Publications by authors named "Tae-Yun Lee"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

PGC-1α is downregulated in a mouse model of obstructive cholestasis but not in a model of liver fibrosis.

FEBS Open Bio 2021 Jan 9;11(1):61-74. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, the Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Several studies have indicated that cholestatic liver damage involves mitochondria dysfunction. However, the precise mechanism by which hydrophobic bile salts cause mitochondrial dysfunction is not clear. In this study, we intended to determine the pathogenesis of cholestatic liver injury associated with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α). A mouse model of cholestatic liver disease was generated by surgical ligation of the bile duct (BDL), and a mouse model of fibrosis was developed through serial administration of thioacetamide. After obtaining liver specimens on scheduled days, we compared the expression of the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase 2 [SOD2], catalase, and glutathione peroxidase-1[GPx-1]) and PGC-1α in livers from mice with fibrosis and cholestasis using western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. We found that cholestatic livers exhibit lower expression of antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD2, catalase, and PGC-1α. In contrast, fibrotic livers exhibit higher expression of antioxidant enzymes and PGC-1α. In addition, cholestatic livers exhibited significantly lower expression of pro-apoptotic markers (Bax) as compared to fibrotic livers. It is well known that overexpression of PGC-1α increases mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme expression, and vice versa. Thus, we concluded that obstructive cholestasis decreases expression of PGC-1α, which may lead to decreased expression of mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes, thereby rendering mice with cholestatic livers vulnerable to ROS-induced cell death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2211-5463.12961DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7780111PMC
January 2021

A novel antifibrotic strategy utilizing conditioned media obtained from miR-150-transfected adipose-derived stem cells: validation of an animal model of liver fibrosis.

Exp Mol Med 2020 03 9;52(3):438-449. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Catholic Central Laboratory of Surgery, Institute of Biomedical Industry, College of Medicine, the Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

The limitations of stem cells have led researchers to investigate the secretome, which is the secretory materials in stem cells, since the principal mechanism of action of stem cells is mediated by the secretome. In this study, we determined the antifibrotic potential of the secretome released from miR-150-transfected adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs). The secretome released from ASCs that were transfected with antifibrotic miR-150 was obtained (referred to as the miR-150 secretome). To validate the antifibrotic effects of the miR-150 secretome, we generated in vitro and in vivo models of liver fibrosis by treating human hepatic stellate cells (LX2 cells) with thioacetamide (TAA) and subcutaneous injection of TAA into mice, respectively. In the in vitro model, more significant reductions in the expression of fibrosis-related markers, such as TGFβ, Col1A1, and α-SMA, were observed by using the miR-150 secretome than the control secretome, specifically in TAA-treated LX2 cells. In the in vivo model, infusion of the miR-150 secretome into mice with liver fibrosis abrogated the increase in serum levels of systemic inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF-α, and induced increased expression of antifibrotic, proliferation, and antioxidant activity markers in the liver. Our in vitro and in vivo experiments indicate that the miR-150 secretome is superior to the naive secretome in terms of ameliorating liver fibrosis, minimizing systemic inflammatory responses, and promoting antioxidant enzyme expression. Therefore, we conclude that miR-150 transfection into ASCs has the potential to induce the release of secretory materials with enhanced antifibrotic, proliferative, and antioxidant properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s12276-020-0393-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7156430PMC
March 2020

Ameliorating liver fibrosis in an animal model using the secretome released from miR-122-transfected adipose-derived stem cells.

World J Stem Cells 2019 Nov;11(11):990-1004

Catholic Central Laboratory of Surgery, Institute of Biomedical Industry, College of Medicine, the Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, South Korea.

Background: Recently, the exclusive use of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-secreted molecules, called secretome, rather than cells, has been evaluated for overcoming the limitations of cell-based therapy, while maintaining its advantages. However, the use of naïve secretome may not fully satisfy the specificity of each disease. Therefore, it appears to be more advantageous to use the functionally reinforced secretome through a series of processes involving physico-chemical adjustments or genetic manipulation rather than to the use naïve secretome.

Aim: To determine the therapeutic potential of the secretome released from miR-122-transfected adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs).

Methods: We collected secretory materials released from ASCs that had been transfected with antifibrotic miR-122 (MCM) and compared their antifibrotic effects with those of the naïve secretome (CM). MCM and CM were intravenously administered to the mouse model of thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis, and their therapeutic potentials were compared.

