved in 79 patients (71.8%), otherwise classified as functional IR in 31 patients (28.2%) without differences in baseline characteristics including medication profiles. Increase of exercise time was significantly associated with increase of 3-vessel QFR (sum of QFRs in all three vessels; r = .198, p = .038) and rFSS (r = -.312, p < .001), but not with decrease of SYNTAX score (r = .097, p = .313). The rFSS showed significantly higher c-index to predict the improvement of exercise capacity after PCI than increase of 3-vessel QFR or decrease of SYNTAX score (0.722 vs. 0.627 vs. 0.492, respectively, p < 0.001). Patients with functional CR, defined by rFSS, showed significantly higher absolute and relative increase in exercise time than those with functional IR (97.7 s vs. 12.5 s, p < .001; 25.4% vs. 3.6%, p = .001). Functional CR was an independent predictor for improvement of exercise capacity after PCI (adjusted OR 4.656, 95% CI 1.678-12.920, p = .002).

Conclusions: Integrated anatomic and functional scoring system (rFSS) was significantly associated with improvement of exercise capacity after PCI. SIHD patients with functional CR, defined by rFSS, showed significantly higher exercise capacity after PCI than those with functional IR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29118DOI Listing
March 2021

Multidisciplinary team approach in acute myocardial infarction patients undergoing veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

Ann Intensive Care 2020 Jun 16;10(1):83. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 81 Irwon-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, 06351, Republic of Korea.

Background: Limited data are available on the impact of a specialized extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) team on clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock (CS). This study evaluated whether specialized ECMO team is associated with improved in-hospital mortality in AMI patients undergoing veno-arterial (VA) ECMO.

Methods: A total of 255 AMI patients who underwent VA-ECMO were included. In January 2014, a multidisciplinary ECMO team was founded at our institution. Eligible patients were classified into a pre-ECMO team group (n = 131) and a post-ECMO team group (n = 124). The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality.

Results: In-hospital mortality (pre-ECMO team vs. post-ECMO team, 54.2% vs. 33.9%; p = 0.002) and cardiac intensive care unit mortality (pre-ECMO team vs. post-ECMO team, 51.9% vs. 30.6%; p = 0.001) were significantly lower after the implementation of a multidisciplinary ECMO team. On multivariable logistic regression model, implementation of the multidisciplinary ECMO team was associated with reduction of in-hospital mortality [odds ratio: 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20-0.67; p = 0.001]. Incidence of all-cause mortality [58.3% vs. 35.2%; hazard ratio (HR): 0.49, 95% CI 0.34-0.72; p < 0.001) and readmission due to heart failure (28.2% vs. 6.4%; HR: 0.21, 95% CI 0.08-0.58; p = 0.003) at 6 months of follow-up were also significantly lower in the post-ECMO team group than in the pre-ECMO team group.

Conclusions: Implementation of a multidisciplinary ECMO team was associated with improved clinical outcomes in AMI patients complicated by CS. Our data support that a specialized ECMO team is indispensable for improving outcomes in patients with AMI complicated by CS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13613-020-00701-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296889PMC
June 2020

Long-term β-blocker therapy and clinical outcomes after acute myocardial infarction in patients without heart failure: nationwide cohort study.

Eur Heart J 2020 10;41(37):3521-3529

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 81 Irwon-Ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 06351, Korea.

Aims: To investigate the association between long-term β-blocker therapy and clinical outcomes in patients without heart failure (HF) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

Method And Results: Between 2010 and 2015, a total of 28 970 patients who underwent coronary revascularization for AMI with β-blocker prescription at hospital discharge and were event-free from death, recurrent myocardial infarction (MI), or HF for 1 year were enrolled from Korean nationwide medical insurance data. The primary outcome was all-cause death. The secondary outcomes were recurrent MI, hospitalization for new HF, and a composite of all-cause death, recurrent MI, or hospitalization for new HF. Outcomes were compared between β-blocker therapy for ≥1 year (N = 22 707) and β-blocker therapy for <1 year (N = 6263) using landmark analysis at 1 year after index MI. Compared with patients receiving β-blocker therapy for <1 year, those receiving β-blocker therapy for ≥1 year had significantly lower risks of all-cause death [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72-0.91] and composite of all-cause death, recurrent MI, or hospitalization for new HF (adjusted HR 0.82; 95% CI 0.75-0.89), but not the risks of recurrent MI or hospitalization for new HF. The lower risk of all-cause death associated with persistent β-blocker therapy was observed beyond 2 years (adjusted HR 0.86; 95% CI 0.75-0.99) but not beyond 3 years (adjusted HR 0.87; 95% CI 0.73-1.03) after MI.

Conclusion: In this nationwide cohort, β-blocker therapy for ≥1 year after MI was associated with reduced all-cause death among patients with AMI without HF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa376DOI Listing
October 2020

Prognostic Value of Early Intermittent Electroencephalography in Patients after Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.

J Clin Med 2020 Jun 4;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 06351, Korea.

