Publications by authors named "Tae-Hoon Kim"

922 Publications

Near-Infrared Light-Responsive Shape Memory Polymer Fabricated from Reactive Melt Blending of Semicrystalline Maleated Polyolefin Elastomer and Polyaniline.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Nov 18;13(22). Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Department of Polymer Engineering, School of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Suwon, Hwaseong 18323, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.

A shape memory polymer was prepared by melt mixing a semicrystalline maleated polyolefin elastomer (mPOE) with a small amount of polyaniline (PANI) (up to 15 wt.%) in an internal mixer. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FTIR analysis, DMA, DSC, melt rheological analysis, and a tensile test were performed to characterize the structure and properties of the mPOE/PANI blends. The results revealed that the blends form a physically crosslinked network via the grafting of PANI onto the mPOE chains, and the PANI dispersed at the nanometer scale in the POE matrix served as a photo-thermal agent and provided increased crosslinking points. These structural features enabled the blends to exhibit a shape memory effect upon near-infrared (NIR) light irradiation. With increasing PANI content, the shape recovery rate of the blend under NIR stimulation was improved and reached 96% at 15 wt.% of PANI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13223984DOI Listing
November 2021

Extra-Pulmonary Vein Triggers at and the Repeat Atrial Fibrillation Catheter Ablation.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 4;8:759967. Epub 2021 Nov 4.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea.

Extra-pulmonary vein triggers can play a significant role in atrial fibrillation recurrence after catheter ablation. We explored the characteristics of the extra-pulmonary vein (PV) triggers in and repeat atrial fibrillation (AF) catheter ablation (AFCA). We included 2,118 patients who underwent a AFCA (women 27.6%, 59.2 ± 10.9 years old, paroxysmal AF 65.9%) and 227 of them conducted repeat procedures. All included patients underwent isoproterenol provocation tests at the end of the procedure, and then we analyzed extra-PV triggers-related factors. Extra-PV triggers were documented in 11.7% of patients undergoing AFCA (1.22 ± 0.46 foci per patient) and 28.6% undergoing repeat AFCA (1.49 ± 0.73 foci per patient). Older age and higher LA volume index in procedures and women, diabetes, and higher parasympathetic nerve activity (heart rate variability) in repeat-AFCA were independently associated with the existence of extra-PV triggers. The septum (19.9%), coronary sinus (14.7%), and superior vena cava (11.2%) were common extra-PV foci. Among 46 patients who were newly found to have mappable extra-PV triggers upon repeat procedures, 15 (32.6%) matched with the previous focal or empirical extra-PV ablation sites. The rate of AF recurrence was significantly higher in patients with extra-PV triggers than in those without after (HR 1.91, 95% CI 1.54-2.38, < 0.001) and repeat procedures (HR 2.68, 95% CI 1.63-4.42, < 0.001). Extra-PV triggers were commonly found in AF patients with significant remodeling and previous empirical extra-PV ablation. The existence of extra-PV triggers was independently associated with poorer rhythm outcomes after the and repeat AFCA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.759967DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8600078PMC
November 2021

Usefulness of cardiac magnetic resonance images for prediction of sudden cardiac arrest in patients with mitral valve prolapse: a multicenter retrospective cohort study.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2021 11 17;21(1):546. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Departments of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, 50-1 Yonsei-ro Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea.

Background: An association has been identified between mitral valve prolapse (MVP) and sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), and ventricular arrhythmias (VA). This study aimed to elucidate predictive factors for SCA or VA in MVP patients.

Methods: MVP patients who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) were retrospectively included. Patients with other structural heart disease or causes of aborted SCA were excluded. Clinical characteristics (sex, age, body mass index, histories of diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia) and electrocardiographic (PR interval, QRS duration, corrected QT interval, inverted T wave in the inferior leads, bundle branch block, and atrial fibrillation), echocardiographic [mitral regurgitation grade, prolapsing mitral leaflet, and right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP)], and CMR [left atrial volume index, both ventricular ejection fractions, both ventricular end-diastolic and systolic volume indexes, prolapse distance, mitral annular disjunction, systolic curling motion, presence of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), LGE volume and proportion] parameters were analyzed.

Results: Of the 85 patients [age, 54.0 (41.0-65.0) years; 46 men], seven experienced SCA or VA. Younger age and wide QRS complex were observed more often in the SCA/VA group than in the no-SCA/VA group. The SCA/VA group exhibited lower RVSP, more systolic curling motion and LGE, greater LGE volume, and higher LGE proportion. The presence of LGE [hazard ratio (HR), 19.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.65-148.15; P = 0.004], LGE volume (HR 1.08; 95% CI 1.02-1.14; P = 0.006) and LGE proportion (HR 1.32; 95% CI 1.08-1.60; P = 0.006) were independently associated with higher risk of SCA or VA in MVP patients together with systolic curling motion in each model.

Conclusions: The presence of systolic curling motion, high LGE volume and proportion, and the presence of LGE on CMR were independent predictive factors for SCA or VA in MVP patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-021-02362-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8600905PMC
November 2021

Image-Based Evaluation of Irradiation Effects in Brain Tissues by Measuring Absolute Electrical Conductivity Using MRI.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Oct 31;13(21). Epub 2021 Oct 31.

Medical Science Research Institute, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul 02447, Korea.