Results: MCM infusion provided higher therapeutic potential in terms of: (A) Reducing collagen content in the liver; (B) Inhibiting proinflammatory cytokines; and (C) Reducing abnormally elevated liver enzymes than the infusion of the naïve secretome. The proteomic analysis of MCM also indicated that the contents of antifibrotic proteins were significantly elevated compared to those in the naïve secretome.

Conclusion: We could, thus, conclude that the secretome released from miR-122-transfected ASCs has higher antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory properties than the naïve secretome. Because miR-122 transfection into ASCs provides a specific way of potentiating the antifibrotic properties of ASC secretome, it could be considered as an enhanced method for reinforcing secretome effectiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4252/wjsc.v11.i11.990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6851007PMC
November 2019

Isolation of Secretome with Enhanced Antifibrotic Properties from miR-214-Transfected Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

J Korean Med Sci 2019 Nov 25;34(45):e273. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Department of Surgery, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, the Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Secretome refers to the total set of molecules secreted or surface-shed by stem cells. The limitations of stem cell research have led numerous investigators to turn their attention to the use of secretome instead of stem cells. In this study, we intended to reinforce antifibrotic properties of the secretome released from adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) transfected with miR-214.

Methods: We generated miR-214-transfected ASCs, and extracted the secretome (miR214-secretome) from conditioned media of the transfected ASCs through a series of ultrafiltrations. Subsequently, we intravenously injected the miR-214-secretome into mice with liver fibrosis, and determined the effects of miR-214-secretome on liver fibrosis.

Results: Compared with that by naïve secretome, liver fibrosis was ameliorated by intravenous infusion of miR-214-secretome into mice with liver fibrosis, which was demonstrated by significantly lower expression of fibrosis-related markers (alpha-smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor-β, and metalloproteinases-2) in the livers as well as lower fibrotic scores in the special stained livers compared with naïve secretome. The infusion of miR-214-secretome also led to lesser local and systemic inflammation, higher expression of an antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase), and higher liver proliferative and synthetic function.

Conclusion: MicroRNA-214 transfection stimulates ASCs to release the secretome with higher antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory properties. miR-214-secretome is thus expected to be one of the prominent ways of overcoming liver fibrosis, if further studies consistently validate its safety and efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2019.34.e273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6875435PMC
November 2019

Efficacy and safety of a novel topical agent for gallstone dissolution: 2-methoxy-6-methylpyridine.

J Transl Med 2019 06 10;17(1):195. Epub 2019 Jun 10.

Department of Surgery, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222, Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul, 06591, Republic of Korea.

Background: Although methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is the only clinical topical agent for gallstone dissolution, its use is limited by its side effects mostly arising from a relatively low boiling point (55 °C). In this study, we developed the gallstone-dissolving compound containing an aromatic moiety, named 2-methoxy-6-methylpyridine (MMP) with higher boiling point (156 °C), and compared its effectiveness and toxicities with MTBE.

Methods: The dissolubility of MTBE and MMP in vitro was determined by placing human gallstones in glass containers with either solvent and, then, measuring their dry weights. Their dissolubility in vivo was determined by comparing the weights of solvent-treated gallstones and control (dimethyl sulfoxide)-treated gallstones, after directly injecting each solvent into the gallbladder in hamster models with cholesterol and pigmented gallstones.

Results: In the in vitro dissolution test, MMP demonstrated statistically higher dissolubility than did MTBE for cholesterol and pigmented gallstones (88.2% vs. 65.7%, 50.8% vs. 29.0%, respectively; P < 0.05). In the in vivo experiments, MMP exhibited 59.0% and 54.3% dissolubility for cholesterol and pigmented gallstones, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of MTBE (50.0% and 32.0%, respectively; P < 0.05). The immunohistochemical stains of gallbladder specimens obtained from the MMP-treated hamsters demonstrated that MMP did not significantly increase the expression of cleaved caspase 9 or significantly decrease the expression of proliferation cell nuclear antigen.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated that MMP has better potential than does MTBE in dissolving gallstones, especially pigmented gallstones, while resulting in lesser toxicities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-019-1943-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6558798PMC
June 2019

LY3009120, a pan-Raf kinase inhibitor, inhibits adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells by controlling the expression and phosphorylation of C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, STAT‑3, FAS, ACC, perilipin A, and AMPK.

Int J Mol Med 2018 Dec 21;42(6):3477-3484. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu 42601, Republic of Korea.

