Publications by authors named "Tae-Ho Lee"

211 Publications

Mild to Moderate Varus Alignment in Relation to Surgical Repair of a Medial Meniscus Root Tear: A Matched-Cohort Controlled Study With 2 Years of Follow-up.

Am J Sports Med 2021 Feb 18:363546520988072. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Arthroscopy and Joint Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Increased varus alignment of the lower extremity is known to be a poor prognostic factor for the surgical repair for a medial meniscus root tear (MMRT). However, given the concept of constitutional varus, which is present in a substantial portion of the normal population, the generally accepted surgical indication for MMRT concerning a varus alignment of 5° may be unnecessarily narrow.

Purpose: To compare the surgical outcomes of arthroscopic transtibial pullout repair of MMRT according to the degree of varus alignment of the lower extremity.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Patients who underwent isolated arthroscopic transtibial pullout repair of MMRT between January 2010 and July 2017 at one institution and had a minimum follow-up of 2 years were included in this study. Patients were classified into 1 of 2 groups: the experimental group (n = 22) included patients with a preoperative hip-knee-ankle angle between 5° and 10° varus (mild to moderate varus alignment) and the control group (n = 51) included those with a preoperative hip-knee-ankle angle <5° varus (neutral alignment). Clinical scores and radiographic parameters were compared between the groups to assess surgical outcomes, which were statistically matched for potential confounders (age, body mass index, the severity of cartilage lesion) by use of the inverse probability of treatment weighting. A noninferiority trial was performed comparing the experimental and control groups in terms of subjective outcomes (International Knee Documentation Committee subjective and Lysholm scores) and objective outcomes (postoperative medial meniscal extrusion and the rate of osteoarthritis progression).

Results: There were no statistically significant differences in surgical outcomes between the groups in subjective and objective aspects, which were consistent before and after inverse probability of treatment weighting. Apart from the clinical improvement observed in both groups, overall degenerative changes in the knee were found, although progression rates did not differ between the groups. In terms of the noninferiority trial, the overall surgical outcomes in the experimental group were not inferior to those in the control group.

Conclusion: The short-term surgical outcomes of arthroscopic transtibial pullout repair for MMRT of patients with mild to moderate varus alignment were not inferior to but rather comparable with those with neutral alignment in terms of subjective and objective aspects. Therefore, it would be inappropriate to exclude patients with a diagnosis of MMRT from being indicated for the surgery simply because of mild to moderate varus alignment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546520988072DOI Listing
February 2021

The Pin1-CaMKII-AMPA Receptor Axis Regulates Epileptic Susceptibility.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Feb 11. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Fujian Key Laboratory for Translational Research in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases, Institute for Translational Medicine, The School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350108, China.

Pin1 is a unique isomerase that regulates protein conformation and function after phosphorylation. Pin1 aberration contributes to some neurological diseases, notably Alzheimer's disease, but its role in epilepsy is not fully understood. We found that Pin1-deficient mice had significantly increased seizure susceptibility in multiple chemical inducing models and developed age-dependent spontaneous epilepsy. Electrophysiologically, Pin1 ablation enhanced excitatory synaptic transmission to prefrontal cortex (PFC) pyramidal neurons without affecting their intrinsic excitability. Biochemically, Pin1 ablation upregulated AMPA receptors and GluA1 phosphorylation by acting on phosphorylated CaMKII. Clinically, Pin1 was decreased significantly, whereas phosphorylated CaMKII and GluA1 were increased in the neocortex of patients with epilepsy. Moreover, Pin1 expression restoration in the PFC of Pin1-deficient mice using viral gene transfer significantly reduced phosphorylated CaMKII and GluA1 and effectively suppressed their seizure susceptibility. Thus, Pin1-CaMKII-AMPA receptors are a novel axis controlling epileptic susceptibility, highlighting attractive new therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhab004DOI Listing
February 2021

The complete chloroplast genome sequence of economical standard tea plant, cultivar Sangmok, in Korea.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Jul 15;5(3):2835-2836. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Division of Food Science, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, South Korea.