Radiation-induced injury is damage to normal tissues caused by unintentional exposure to ionizing radiation. Image-based evaluation of tissue damage by irradiation has an advantage for the early assessment of therapeutic effects by providing sensitive information on minute tissue responses in situ. Recent magnetic resonance (MR)-based electrical conductivity imaging has shown potential as an effective early imaging biomarker for treatment response and radiation-induced injury. However, to be a tool for evaluating therapeutic effects, validation of its reliability and sensitivity according to various irradiation conditions is required. We performed MR-based electrical conductivity imaging on designed phantoms to confirm the effect of ionizing radiation at different doses and on in vivo mouse brains to distinguish tissue response depending on different doses and the elapsed time after irradiation. To quantify the irradiation effects, we measured the absolute conductivity of brain tissues and calculated relative conductivity changes based on the value of pre-irradiation. The conductivity of the phantoms with the distilled water and saline solution increased linearly with the irradiation doses. The conductivity of in vivo mouse brains showed different time-course variations and residual contrast depending on the irradiation doses. Future studies will focus on validation at long-term time points, including early and late delayed response and evaluation of irradiation effects in various tissue types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13215490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8583433PMC
October 2021

Exploratory Profiling of Extracellular MicroRNAs in Cerebrospinal Fluid Comparing Leptomeningeal Metastasis with Other Central Nervous System Tumor Statuses.

J Clin Med 2021 Oct 22;10(21). Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Department of Cancer Biomedical Science, Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, Goyang 10408, Korea.

The diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) is often difficult due to the paucity of cancer cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and nonspecific findings on neuroimaging. Investigations of extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) in CSF could be used for both the diagnosis and study of LM pathogenesis because they reflect the activity of disseminating cancer cells. We isolated CSF extracellular miRNAs from patients ( = 65) of different central nervous system tumor statuses, including cancer control, healthy control, LM, brain metastasis (BM), and primary brain tumor (BT) groups, and performed miRNA microarrays. In unsupervised clustering analyses, all LM and two BM samples showed unique profiles. Among 30 miRNAs identified for LM-specific biomarkers via a Prediction Analysis of Microarrays, miR-335-5p and miR-34b-3p were confirmed in both the discovery and validation samples ( = 23). Next, we performed a significance analysis of the microarray (SAM) to extract discriminative miRNA profiles of two selected CSF groups, with LM samples revealing a greater number of discriminative miRNAs than BM and BT samples compared to controls. Using SAM comparisons between LM and BM samples, we identified 30 upregulated and 6 downregulated LM miRNAs. To reduce bias from different primary cancers, we performed a subset analysis with primary non-small cell lung cancer, and 12 of 13 upregulated miRNAs in LM vs. BM belonged to the upregulated miRNAs in LM. We identified possible target genes and their biological processes that could be affected by LM discriminative miRNAs in NSCLC using the gene ontology database. In conclusion, we identified a unique extracellular miRNA profile in LM CSF that was different from BM, suggesting the use of miRNAs as LM biomarkers in studies of LM pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10214860DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8584800PMC
October 2021

Malnutrition and Risk of Procedural Complications in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Catheter Ablation.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 25;8:736042. Epub 2021 Oct 25.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea.

Little is known about the prognostic value of nutritional status among patients undergoing atrial fibrillation (AF) catheter ablation (AFCA). We compared the risk of procedure-related complications and long-term rhythm outcomes of AFCA according to nutritional status. We included 3,239 patients undergoing AFCA in 2009-2020. Nutritional status was assessed using the controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score. The association between malnutrition and the risk of AFCA complications or long-term rhythm outcomes was evaluated. We validated the effects of malnutrition using an external cohort of 360 patients undergoing AFCA in 2013-2016. In the study population (26.8% women, median age: 58 years), 1,005 (31.0%) had malnutrition (CONUT scores ≥ 2); 991 (30.6%) had mild (CONUT 2-4) and 14 (0.4%) had moderate-to-severe (CONUT ≥ 5) malnutrition. The overall complication rates after AFCA were 3.3% for normal nutrition, 4.2% for mild malnutrition, and 21.4% for moderate-to-severe malnutrition. Moderate-to-severe malnutrition [odds ratio (OR) 6.456, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.637-25.463, compared with normal nutrition], older age (OR 1.020 per 1-year increase, 95% CI 1.001-1.039), female sex (OR 1.915, 95% CI 1.302-2.817), and higher systolic blood pressure (OR 1.013 per 1-mmHg increase, 95% CI 1.000-1.026) were independent predictors for the occurrence of complications. In the validation cohort, malnutrition (CONUT ≥ 2) was associated with a 2.87-fold higher risk of AFCA complications (95% CI 1.174-7.033). The association between malnutrition and a higher risk of AFCA complications was consistently observed regardless of body mass index and sex. Malnutrition did not affect rhythm outcomes during the median follow-up of 40 months (clinical recurrence: 37.0% in normal nutrition vs. 36.5% in malnutrition). Malnutrition, which is common in patients undergoing AFCA, was associated with a substantially higher risk for complications after AFCA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.736042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8572960PMC
October 2021

Efficacy and Safety of High-Power Short-Duration Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 7;8:709585. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea.

Whereas, high-power short-duration (HPSD) radiofrequency (RF) ablation is generally used in atrial fibrillation (AF) catheter ablation (CA), its efficacy, safety, and influence on autonomic function have not been well established in a large population. This study compared HPSD-AFCA and conventional power (ConvP)-AFCA in propensity score matched-population. In 3,045 consecutive patients who underwent AFCA, this study included 1,260 patients (73.9% male, 59 ± 10 years old, 58.2% paroxysmal type) after propensity score matching: 315 in 50~60W HPSD group vs. 945 in the ConvP group. This study investigated the procedural factors, complication rate, rhythm status, and 3-month heart rate variability (HRV) between the two groups and subgroups. Procedure time was considerably short in the HPSD group (135 min in HPSD vs. 181 min in ConvP, < 0.001) compared to ConvP group, but there was no significant difference in the complication rate (2.9% in HPSD vs. 3.7% in ConvP, = 0.477) and the 3-month HRV between the two groups. At the one-year follow-up, there was no significant difference in rhythm outcomes between the two groups (Overall, Log-rank = 0.885; anti-arrhythmic drug free, Log-rank = 0.673). These efficacy and safety outcomes were consistently similar irrespective of the AF type or ablation lesion set. The Cox regression analysis showed that the left atrium volume index estimated by computed tomography (HR 1.01 [1.00-1.02]), = 0.003) and extra-pulmonary vein triggers (HR 1.59 [1.03-2.44], = 0.036) were independently associated with one-year clinical recurrence, whereas the HPSD ablation was not (HR 1.03 [0.73-1.44], = 0.887). HPSD-AFCA notably reduced the procedure time with similar rhythm outcomes, complication rate, and influence on autonomic function as ConvP-AFCA, irrespective of the AF type or ablation lesion set.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.709585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8530188PMC
October 2021