Excessive preadipocyte differentiation/adipogenesis is closely linked to the development of obesity. LY3009120 is a pan‑Raf kinase inhibitor and is known for its anticancer activities. In the present study, the effect of LY3009120 on 3T3‑L1 cell adipogenesis was investigated. The differentiation of 3T3‑L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes was measured by Oil Red O staining and AdipoRed assay. Changes of cellular protein expression and phosphorylation levels in differentiating 3T3‑L1 preadipocytes in the absence or presence of LY3009120 were determined by western blotting analysis. Cell count assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity of LY3009120 on 3T3‑L1 cells. At 0.3 µM, LY3009120 markedly inhibited lipid accumulation and decreased triglyceride content in differentiating 3T3‑L1 cells. However, it had minimal effect on the elevated expression and phosphorylation of three Raf kinase isoforms (C‑Raf, A‑Raf, and B‑Raf) observed in the cells. LY3009120 reduced not only the expression of CCAAT/enhancer‑binding protein‑α (C/EBP‑α), peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor‑γ (PPAR‑γ), fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), and perilipin A, but also reduced the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription‑3 (STAT‑3) in differentiating 3T3‑L1 cells. LY3009120 also increased the phosphorylation of adenosine 3',5'‑cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)‑activated protein kinase (AMPK), but did not affect the phosphorylation or expression of liver kinase B1 in these cells. In summary, this is the first report, to the best of our knowledge, demonstrating that LY3009120 has an anti‑adipogenic effect on 3T3‑L1 cells, which may be mediated through control of the expression and phosphorylation of C/EBP‑α, PPAR‑γ, STAT‑3, FAS, ACC, perilipin A, and AMPK.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2018.3890DOI Listing
December 2018

Anti-Adipogenic Effects on 3T3-L1 Cells and Zebrafish by Tanshinone IIA.

Int J Mol Sci 2017 Sep 27;18(10). Epub 2017 Sep 27.

Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine, Keimyung University, 1095 Dalgubeoldaero, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 42601, Korea.

Tanshinone IIA is a diterpene quinone isolated from the roots of bunge that has traditionally been used in China for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders. Although there is recent evidence showing that tanshinone IIA has an anti-obesity effect, its underlying mechanism of anti-obesity effect is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effect of tanshinone IIA on lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and zebrafish. Notably, tanshinone IIA at 10 μM concentration greatly reduced lipid accumulation and triglyceride (TG) contents during 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation, suggesting its anti-adipogenic effect. On mechanistic levels, tanshinone IIA reduced the expression levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and perilipin A but also the phosphorylation levels of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3/5 (STAT-3/5) in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. In addition, tanshinone IIA strongly inhibited leptin and resistin mRNA expression in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. Importantly, the tanshinone IIA's lipid-reducing effect was also seen in zebrafish. In sum, these findings demonstrate that tanshinone IIA has anti-adipogenic effects on 3T3-L1 cells and zebrafish, and its anti-adipogenic effect on 3T3-L1 cells is largely attributable to the reduced expression and/or phosphorylation levels of C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, FAS, perilipin A, and STAT-3/5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms18102065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5666747PMC
September 2017

Sanguinarine induces apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells primarily via cellular glutathione depletion.

Toxicol In Vitro 2009 Mar 24;23(2):281-7. Epub 2008 Dec 24.

Department of Medical Genetic Engineering, Keimyung University School of Medicine, 194 Dongsan-dong, Jung-gu, Daegu 700-712, Republic of Korea.

Sanguinarine is a plant-derived benzophenanthridine alkaloid and has been shown to possess anti-tumor activities against various cancer cells. In this study, we investigated whether sanguinarine induces apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells. Treatment of A549 cells with sanguinarine induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment with sanguinarine led to activation of caspases and MAPKs as well as increased MKP-1 expression. Importantly, pretreatment with z-VAD-fmk, a pan caspase inhibitor suppressed the sanguinarine-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Moreover, pretreatment with NAC, a sulfhydryl group-containing reducing agent strongly suppressed the apoptotic response and caspase activation to sanguinarine. However, the sanguinarine-mediated cytotoxicity in A549 cells was not protected by pharmacological inhibition of MAPKs or MKP-1 siRNA-mediated knockdown of MKP-1. These results collectively suggest that sanguinarine induces apoptosis in A549 cells through cellular glutathione depletion and the subsequent caspase activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2008.12.013DOI Listing
March 2009