The complete chloroplast genome sequence of cultivar Sangmok was determined using high-throughput sequencing technology. We sequenced Sangmok chloroplast genome and performed comparative with 21 published other and species from different genus for phylogenetic analysis. Chloroplast genome was 153,044 bp in length, containing a pair of 24,627 bp inverted repeat (IR) regions, which were separated by small and large single-copy regions (SSC and LSC) of 19,155 and 64,665 bp, respectively. The chloroplast genome contained 97 genes (63 protein-coding genes, 29 genes, and 5 genes). The overall GC content of the chloroplast genome was 37.2%. The phylogenetic analysis among species in number of the genus provided that cultivar Sangmok is closely related to KJ806277 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1790311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7782013PMC
July 2020

Editorial: Phosphorylation-Dependent Peptidyl-Prolyl Cis/Trans Isomerase PIN1.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 27;8:620418. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Division of Cancer Biology, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.620418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7729089PMC
November 2020

The Natural History of High-Grade Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: The Conversion Rate to Full Thickness Tears and Affecting Factors.

Clin Orthop Surg 2020 Dec 18;12(4):514-520. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, National Police Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Information regarding the progression of high-grade partial thickness rotator cuff tears (PTRCTs) is scarce. We aimed to assess the clinical outcome and the conversion rate to full thickness tears in patients with high-grade PTRCTs who underwent nonoperative treatment and to determine the factors associated with tear progression.

Methods: A total of 52 patients with high-grade PTRCTs, which were detected by magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasonography (USG), were treated conservatively between 2010 and 2017. They were followed up with USG at 6- to 12-month intervals for a mean of 34 months (range, 12-105 months). The average patient age was 57 years (range, 34-70 years), and 34 patients were women. Age, sex, body mass index, arm dominance, symptom duration, subscapularis tendon involvement, tear location, and trauma history were compared between patients with and without conversion to full thickness tears.

Results: A substantial percentage of high-grade PTRCTs progressed to full thickness tears (16/52, 30.8%). According to Kaplan-Meier analysis, the full thickness conversion rate was 30.8% at 3 years and 64% at 4 years. The full thickness conversion rate was higher in patients with subscapularis tendon involvement ( = 0.012).

Conclusions: A considerably large proportion of high-grade PTRCTs progressed to full thickness tears. Therefore, regular monitoring of tear progression should be considered after conservative treatment of high-grade PTRCTs, particularly in patients with subscapularis tendon involvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4055/cios19167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7683193PMC
December 2020

Genome-enabled discovery of anthraquinone biosynthesis in Senna tora.

Nat Commun 2020 11 18;11(1):5875. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering and Biotechnology, Sun Moon University, Asan, 31460, Republic of Korea.

Senna tora is a widely used medicinal plant. Its health benefits have been attributed to the large quantity of anthraquinones, but how they are made in plants remains a mystery. To identify the genes responsible for plant anthraquinone biosynthesis, we reveal the genome sequence of S. tora at the chromosome level with 526 Mb (96%) assembled into 13 chromosomes. Comparison among related plant species shows that a chalcone synthase-like (CHS-L) gene family has lineage-specifically and rapidly expanded in S. tora. Combining genomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, and biochemistry, we identify a CHS-L gene contributing to the biosynthesis of anthraquinones. The S. tora reference genome will accelerate the discovery of biologically active anthraquinone biosynthesis pathways in medicinal plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19681-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7674472PMC
November 2020

3-Pentylcatechol, a Non-Allergenic Urushiol Derivative, Displays Anti- Activity In Vivo.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2020 Nov 13;13(11). Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbongro, Gwangju 61186, Korea.