Role of SIRT1 and Progesterone Resistance in Normal and Abnormal Endometrium.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Oct 19. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wake Forest Baptist Health, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Context: Progesterone resistance, a known pathologic condition associated with a reduced cellular response to progesterone and heightened estrogen responses, appears to have a normal physiologic role in mammalian reproduction. The molecular mechanism responsible for progesterone resistance in normal and abnormal endometrium remains unclear.

Objective: To examine the roles of Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) in normal endometrium as well as endometrium associated with infertility and endometriosis, as an epigenetic modulator associated with progesterone resistance.

Methods: SIRT1 expression was examined by Western blot, RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry in mouse uterus and human endometrium. Mice with uterine specific Sirt1 overexpression were developed to examine SIRT1's role in endometrial function and endometriosis development. EX-527, a SIRT1 inhibitor, and SRT1720, a SIRT1 agonist, were also used to evaluate SIRT1 effect on endometriosis.

Results: In normal healthy women, endometrial SIRT1 is expressed only during menses. SIRT1 was dramatically overexpressed in the endometrium from women with endometriosis in both the epithelium and strom. In mice, SIRT1 is expressed at the time of implantation between day 4.5 and 5.5 of pregnancy. Overexpression of SIRT1 (Sirt1  over) in the mouse uterus leads to subfertility due to implantation failure and decidualization defects and progesterone resistance. SIRT1 overexpression in endometriotic lesion promotes worsening endometriosis development. EX-527 (SIRT1 inhibitor) significantly reduced the number of endometriotic lesions in the mouse endometriosis model.

Conclusions: SIRT1 expression and progesterone resistance appears to play -roles in normal endometrial functions. Aberrant SIRT1 expression contributes to progesterone resistance and may participate in the pathophysiology of endometriosis. SIRT1 is a novel and targetable protein for the diagnosis as well as treatment of endometriosis and the associated infertility seen in this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgab753DOI Listing
October 2021

Comparison of the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency of the suprascapular nerve and intra-articular corticosteroid injection for hemiplegic shoulder pain management.

J Integr Neurosci 2021 Sep;20(3):687-693

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, 705-717 Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Many patients complain of hemiplegic shoulder pain following stroke. Here, the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency stimulation of the suprascapular nerve is compared with intra-articular corticosteroid injection for chronic hemiplegic shoulder pain following stroke. This single-center, prospective, randomized controlled study included 20 patients with hemiplegic shoulder pain after stroke, randomly assigned to the pulsed radiofrequency and intra-articular corticosteroid injection treatment groups ( = 10 in each). Hemiplegic shoulder pain severity was measured by numeric rating scale and passive shoulder range motion was assessed at baseline and one and two months after each procedure. Compared to the baseline numeric rating scale scores, post-treatment scores decreased significantly in both groups ( < 0.001). However, score reduction through time was significantly greater for intra-articular corticosteroid injection for pulsed radiofrequency ( < 0.001). Similarly, a significant post-treatment increase was observed in almost all range of motion measurements in both groups (pulsed radiofrequency group: flexion, = 0.015; abduction, = 0.014; external rotation, = 0.038; internal rotation, = 0.063; intra-articular corticosteroid injection group: all range of motion, < 0.001). Moreover, the measurements for all ranges of motion in the intra-articular corticosteroid injection group were significantly higher than those in the pulsed radiofrequency group ( < 0.001). Thus, intra-articular corticosteroid injection appears more effective than pulsed radiofrequency for control of hemiplegic shoulder pain, whereas, pulsed radiofrequency of the suprascapular nerve has minimal effect. However, in patients at risk for developing complications following corticosteroid injections, pulsed radiofrequency of the suprascapular nerve may be an option in management of hemiplegic shoulder pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31083/j.jin2003073DOI Listing
September 2021

Plasma-Induced Oxidation Products of (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate with Digestive Enzymes Inhibitory Effects.

Molecules 2021 Sep 24;26(19). Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Daegu University, Gyeongsan 38453, Korea.

(-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the chief dietary constituent in green tea (), is relatively unstable under oxidative conditions. This study evaluated the use of non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma to improve the anti-digestive enzyme capacities of EGCG oxidation products. Pure EGCG was dissolved in an aqueous solution and irradiated with DBD plasma for 20, 40, and 60 min. The reactant, irradiated for 60 min, exhibited improved inhibitory properties against α-glucosidase and α-amylase compared with the parent EGCG. The chemical structures of these oxidation products - from the EGCG, irradiated with the plasma for 60 min, were characterized using spectroscopic methods. Among the oxidation products, EGCG quinone dimer A () showed the most potent inhibitory effects toward α-glucosidase and α-amylase with IC values of 15.9 ± 0.3 and 18.7 ± 0.3 μM, respectively. These values were significantly higher than that of the positive control, acarbose. Compound , which was the most active, was the most abundant in the plasma-irradiated reactant for 60 min according to quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. These results suggest that the increased biological capacity of EGCG can be attributed to the structural changes to EGCG in HO, induced by cold plasma irradiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26195799DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8510274PMC
September 2021

Long-Term Outcomes of Nasoseptal Perforation Repair Using Anterior Maxillary Sinus Wall as an Interpositional Graft.