The aim of this study was to investigate whether early intermittent electroencephalography (EEG) could be used to predict neurological prognosis of patients who underwent extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR). This was a retrospective and observational study of adult patients who were evaluated by EEG scan within 96 h after ECPR. The primary endpoint was neurological status upon discharge from the hospital assessed with a Cerebral Performance Categories (CPC) scale. Among 69 adult cardiac arrest patients who underwent ECPR, 17 (24.6%) patients had favorable neurological outcomes (CPC score of 1 or 2). Malignant EEG patterns were more common in patients with poor neurological outcomes (CPC score of 3, 4 or 5) than in patients with favorable neurological outcomes (73.1% vs. 5.9%, < 0.001). All patients with highly malignant EEG patterns (43.5%) had poor neurological outcomes. In multivariable analysis, malignant EEG patterns and duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation were significantly associated with poor neurological outcomes. In this study, malignant EEG patterns within 96 h after cardiac arrest were significantly associated with poor neurological outcomes. Therefore, an early intermittent EEG scan could be helpful for predicting neurological prognosis of post-cardiac arrest patients after ECPR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061745DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7356192PMC
June 2020

Clinical Usefulness of PRECISE-DAPT Score for Predicting Bleeding Events in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: An Analysis From the SMART-DATE Randomized Trial.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2020 05 1;13(5):e008530. Epub 2020 May 1.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea (K.H.C., Y.B.S., J.M.L., T.K.P., J.H.Y., J.-H.C., S.-H.C., H.-C.G., J.-Y.H.).

Background: Although the current guidelines endorse the PRECISE-DAPT score (Predicting Bleeding Complications in Patients Undergoing Stent Implantation and Subsequent Dual Antiplatelet Therapy) to inform clinical decisions regarding duration of DAPT in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, use of the PRECISE-DAPT score to guide duration of DAPT has not been properly validated by randomized trials focused on the population with acute coronary syndrome. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of the PRECISE-DAPT score for predicting future bleeding and ischemic events and to compare clinical outcomes of short-term and long-term DAPT duration according to the PRECISE-DAPT score in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

Methods: This was a substudy of the SMART-DATE trial (6- Versus 12-Month or Longer Dual Antiplatelet Therapy After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome), in which patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention were randomly assigned to either 6- (n=1357) or 12-month or longer DAPT (n=1355). Major bleeding (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 3-5) and ischemic (myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, or ischemic stroke) events at 18 months after the index procedure were compared between the 6- and 12-month or longer DAPT groups, according to PRECISE-DAPT score.

Results: The PRECISE-DAPT score was moderately effective at predicting bleeding events (area under the curve, 0.754 [95% CI, 0.655-0.854]; <0.001). In patients with nonhigh PRECISE-DAPT score (<25, n=1967 [72.5%]), 6-month DAPT was associated with higher ischemic risk (2.7% versus 1.3%; HR, 2.01 [95% CI, 1.03-3.91]; =0.040; absolute risk difference, +1.3%; =0.035) with similar bleeding risk (0.4% versus 0.3%; HR, 2.00 [95% CI, 0.37-10.94]; =0.422; absolute risk difference, +0.2%; =0.498), compared with 12-month or longer DAPT. Among patients with high PRECISE-DAPT score (≥25, n=745 [27.5%]), 6-month DAPT presented a similar ischemic risk (4.8% versus 3.4%; HR, 1.43 [95% CI, 0.68-2.98], =0.348; absolute risk difference, +1.5%; =0.327) but significantly reduced major bleeding risk (0.6% versus 2.3%; HR, 0.25 [95% CI, 0.05-1.17]; =0.079; absolute risk difference, -1.7%; =0.045).

Conclusions: Consistent with current guidelines, determination of the duration of DAPT according to PRECISE-DAPT score could improve the clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome after percutaneous coronary intervention with current-generation drug-eluting stents. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01701453.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.119.008530DOI Listing
May 2020

Comparison of Exercise Performance and Clinical Outcome Between Functional Complete and Incomplete Revascularization.

Korean Circ J 2020 May 20;50(5):406-417. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background And Objectives: Although percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is recommended to improve symptoms in patients with stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD), improvement of exercise performance is controversial. This study aimed to investigate changes in exercise duration after PCI according to functional completeness of revascularization by comparing pre- and post-PCI exercise stress test (EST).

Methods: Patients with SIHD were enrolled from a prospective PCI registry, and divided into 2 groups: 1) functional complete revascularization (CR) group had a positive EST before PCI and negative EST after PCI, 2) functional incomplete revascularization (IR) group had positive EST before and after PCI. Primary outcome was change in exercise duration after PCI and secondary outcome was major adverse cardiac events (MACE, a composite of any death, any myocardial infarction, and any ischemia-driven revascularization) at 3 years after PCI.

Results: A total of 256 patients (149 for CR group, and 107 for IR group) were eligible for analysis. Before PCI, exercise duration was not significantly different between the functional CR and IR groups (median 540 [interquartile range; IQR, 414, 602] vs. 480 [402, 589] seconds, p=0.091). After PCI, however, the CR group had a significantly higher increment of exercise duration than the IR group (median 62.0 [IQR, 12.0, 141.0] vs. 30.0 [-11.0, 103.5] seconds, p=0.011). The functional CR group also had a significantly lower risk of 3-year MACE (6.2% vs. 26.1%; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.09-0.41; p<0.001).

Conclusions: Functional CR showed a higher increment of exercise duration than functional IR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4070/kcj.2019.0319DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7098823PMC
May 2020
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