We previously reported that 3-pentylcatechol (PC), a synthetic non-allergenic urushiol derivative, inhibited the growth of in an in vitro assay using nutrient agar and broth. In this study, we aimed to investigate the in vivo antimicrobial activity of PC against growing in the stomach mucous membrane. Four-week-old male C57BL/6 mice (n = 4) were orally inoculated with Sydney Strain-1 (SS-1) for 8 weeks. Thereafter, the mice received PC (1, 5, and 15 mg/kg) and triple therapy (omeprazole, 0.7 mg/kg; metronidazole, 16.7 mg/kg; clarithromycin, 16.7 mg/kg, reference groups) once daily for 10 days. Infiltration of inflammatory cells in gastric tissue was greater in the -infected group compared with the control group and lower in both the triple therapy- and PC-treated groups. In addition, upregulation of cytokine mRNA was reversed after infection, upon administration of triple therapy and PC. Interestingly, PC was more effective than triple therapy at all doses, even at 1/15th the dose of triple therapy. In addition, PC demonstrated synergism with triple therapy, even at low concentrations. The results suggest that PC may be more effective against than established antibiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph13110384DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7697961PMC
November 2020

Cortical thickness and resting-state cardiac function across the lifespan: A cross-sectional pooled mega-analysis.

Psychophysiology 2020 Oct 10. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Norwegian Centre for Mental Disorders Research (NORMENT), Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Understanding the association between autonomic nervous system [ANS] function and brain morphology across the lifespan provides important insights into neurovisceral mechanisms underlying health and disease. Resting-state ANS activity, indexed by measures of heart rate [HR] and its variability [HRV] has been associated with brain morphology, particularly cortical thickness [CT]. While findings have been mixed regarding the anatomical distribution and direction of the associations, these inconsistencies may be due to sex and age differences in HR/HRV and CT. Previous studies have been limited by small sample sizes, which impede the assessment of sex differences and aging effects on the association between ANS function and CT. To overcome these limitations, 20 groups worldwide contributed data collected under similar protocols of CT assessment and HR/HRV recording to be pooled in a mega-analysis (N = 1,218 (50.5% female), mean age 36.7 years (range: 12-87)). Findings suggest a decline in HRV as well as CT with increasing age. CT, particularly in the orbitofrontal cortex, explained additional variance in HRV, beyond the effects of aging. This pattern of results may suggest that the decline in HRV with increasing age is related to a decline in orbitofrontal CT. These effects were independent of sex and specific to HRV; with no significant association between CT and HR. Greater CT across the adult lifespan may be vital for the maintenance of healthy cardiac regulation via the ANS-or greater cardiac vagal activity as indirectly reflected in HRV may slow brain atrophy. Findings reveal an important association between CT and cardiac parasympathetic activity with implications for healthy aging and longevity that should be studied further in longitudinal research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyp.13688DOI Listing
October 2020

An Increase in Medial Joint Space Width After Medial Open-Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy Is Associated With an Increase in the Postoperative Weight-Bearing Line Ratio Rather Than With Cartilage Regeneration: Comparative Analysis of Patients Who Underwent Second-Look Arthroscopic Assessment.

Arthroscopy 2021 02 3;37(2):657-668.e4. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

Arthroscopy and Joint Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Purpose: To investigate relevant factors influencing increases in medial joint space width (JSW) after medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (MOWHTO).

Methods: Between January 2010 and December 2018, the electronic medical records of consecutive patients who underwent MOWHTO and subsequent second-look arthroscopic assessment at least 12 months after MOWHTO were retrospectively evaluated. The patients were classified into 2 groups according to changes in the medial JSW of the knee at the time of the second-look operation compared with that at baseline before the initial surgical procedure. Various radiographic parameters, arthroscopic findings, and clinical scores were compared between the groups, and regression analysis was performed to identify factors related to increases in medial JSW.

Results: A total of 114 patients were analyzed. In a bivariate analysis, patients who experienced an increase in medial JSW showed a significantly higher postoperative weight-bearing line ratio (WBLR) (P = .008) and a greater proportion of severe preoperative cartilage lesions in the medial compartment of the knee compared with patients with a maintained or reduced medial JSW (P = .035). In terms of clinical scores, patients with an increased medial JSW showed relatively favorable clinical outcomes at the time of the second-look operation. Regression analysis indicated only postoperative WBLR as a relevant factor associated with an increase in medial JSW after MOWHTO (odds ratio, 1.057; P = .01). Additional analysis with patients reclassified according to the postoperative WBLR showed that as the postoperative WBLR increased, the medial JSW increased, without a significant change in the lateral JSW.