Am J Rhinol Allergy 2021 Oct 12:19458924211049608. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

College of Medicine, 36899Korea University, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Various graft materials have been used to repair nasoseptal perforation, but there is no standardized treatment method. The anterior maxillary sinus wall is flattened in appearance and can be easily obtained in a sufficient amount for a large-sized nasoseptal perforation.

Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine whether the anterior maxillary sinus wall is suitable as an interpositional graft in the surgical repair of septal or nasoseptal perforation.

Methods: This is a retrospective review of 21 patients who underwent repair of nasoseptal perforation using anterior maxillary sinus wall as an interpositional graft. The etiology pre- and post-operative NOSE and GBI score, and perforation size were reviewed. The surgical outcome was considered successful if total closure was achieved after postoperative follow-up.

Results: 19 of the 21 perforations were successfully repaired with anterior maxillary sinus wall. Failure of the repair was found in 2 patients. Causal etiology of perforation was previous septoplasty in 10 patients, and electrocautery in 1 case, but not identified in 10 cases. The largest size was 2.7 × 2.2 cm. The most common symptoms were epistaxis, crusting, and nasal obstruction. Closure of septal perforation resulted in improved subjective symptoms and quality of life which were evaluated with NOSE and GBI score.

Conclusion: Anterior maxillary sinus wall as interpositional graft between mucoperichondrial flaps can be used to reliably repair nasoseptal perforations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/19458924211049608DOI Listing
October 2021

Spatial Changes in the Atrial Fibrillation Wave-Dynamics After Using Antiarrhythmic Drugs: A Computational Modeling Study.

Front Physiol 2021 24;12:733543. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea.

We previously reported that a computational modeling-guided antiarrhythmic drug (AAD) test was feasible for evaluating multiple AADs in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We explored the anti-AF mechanisms of AADs and spatial change in the AF wave-dynamics by a realistic computational model. We used realistic computational modeling of 25 AF patients (68% male, 59.8 ± 9.8 years old, 32.0% paroxysmal AF) reflecting the anatomy, histology, and electrophysiology of the left atrium (LA) to characterize the effects of five AADs (amiodarone, sotalol, dronedarone, flecainide, and propafenone). We evaluated the spatial change in the AF wave-dynamics by measuring the mean dominant frequency (DF) and its coefficient of variation [dominant frequency-coefficient of variation (DF-COV)] in 10 segments of the LA. The mean DF and DF-COV were compared according to the pulmonary vein (PV) vs. extra-PV, maximal slope of the restitution curves (Smax), and defragmentation of AF. The mean DF decreased after the administration of AADs in the dose dependent manner ( < 0.001). Under AADs, the DF was significantly lower ( < 0.001) and COV-DF higher ( = 0.003) in the PV than extra-PV region. The mean DF was significantly lower at a high Smax (≥1.4) than a lower Smax condition under AADs. During the episodes of AF defragmentation, the mean DF was lower ( < 0.001), but the COV-DF was higher ( < 0.001) than that in those without defragmentation. The DF reduction with AADs is predominant in the PVs and during a high Smax condition and causes AF termination or defragmentation during a lower DF and spatially unstable (higher DF-COV) condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.733543DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8497701PMC
September 2021

Risk Factors for Stiff Left Atrial Physiology 1 Year After Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation.

Front Physiol 2021 20;12:740600. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Cardiology, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea.

Catheter ablation is the most effective rhythm control method for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF); however, it inevitably causes atrial tissue damage. We previously reported that AF catheter ablation (AFCA) increases left atrial (LA) pressure without changes in symptom scores. We hypothesized that extensive LA ablation increased the risk of stiff LA physiology. We included 1,720 patients (69.1% male, 60.0 [53.0-68.0] years old, 66.2% with paroxysmal AF) who underwent AFCA and echocardiography before and 1-year after the procedure. Stiff LA physiology was defined, when the amount of the estimated pulmonary arterial pressure increase between the pre-procedural and the 1-year post-procedural follow-up echocardiography was >10 mmHg and when right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) was >35 mmHg at 1-year follow-up echocardiography. The failed rhythm control within 1 year was defined as recurrent AF despite using anti-arrhythmic drugs or cardioversion within a year of AFCA. We explored the incidence and risk factors for stiff LA physiology and the rhythm outcome of AFCA. Among the 1,720 patients, 64 (3.7%) had stiff LA physiology 1 year after AFCA. Stiff LA physiology was independently associated with diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 2.36 [95% CI, 1.14-4.87], = 0.020), the ratio of the peak mitral flow velocity of the early rapid filling to the early diastolic velocity of the mitral annulus (E/Em; OR, 1.04 [95% CI, 1.00-1.10], = 0.049), LA pulse pressure (Model 2: OR, 1.05 [95% CI, 1.00-1.11], = 0.049), low LA voltage (OR, 0.36 [95% CI, 0.18-0.74], = 0.005), empirical extra-pulmonary vein (PV) LA ablation (OR, 2.60 [95% CI, 1.17-5.74], = 0.018), and radiofrequency (RF) ablation duration (Model 2: OR, 1.02 [95% CI, 1.01-1.03], = 0.003). Although the incidence of post-AFCA stiff LA physiology was 3.7% and most of the cases were subclinical, the empirical extra-PV ablation was associated with this undesirable condition. In addition, patients who had low mean LA voltage before AFCA could be susceptible to stiff LA physiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.740600DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8488213PMC
September 2021

Enzymatic transformation products of phloretin as potent anti-adipogenic compounds.