Conclusions: An increase in the medial JSW of the knee joint after MOWHTO appears to be associated with an increase in the postoperative WBLR, not with cartilage regeneration. Obtaining adequate correction so that the postoperative WBLR is within 60% to 70% would be desirable in terms of postoperative changes in the medial JSW, as well as clinical outcomes.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, retrospective cohort study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2020.09.042DOI Listing
February 2021

Mutual regulation between OGT and XIAP to control colon cancer cell growth and invasion.

Cell Death Dis 2020 09 29;11(9):815. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Glycosylation Network Research Center, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea.

O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) is an enzyme that catalyzes the O-GlcNAc modification of nucleocytoplasmic proteins and is highly expressed in many types of cancer. However, the mechanism regulating its expression in cancer cells is not well understood. This study shows that OGT is a substrate of the E3 ubiquitin ligase X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) which plays an important role in cancer pathogenesis. Although LSD2 histone demethylase has already been reported as an E3 ubiquitin ligase in lung cancer cells, we identified XIAP as the main E3 ubiquitin ligase in colon cancer cells. Interestingly, OGT catalyzes the O-GlcNAc modification of XIAP at serine 406 and this modification is required for the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of XIAP toward specifically OGT. Moreover, O-GlcNAcylation of XIAP suppresses colon cancer cell growth and invasion by promoting the proteasomal degradation of OGT. Therefore, our findings regarding the reciprocal regulation of OGT and XIAP provide a novel molecular mechanism for controlling cancer growth and invasion regulated by OGT and O-GlcNAc modification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-02999-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7525441PMC
September 2020

NGS_SNPAnalyzer: a desktop software supporting genome projects by identifying and visualizing sequence variations from next-generation sequencing data.

Genes Genomics 2020 Nov 26;42(11):1311-1317. Epub 2020 Sep 26.

Genomics Division, National Institute of Agricultural Science, 370 Nongsaengmyeong-ro, Jeonju, 54874, Republic of Korea.

Background: Sequence variations such as single nucleotide polymorphisms are markers for genetic diseases and breeding. Therefore, identifying sequence variations is one of the main objectives of several genome projects. Although most genome project consortiums provide standard operation procedures for sequence variation detection methods, there may be differences in the results because of human selection or error.

Objective: To standardize the procedure for sequence variation detection and help researchers who are not formally trained in bioinformatics, we developed the NGS_SNPAnalyzer, a desktop software and fully automated graphical pipeline.

Methods: The NGS_SNPAnalyzer is implemented using JavaFX (version 1.8); therefore, it is not limited to any operating system (OS). The tools employed in the NGS_SNPAnalyzer were compiled on Microsoft Windows (version 7, 10) and Ubuntu Linux (version 16.04, 17.0.4).

Results: The NGS_SNPAnalyzer not only includes the functionalities for variant calling and annotation but also provides quality control, mapping, and filtering details to support all procedures from next-generation sequencing (NGS) data to variant visualization. It can be executed using pre-set pipelines and options and customized via user-specified options. Additionally, the NGS_SNPAnalyzer provides a user-friendly graphical interface and can be installed on any OS that supports JAVA.

Conclusions: Although there are several pipelines and visualization tools available for NGS data analysis, we developed the NGS_SNPAnalyzer to provide the user with an easy-to-use interface. The benchmark test results indicate that the NGS_SNPAnayzer achieves better performance than other open source tools.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13258-020-00997-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7567733PMC
November 2020

Where You Lead, I Will Follow: Exploring Sibling Similarity in Brain and Behavior During Risky Decision Making.

J Res Adolesc 2020 Sep 18. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

This exploratory study examined whether social learning increases similarity in adolescent siblings' behavior and neural patterns during risky decision making. Participants included 86 adolescents (43 sibling dyads; younger siblings: M  = 12.2 years; 22 females; older siblings: M  = 14.6 years; 20 females) who completed questionnaires, and a decision-making task during an fMRI scan. Younger siblings became more similar to their older siblings' risky decision making after observing their older sibling take risks). Younger siblings who reported greater modeling of their older sibling, and less differentiation from them, showed increased neural similarity to their older siblings in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and the right anterior insula and ventral striatum, respectively. These findings highlight siblings as salient social agents in how adolescents process risky decision making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jora.12581DOI Listing
September 2020

Nanoscale light element identification using machine learning aided STEM-EDS.

Sci Rep 2020 Aug 13;10(1):13699. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Ferrous Alloy Department, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon, 51508, Republic of Korea.

Light element identification is necessary in materials research to obtain detailed insight into various material properties. However, reported techniques, such as scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) have inadequate detection limits, which impairs identification. In this study, we achieved light element identification with nanoscale spatial resolution in a multi-component metal alloy through unsupervised machine learning algorithms of singular value decomposition (SVD) and independent component analysis (ICA). Improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the STEM-EDS spectrum images was achieved by combining SVD and ICA, leading to the identification of a nanoscale N-depleted region that was not observed in as-measured STEM-EDS. Additionally, the formation of the nanoscale N-depleted region was validated using STEM-electron energy loss spectroscopy and multicomponent diffusional transformation simulation. The enhancement of SNR in STEM-EDS spectrum images by machine learning algorithms can provide an efficient, economical chemical analysis method to identify light elements at the nanoscale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70674-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7426414PMC
August 2020

Cellular Mechanisms of Melatonin: Insight from Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Biomolecules 2020 08 7;10(8). Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Fujian Key Laboratory for Translational Research in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases, Institute for Translational Medicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350122, Fujian, China.

Neurodegenerative diseases are the second most common cause of death and characterized by progressive impairments in movement or mental functioning in the central or peripheral nervous system. The prevention of neurodegenerative disorders has become an emerging public health challenge for our society. Melatonin, a pineal hormone, has various physiological functions in the brain, including regulating circadian rhythms, clearing free radicals, inhibiting biomolecular oxidation, and suppressing neuroinflammation. Cumulative evidence indicates that melatonin has a wide range of neuroprotective roles by regulating pathophysiological mechanisms and signaling pathways. Moreover, melatonin levels are decreased in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the regulation, molecular mechanisms and biological functions of melatonin in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, vascular dementia and multiple sclerosis. We also discuss the clinical application of melatonin in neurodegenerative disorders. This information will lead to a better understanding of the regulation of melatonin in the brain and provide therapeutic options for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10081158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7464852PMC
August 2020

A new class of lightweight, stainless steels with ultra-high strength and large ductility.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 22;10(1):12140. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Steel Department, Advanced Metals Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, 797 Changwondae-ro, Seongsan-gu, Changwon, Gyeongnam, 51508, Republic of Korea.

Steel is the global backbone material of industrialized societies, with more than 1.8 billion tons produced per year. However, steel-containing structures decay due to corrosion, destroying annually 3.4% (2.5 trillion US$) of the global gross domestic product. Besides this huge loss in value, a solution to the corrosion problem at minimum environmental impact would also leverage enhanced product longevity, providing an immense contribution to sustainability. Here, we report a leap forward toward this aim through the development of a new family of low-density stainless steels with ultra-high strength (> 1 GPa) and high ductility (> 35%). The alloys are based on the Fe-(20-30)Mn-(11.5-12.0)Al-1.5C-5Cr (wt%) system and are strengthened by dispersions of nano-sized FeAlC-type κ-carbide. The alloying with Cr enhances the ductility without sacrificing strength, by suppressing the precipitation of κ-carbide and thus stabilizing the austenite matrix. The formation of a protective Al-rich oxide film on the surface lends the alloys outstanding resistance to pitting corrosion similar to ferritic stainless steels. The new alloy class has thus the potential to replace commercial stainless steels as it has much higher strength at similar formability, 17% lower mass density and lower environmental impact, qualifying it for demanding lightweight, corrosion resistant, high-strength structural parts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69177-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7376142PMC
July 2020

Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 and Alzheimer's Disease.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 15;8:355. Epub 2020 May 15.