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2021 Oct 5. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Daegu University, Gyeongsan 38453, Republic of Korea.

Enzymatic structure modification of the representative chalcone phloretin (1) with polyphenol oxidase from Agaricus bisporus origin produced two new biphenyl-type phloreoxin (2) and phloreoxinone (3), and a previously undescribed (2R)-5,7,3",5"-tetrahydroxyflavanone (4). The structure of these new oxidized products 2‒4 elucidated by interpreting the spectroscopic data (NMR and FABMS) containing the absolute stereochemistry established by analysis of the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum. Compared to the original phloretin, the new products (2) and (3) showed highly improved anti-adipogenic potencies both toward pancreatic lipase and accumulation of 3T3-L1 cells. Aslo, phloreoxin (2) effectively inhibited the expression of C/EBPβ, PPARγ, and aP2 at the mRNA level in the 3T3 adipocytes. Thus, phloreoxin (2), containing a biphenyl moiety catalyzed by A. bisporus polyphenol oxidase, have the potential to influence the anti-adipogenic capacity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bbb/zbab168DOI Listing
October 2021

Kaempferol Blocks the Skin Fibroblastic Interleukin 1β Expression and Cytotoxicity Induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate by Suppressing c-Jun N-terminal Kinase.

Nutrients 2021 Sep 1;13(9). Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan 38610, Korea.

Kaempferol, a bioflavonoid present in fruits and vegetables, has a variety of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities, but the functional role of kaempferol in oxidative skin dermal damage has yet to be well studied. In this study, we examine the role of kaempferol during the inflammation and cell death caused by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). TPA (5 μM) significantly induced cytotoxicity of NHDF, where a robust increase in the interleukin (IL)-1β mRNA among the various pro-inflammatory cytokines. The skin fibroblastic cytotoxicity and IL-1β expression induced by TPA were significantly ameliorated by a treatment with 100 nM of kaempferol. Kaempferol blocked the production of the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) responsible for the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) induced by TPA. Interestingly, we found that kaempferol inhibited the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and the inhibitor NF-κB (IκBα), which are necessary for the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and the IL-1β secretion in TPA-treated NHDF. These results suggest that kaempferol is a functional agent that blocks the signaling cascade of the skin fibroblastic inflammatory response and cytotoxicity triggered by TPA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13093079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8466288PMC
September 2021

Inferior Pulmonary Ligament Division May Be Unnecessary during Left Upper Lobectomy: Effects on Lung Volume, Bronchial Angle and Bronchial Tortuosity.

J Clin Med 2021 Sep 7;10(18). Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 06273, Korea.

The benefits of dissecting inferior pulmonary ligament (IPL) during upper lobectomy using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) for early-stage lung cancer remains controversial. This study evaluates the effect of IPL dissection by comparing the lung volume, bronchial angle, and bronchial tortuosity of the left lower lobe (LLL) during VATS upper lobectomy. Medical records of all patients who underwent VATS left upper lobectomy for early-stage lung cancer were evaluated. Patients were divided into group P (preservation) and group D (dissection). Pre- and post-surgery lung volumes, bronchial angles (angle 1: axial angulation; angle 2: vertical angulation), and bronchial tortuosity (curvature index of the left main bronchus) were measured using computed tomography images for comparison. Forty patients were included in each group. Patient characteristics such as age, gender, body mass index, and smoking status, and preoperative lung volume, bronchial angles, and tortuosity were not significantly different between the two groups, and there was no statistically significant difference in the axial and vertical angulations; however, the change in pre- and postoperative bronchial tortuosity (0.03 ± 0.03 vs. 0.06 ± 0.03) and lung volume (-558.1 ± 410.0 mL vs. -736.3 ± 382.7 mL) showed a significant difference ( 0.001 and 0.04, respectively). Preservation of IPLs during left upper lobectomy may be beneficial for LLL expansion and induces less movement and positional change in the left main bronchus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8472664PMC
September 2021

Clinical Implication of Hypoxic Liver Injury for Predicting Hypoxic Hepatitis and In-Hospital Mortality in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients.

Yonsei Med J 2021 Oct;62(10):877-884

Department of Cardiology, Inha University Hospital, Incheon, Korea.

Purpose: In this study, we aimed to determine the value of hypoxic liver injury (HLI) in the emergency room (ER) for predicting hypoxic hepatitis (HH) and in-hospital mortality in ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients.

Materials And Methods: 1537 consecutive STEMI patients were enrolled. HLI in the ER was defined as a ≥2-fold increase in serum aspartate transaminase (AST). HH was defined as a ≥20-fold increase in peak serum transaminase. Patients were divided into four groups according to HLI and HH status (group 1, no HLI or HH; group 2, HLI, but no HH; group 3, no HLI, but HH; group 4, both HLI and HH).

Results: The incidences of HLI and HH in the ER were 22% and 2%, respectively. In-hospital mortality rates were 3.1%, 11.8%, 28.6%, and 47.1% for groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Patients with HLI and/or HH had worse Killip class, higher cardiac biomarker elevations, and lower left ventricular ejection fraction. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that HLI in the ER was an independent predictor of HH [odds ratio 2.572, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.166-5.675, =0.019]. The predictive value of HLI in the ER for the development of HH during hospitalization was favorable [area under the curve (AUC) 0.737, 95% CI 0.643-0.830, sensitivity 0.548, specificity 0.805, for cut-off value AST >80]. Furthermore, in terms of in-hospital mortality, predictive values of HLI in the ER and HH during hospitalization were comparable (AUC 0.701 for HLI at ER and AUC 0.674 for HH).