Fujian Key Laboratory for Translational Research in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases, Institute for Translational Medicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia with cognitive decline. The neuropathology of AD is characterized by intracellular aggregation of neurofibrillary tangles consisting of hyperphosphorylated tau and extracellular deposition of senile plaques composed of beta-amyloid peptides derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP). The peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 binds to phosphorylated serine or threonine residues preceding proline and regulates the biological functions of its substrates. Although Pin1 is tightly regulated under physiological conditions, Pin1 deregulation in the brain contributes to the development of neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. In this review, we discuss the expression and regulatory mechanisms of Pin1 in AD. We also focus on the molecular mechanisms by which Pin1 controls two major proteins, tau and APP, after phosphorylation and their signaling cascades. Moreover, the major impact of Pin1 deregulation on the progression of AD in animal models is discussed. This information will lead to a better understanding of Pin1 signaling pathways in the brain and may provide therapeutic options for the treatment of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.00355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243138PMC
May 2020

The Evolution of an Invasive Plant, L. ('Johnsongrass').

Front Genet 2020 14;11:317. Epub 2020 May 14.

School of Integrative Plant Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States.

From noble beginnings as a prospective forage, polyploid ('Johnsongrass') is both an invasive species and one of the world's worst agricultural weeds. Formed by x hybridization, we show to have -enriched allele composition and striking mutations in 5,957 genes that differentiate it from representatives of its progenitor species and an outgroup. The spread of may have been facilitated by introgression from closely-related cultivated sorghum near genetic loci affecting rhizome development, seed size, and levels of lutein, a photochemical protectant and abscisic acid precursor. Rhizomes, subterranean stems that store carbohydrates and spawn clonal propagules, have growth correlated with reproductive rather than other vegetative tissues, and increase survival of both temperate cold seasons and tropical dry seasons. Rhizomes of are more extensive than those of its rhizomatous progenitor , with gene expression including many alleles from its non-rhizomatous progenitor. The first surviving polyploid in its lineage in ∼96 million years, its post-Columbian spread across six continents carried rich genetic diversity that in the United States has facilitated transition from agricultural to non-agricultural niches. Projected to spread another 200-600 km northward in the coming century, despite its drawbacks may offer novel alleles and traits of value to improvement of sorghum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.00317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7240026PMC
May 2020

Ionization Neutralizes the Allergy-Inducing Property of 3-Pentadecylcatechol: A Urushiol Derivative.

J Med Food 2020 Jul 7;23(7):793-801. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

Urushiols are amphipathic compounds found in Stokes that exhibit various biological activities. However, their practical use is very restricted due to their contact dermatitis-inducing property. Therefore, we applied the ionization method to remove the allergenic properties of the urushiols and to increase their usability. One of the natural urushiols, 3-pentadecylcatechol (PDC), was heated for 30 min with a solution of HO and sodium carbonate (NaCO). The reaction product was analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Ionized PDC with an value of 316.9 and complexed PDCs with Na of 1 - 3 atoms with values of 340.8, 365.2, and 380.8 were detected. PDC and ionized PDC (3 mol/3 mg of Vaseline) treatments were applied on the rear of left ear of Sprague-Dawley rats once daily for 10 days. Erythema and swelling were observed on the ear skin treated with PDC, but not in case of ionized PDC. Compared with control, contact hypersensitivity-related biomarkers (neutrophils, eosinophils, immunoglobulin E, and histamine) in the blood were significantly higher only in the PDC-treated group. In addition, , , , and mRNA expression levels were dramatically increased in the ear tissue of PDC-treated rats, but in the ionized PDC-treated group, they were similar to those in the control group. Overall, it was confirmed that the allergenic property of the urushiol PDC was removed by ionization. This method is expected to be useful for preventing allergy induction in cooking and food processing using Stokes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2019.4510DOI Listing
July 2020

Melatonin directly binds and inhibits death-associated protein kinase 1 function in Alzheimer's disease.

J Pineal Res 2020 Sep 27;69(2):e12665. Epub 2020 May 27.

Fujian Key Laboratory for Translational Research in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases, Institute for Translational Medicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China.

Death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) is upregulated in the brains of human Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients compared with normal subjects, and aberrant DAPK1 regulation is implicated in the development of AD. However, little is known about whether and how DAPK1 function is regulated in AD. Here, we identified melatonin as a critical regulator of DAPK1 levels and function. Melatonin significantly decreases DAPK1 expression in a post-transcriptional manner in neuronal cell lines and mouse primary cortical neurons. Moreover, melatonin directly binds to DAPK1 and promotes its ubiquitination, resulting in increased DAPK1 protein degradation through a proteasome-dependent pathway. Furthermore, in tau-overexpressing mouse brain slices, melatonin treatment and the inhibition of DAPK1 kinase activity synergistically decrease tau phosphorylation at multiple sites related to AD. In addition, melatonin and DAPK1 inhibitor dramatically accelerate neurite outgrowth and increase the assembly of microtubules. Mechanistically, melatonin-mediated DAPK1 degradation increases the activity of Pin1, a prolyl isomerase known to play a protective role against tau hyperphosphorylation and tau-related pathologies. Finally, elevated DAPK1 expression shows a strong correlation with the decrease in melatonin levels in human AD brains. Combined, these results suggest that DAPK1 regulation by melatonin is a novel mechanism that controls tau phosphorylation and function and offers new therapeutic options for treating human AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpi.12665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890046PMC
September 2020

The Genetics of Alzheimer's Disease in the Chinese Population.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Mar 30;21(7). Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Fujian Key Laboratory for Translational Research in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases, Institute for Translational Medicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350122, China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive cognitive dysfunction and behavioral impairment. In China, the number of AD patients is growing rapidly, which poses a considerable burden on society and families. In recent years, through the advancement of genome-wide association studies, second-generation gene sequencing technology, and their application in AD genetic research, more genetic loci associated with the risk for AD have been discovered, including , and , which provides new ideas for the etiology and treatment of AD. This review summarizes three early-onset AD causative genes (, , and ) and some late-onset AD susceptibility genes and their mutation sites newly discovered in China, and briefly introduces the potential mechanisms of these genetic susceptibilities in the pathogenesis of AD, which would help in understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying this devastating disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7178026PMC
March 2020

Post-translational Modifications of the Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerase Pin1.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 4;8:129. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Fujian Key Laboratory for Translational Research in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases, Institute for Translational Medicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

The peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) Pin1 is a unique enzyme that only binds to Ser/Thr-Pro peptide motifs after phosphorylation and regulates the conformational changes of the bond. The Pin1-catalyzed isomerization upon phosphorylation can have profound effects on substrate biological functions, including their activity, stability, assembly, and subcellular localization, affecting its role in intracellular signaling, transcription, and cell cycle progression. The functions of Pin1 are regulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs) in many biological processes, which include phosphorylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation and oxidation. Phosphorylation of different Pin1 sites regulates Pin1 enzymatic activity, binding ability, localization, and ubiquitination by different kinases under various cellular contexts. Moreover, SUMOylation and oxidation have been shown to downregulate Pin1 activity. Although Pin1 is tightly regulated under physiological conditions, deregulation of Pin1 PTMs contributes to the development of human diseases including cancer and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, manipulating the PTMs of Pin1 may be a promising therapeutic option for treating various human diseases. In this review, we focus on the molecular mechanisms of Pin1 regulation by PTMs and the major impact of Pin1 PTMs on the progression of cancer and AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.00129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7064559PMC
March 2020

Relationships between multiple dimensions of executive functioning and resting-state networks in adults.

Neuropsychologia 2020 04 10;141:107418. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Department of Psychology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, United States.