Conclusion: Among STEMI patients, HLI in the ER is a significant predictor for the development of HH and mortality during hospitalization (INTERSTELLAR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02800421).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3349/ymj.2021.62.10.877DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8470566PMC
October 2021

Cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis induced by continuous erythropoietin receptor activator.

JAAD Case Rep 2021 Oct 27;16:101-104. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Dermatology, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan, Republic of Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdcr.2021.08.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8441105PMC
October 2021

Association between masticatory muscle activity and oral conditions in young female college students.

Anat Cell Biol 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Dental Hygiene, Division of Health Sciences, Dongseo University, Busan, Korea.

The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of masticatory muscle activity and various oral condition factors, and to analyze their associations in order to improve the prevention and diagnosis of masticatory muscle-related diseases. This study included 30 Korean females (mean age of 20 years, age range of 19-21 years). Participants were instructed to complete a self-written questionnaire on factors that may affect their muscle activity. Surface electromyography was used to measure the activity of the masseter and temporalis muscles. We also observed the buccal mucosa ridge, tongue indentation, tooth cracks and fractures, and mandibular tori in the oral cavity. Spearman correlation analysis and the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test were applied to the data. When subjects had temporomandibular disorder, the right temporalis muscle exhibited significantly lower activity (<0.05). Those who had received orthodontic treatment within the previous 2 years showed significantly lower activity of the left masseter muscle (<0.05). Those who had a left buccal mucosa ridge exhibited lower activity of the left masseter muscle and higher activity of the right temporalis muscle compared with those without such a ridge (<0.05). Participants with no tongue indentation showed significantly higher activity in the left masseter muscle (<0.05). These results indicate that there are relationships between masticatory muscle activity and various factors related to the oral condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5115/acb.21.107DOI Listing
September 2021

Note the descending aorta: predictors of postoperative major adverse aortic event in pure acute type A intramural hematoma.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Aug;13(8):4935-4946

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Yonsei Cardiovascular Hospital, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Intramural hematomas (IMHs) may originate from small intimal tears. Although most surgeries for acute type A IMH are conventionally performed solely at the proximal aorta, regardless of the primary intimal tear site, the remnant aortic remodeling stays important during the follow-up period after surgery.

Methods: Forty-seven patients with "pure" acute type A IMHs who underwent surgery from January 2008 to December 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. Acute type A IMH in the entire region without penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU) and aortic dissection (AD), which upon initial computed tomography (CT), can be considered as an intimal tear site, was defined as "pure" type. The maximal diameter of the aorta, maximal thickness of the IMH, and hematoma thickness ratio (HTR) of the ascending and descending aortae were measured from the preoperative computed tomographic scan. The hematoma thickness index was defined as the HTR of the descending aorta divided by that of the ascending aorta. Major adverse aortic events (MAAEs) were defined as AD, rupture, or newly developed PAU and aortic death. Predictors for postoperative MAAEs were analyzed using preoperative computed tomographic findings.

Results: The measurements of the descending aorta were larger and those of the ascending aorta were smaller in the MAAEs group, than in the corresponding other. The hematoma thickness index was significantly higher in the group with MAAEs, than in the group without; this variable was an independent predictor of MAAEs. During surgery, intimal tears were found in 16/47 (34%) patients. The hematoma thickness index was significantly smaller in the group with intimal tears than in the group without the tears. The aortic measurement appears to reflect the tear site.

Conclusions: Hematoma thickness index was an independent predictor of MAAE after acute type A IMH surgery. Long-term periodical follow-up with early reintervention may, therefore, be necessary to improve outcome in these patients. As the optimal treatment method is still controversial, inferring the location of the primary tear through the hematoma thickness index can be helpful in determining the treatment method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-21-674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8411190PMC
August 2021

Monocytes Contribute to IFN-β Production via the MyD88-Dependent Pathway and Cytotoxic T-Cell Responses against Mucosal Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection.

Immune Netw 2021 Aug 10;21(4):e27. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141, Korea.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of respiratory viral infection in infants and children. However, little is known about the contribution of monocytes to antiviral responses against RSV infection. We identified the IFN-β production of monocytes using IFN-β/YFP reporter mice. The kinetic analysis of IFN-β-producing cells in RSV-infected lung cells indicated that monocytes are recruited to the inflamed lung during the early phase of infection. These cells produced IFN-β via the myeloid differentiation factor 88-mediated pathway, rather than the TLR7- or mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein-mediated pathway. In addition, monocyte-ablated mice exhibited decreased numbers of IFN-γ-producing and RSV Ag-specific CD8 T cells. Collectively, these data indicate that monocytes play pivotal roles in cytotoxic T-cell responses and act as type I IFN producers during RSV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4110/in.2021.21.e27DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8410989PMC
August 2021

Increased risk of ischemic stroke and systemic embolism in hyperthyroidism-related atrial fibrillation: A nationwide cohort study.

Am Heart J 2021 12 1;242:123-131. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: We aimed to evaluate the long-term risk of ischemic stroke/systemic embolism of hyperthyroidism-related AF.

Methods: This retrospective population-based cohort study included records of 1,034,099 atrial fibrillation patients between 2005 and 2016 from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. After exclusion, we identified 615,724 oral anticoagulation-naïve patients aged ≥18 years with new-onset non-valvular atrial fibrillation, of whom 20,773 had hyperthyroidism-related atrial fibrillation. After 3:1 propensity score matching, ischemic stroke and systemic embolism occurrences were compared between hyperthyroidism-related and non-hyperthyroidism-related ("nonthyroidal") atrial fibrillation patients.

Results: After exclusion, we identified 615,724 oral anticoagulation-naïve AF patients of whom 20,773 had hyperthyroidism-related AF. Median follow-up duration was 5.9 years. Hyperthyroidism-related AF patients had significantly higher risks of ischemic stroke and systemic embolism than nonthyroidal AF patients (1.83 vs 1.62 per 100-person year, hazard ratio[HR], 1.13; 95% confidence interval[CI], 1.07 to 1.19; P < 0.001). This risk was 36% higher in hyperthyroidism-related than in nonthyroidal AF patients within 1 year of atrial fibrillation diagnosis (3.65 vs 2.67 per 100-person year, HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.24 - 1.50; P < 0.001). This difference was also observed in the CHADS-VASc score subgroup analysis. The risk of ischemic stroke and systemic embolism significantly decreased in patients treated for hyperthyroidism (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.70; P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Hyperthyroidism-related AF patients have high risks of ischemic stroke and systemic embolism like nonthyroidal AF, especially when initially diagnosed. This risk is reduced by treating hyperthyroidism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2021.08.018DOI Listing
December 2021

Cryoballoon Versus High-Power, Short-Duration Radiofrequency Ablation for Pulmonary Vein Isolation in Patients With Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation: A Single-Center, Prospective, Randomized Study.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2021 Sep 1;14(9):e010040. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

[Figure: see text].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.121.010040DOI Listing
September 2021

Astaxanthin Inhibits Autophagic Cell Death Induced by Bisphenol A in Human Dermal Fibroblasts.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Aug 11;10(8). Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan 38610, Korea.

Astaxanthin, a natural antioxidant carotenoid, is a nutrient with diverse health benefits, given that it decreases the risk of oxidative stress-related diseases. In the present study, we investigate the functional role of astaxanthin during autophagic cell death induced by the estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA) in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). BPA significantly induced apoptotic cell death and autophagy in NHDF. Autophagic cell death evoked by BPA was significantly restored upon a treatment with astaxanthin (10 μM) via the inhibition of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Astaxanthin inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) stimulated by ROS production, but it did not influence the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in BPA-treated NHDF. Astaxanthin abrogated the ERK-mediated activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), which is responsible for the mRNA expression of LC3-II, Beclin-1, Atg12, and Atg14 during apoptotic cell death induced by BPA. These results indicate that astaxanthin is a pharmacological and nutritional agent that blocks the skin fibroblastic autophagic cell death induced by BPA in human dermal fibroblasts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10081273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8389241PMC
August 2021

Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Pathway in Allergic Rhinitis.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Aug 9;10(8). Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea.

Oxidative stress is the cause and consequence of redox metabolism in various physiological and pathological conditions. Understanding the molecular pathways underlying oxidative stress and the role of antioxidants could serve as the key to helping treat associated diseases. Allergic rhinitis is a condition that deteriorates the daily function and quality of life of afflicted individuals and is associated with a high socioeconomic burden and prevalence. Recent studies have focused on the role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in allergic rhinitis. This review discusses animal and clinical studies on oxidative markers and the potential therapeutic dietary antioxidants for allergic rhinitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10081266DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8389336PMC
August 2021

One-Year Change in the HFPEF Score After Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients With a Normal Left Ventricular Systolic Function.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 3;8:699364. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea.

It is unclear whether atrial fibrillation (AF) catheter ablation (AFCA) improves the left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. We evaluated the 1-year change in the HFPEF score, which reflects the degree of LV diastolic function, after AFCA among patients with a normal LV systolic function. We included 1,471 patients (30.7% female, median age 60 years, paroxysmal-type AF 68.6%) who had available HFPEF scores at baseline and at 1-year after AFCA to evaluate the 1-year change in the HFPEF score (ΔHFPEF score) after AFCA. Baseline high HFPEF scores (≥6) were independently associated with the female sex, left atrium (LA) diameter, LV mass index, pericardial fat volume, and a low estimated glomerular filtration rate. One year after AFCA, decreased ΔHFPEF scores were associated with baseline HFPEF scores of ≥6 [OR, 4.19 (95% CI, 2.88-6.11), < 0.001], no diabetes [OR, 0.60 (95% CI, 0.37-0.98), = 0.04], and lower pericardial fat volume [OR, 0.99 (95% CI, 0.99-1.00), = 0.003]. Increased ΔHFPEF scores were associated with a baseline HFPEF score of <6 [OR, 3.54 (95% CI, 2.08-6.04), < 0.001] and sustained AF after a recurrence within 1 year [SustainAF; OR, 1.89 (95% CI, 1.01-3.54), = 0.048]. Throughout a 56-month median follow-up, an increased ΔHFPEF score resulted in a poorer rhythm outcome of AFCA (at 1 year, log-rank = 0.003; long-term, log-rank = 0.010). AFCA appears to improve LV diastolic dysfunction. However, SustainAF may contribute to worsening LV diastolic dysfunction, and it was shown by increased ΔHFPEF scores, which was independently associated with higher risk of AF recurrence rate after AFCA. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02138695.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.699364DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8369029PMC
August 2021

Risk of sick sinus syndrome in patients diagnosed with atrial fibrillation: A population-based cohort.

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2021 10 16;32(10):2704-2714. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Division of Cardiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Sinoatrial node dysfunction and atrial fibrillation (AF) frequently coexist and interact with each other, often to initiate and perpetuate each other.

Objective: To determine the effect of AF on the incidence and risk of sick sinus syndrome (SSS).

Methods: The association of incident AF with the development of incident SSS was assessed from 2004 to 2014 in 302 229 SSS- and pacemaker-free subjects aged ≥60 years in the Korea National Health Insurance Service-Senior cohort.

Results: During an observation period of 1 854 800 person-years, incident AF was observed in a total of 12 797 subjects (0.69%/year). The incidence of SSS was 3.4 and 0.2 per 1000 person-years in the propensity score-matched incident AF and no-AF groups, respectively. After adjustment, the significantly increased risk of SSS was observed in the incident AF group, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 13.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.4-21.4). This finding was consistently observed after censoring for heart failure (HR: 16.0; 95% CI: 9.2-28.0) or heart failure/myocardial infarction (HR: 16.6; 95% CI: 9.3-29.7). Incident AF also was associated with an increased risk of pacemaker implantation related with both SSS (HR: 21.8; 95% CI: 8.7-18.4) and atrioventricular (AV) block (HR: 9.5; 95% CI: 4.9-18.4). These results were consistent regardless of sex and comorbidities.

Conclusion: Incident AF was associated with more than 10 times increased risk of SSS in an elderly population regardless of comorbidities. The risk of pacemaker implantations related with both sinus node dysfunction and AV block was increased in the elderly population with incident AF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jce.15202DOI Listing
October 2021

Protective Effect of Ciclopirox against Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss in Mice by Suppressing Osteoclast Formation and Function.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 2;22(15). Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Oral Pathology and Regenerative Medicine, School of Dentistry, Institute for Hard Tissue and Bio-tooth Regeneration (IHBR), Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41940, Korea.

Postmenopausal osteoporosis is closely associated with excessive osteoclast formation and function, resulting in the loss of bone mass. Osteoclast-targeting agents have been developed to manage this disease. We examined the effects of ciclopirox on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro and in vivo. Ciclopirox significantly inhibited osteoclast formation from primary murine bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) in response to receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), and the expression of genes associated with osteoclastogenesis and function was decreased. The formation of actin rings and resorption pits was suppressed by ciclopirox. Analysis of RANKL-mediated early signaling events in BMMs revealed that ciclopirox attenuates IκBα phosphorylation without affecting mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Furthermore, the administration of ciclopirox suppressed osteoclast formation and bone loss in ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in mice and reduced serum levels of osteocalcin and C-terminal telopeptide fragment of type I collagen C-terminus. These results indicate that ciclopirox exhibits antiosteoclastogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo and represents a new candidate compound for protection against osteoporosis and other osteoclast-related bone diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22158299DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8348120PMC
August 2021

Morphology of the temporalis muscle focusing on the tendinous attachment onto the coronoid process.

Anat Cell Biol 2021 Sep;54(3):308-314

Department of Anatomy and Orofacial Development, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju, Korea.

The temporalis muscle is usually described as a single layer originating at the temporal line, converging to a tendon, and inserting onto a narrow site of the coronoid process. However, recent studies have shown that the temporalis muscle can be divided into two or three separate segments and the distal attachment continues inferiorly beyond the coronoid process. Therefore, the aims of this study were to analyze the morphology of the temporalis muscle focusing on the tendinous attachment onto the coronoid process and to provide educational values. The temporalis muscle was carefully dissected in 26 cadavers and classified based on the muscle fascicle direction. Each divided part was sketched and measured based on bony landmarks to elucidate its tendinous insertion site onto the coronoid process, and the results obtained were reviewed through the literature. The temporalis muscle ends at two distinct terminal tendons with wider insertion sites than usually presented in textbooks and atlases and separates into two parts that combine to act as a single structural unit. The superficial part is a large fan-shaped muscle commonly recognized as the temporalis muscle. This converges infero-medially to form the superficial tendon and the lateral boundary of the retromolar triangle. Meanwhile, the deep part is a narrow vertically oriented rectangular muscle that converges postero-laterally to form the deep tendon and the medial boundary of the retromolar triangle. These results indicate that understanding the temporalis muscle's insertion site onto the coronoid process will be useful clinically with educational values during surgical procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5115/acb.21.074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8493017PMC
September 2021

Impact of coexistent preserved ratio impaired spirometry on the survival of patients with lung cancer: Analysis of data from the Korean Association for Lung Cancer Registry.

Thorac Cancer 2021 Sep 1;12(18):2478-2486. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Department of Internal Medicine, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine and Gyeongsang National University Changwon Hospital, Changwon, Republic of Korea.

Background: Preserved ratio impaired spirometry (PRISm) is a common spirometric pattern that is associated with respiratory symptoms and higher mortality rates. However, the relationship between lung cancer and PRISm remains unclear. This study investigated the clinical characteristics of lung cancer patients with PRISm and the potential role of PRISm as a prognostic factor.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data collected from 2014 to 2015 in the Korean Association for Lung Cancer Registry. We classified all patients into three subgroups according to lung function as follows: normal lung function; PRISm (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV ] < 80% predicted and FEV /forced vital capacity [FVC] ≥ 0.7); and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; FEV1/FVC < 0.7). In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC), the overall survival period was compared among the three subgroups. The prognostic factors were investigated using Cox regression analysis.

Results: Of the 3763 patients, 38.6%, 40.1%, and 21.3% had normal lung function, COPD, and PRISm, respectively. Patients with PRISm had poorer overall survival than those with COPD or normal lung function in NSCLC and SCLC (Mantel-Cox log-rank test, p < 0.05). In the risk-adjusted analysis, overall survival was independently associated with COPD (hazard ratio [HR] 1.209, p = 0.027) and PRISm (HR 1.628, p < 0.001) in NSCLC, but was only associated with PRISm (HR 1.629, p = 0.004) in SCLC.

Conclusions: PRISm is a significant pattern of lung function in patients with lung cancer. At the time of lung cancer diagnosis, pre-existing PRISm should be considered a predictive factor of poor prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.14095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8447913PMC
September 2021
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