The current study sought to examine the functional connectivity of resting state networks (RSNs) as they relate to the individual domains of executive functioning (EF). Based on the Unity and Diversity model (Miyake et al., 2000), EF performance was captured using a three-factor model proposed by Karr et al. (2018), which includes inhibition, shifting, and fluency. Publicly available data was used from the Nathan Kline Institute -Rockland project was used. Of the 722 participants who completed the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), which was used to measure EF performance, 269 of these individuals completed resting state fMRI scans. First, a confirmatory factory analysis replicated Karr et al. (2018) revealing three components: inhibition, shifting and fluency. Next, RSNs were identified across the sample using an Independent Components Analysis (ICA) and was compared to previously established intrinsic connectivity networks (Laird et al., 2011). Finally, dual regression was used to analyze the relationships between the functional connectivity of RSNs and EF performance, which indicated that RSNs were differentially associated with inhibition and shifting. Better inhibition was related to increased connectivity between the left striatum and the attentional control network. Better shifting performance was related to increased connectivity between the pre- and postcentral gyri and the speech and sensorimotor network. These results highlight individual differences within these RSNs that are unique to the literature, as non-EF confounds are mitigated within the current measurements of EF performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2020.107418DOI Listing
April 2020

The Decline in Intrinsic Connectivity Between the Salience Network and Locus Coeruleus in Older Adults: Implications for Distractibility.

Front Aging Neurosci 2020 31;12. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Davis School of Gerontology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

We examined functional connectivity between the locus coeruleus (LC) and the salience network in healthy young and older adults to investigate why people become more prone to distraction with age. Recent findings suggest that the LC plays an important role in focusing processing on salient or goal-relevant information from multiple incoming sensory inputs (Mather et al., 2016). We hypothesized that the connection between LC and the salience network declines in older adults, and therefore the salience network fails to appropriately filter out irrelevant sensory signals. To examine this possibility, we used resting-state-like fMRI data, in which all task-related activities were regressed out (Fair et al., 2007; Elliott et al., 2019) and performed a functional connectivity analysis based on the time-course of LC activity. Older adults showed reduced functional connectivity between the LC and salience network compared with younger adults. Additionally, the salience network was relatively more coupled with the frontoparietal network than the default-mode network in older adults compared with younger adults, even though all task-related activities were regressed out. Together, these findings suggest that reduced interactions between LC and the salience network impairs the ability to prioritize the importance of incoming events, and in turn, the salience network fails to initiate network switching (e.g., Menon and Uddin, 2010; Uddin, 2015) that would promote further attentional processing. A chronic lack of functional connection between LC and salience network may limit older adults' attentional and executive control resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2020.00002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7004957PMC
January 2020

Potential implications of hydrogen peroxide in the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies of gliomas.

Arch Pharm Res 2020 Feb 19;43(2):187-203. Epub 2020 Jan 19.

Fujian Key Laboratory for Translational Research in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases, Institute for Translational Medicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fujian Medical University, 1 Xuefu North Road, Fuzhou, 350122, Fujian, China.

Glioma is the most common type of primary brain tumor, and it has a high mortality rate. Currently, there are only a few therapeutic approaches for gliomas, and their effects are unsatisfactory. Therefore, uncovering the pathogenesis and exploring more therapeutic strategies for the treatment of gliomas are urgently needed to overcome the ongoing challenges. Cellular redox imbalance has been shown to be associated with the initiation and progression of gliomas. Among reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydrogen peroxide (HO) is considered the most suitable for redox signaling and is a potential candidate as a key molecule that determines the fate of cancer cells. In this review, we discuss the potential cellular and molecular roles of HO in gliomagenesis and explore the potential implications of HO in radiotherapy and chemotherapy and in the ongoing challenges of current glioma treatment. Moreover, we evaluate HO as a potential redox sensor and potential driver molecule of nanocatalytic therapeutic strategies for glioma treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12272-020-01205-6DOI Listing
February 2020

Phosphorylation Signaling in APP Processing in Alzheimer's Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Dec 27;21(1). Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Fujian Key Laboratory for Translational Research in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases, Institute for Translational Medicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350122, China.

The abnormal accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the central nervous system is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The regulation of the processing of the single- transmembrane amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays an important role in the generation of Aβ in the brain. The phosphorylation of APP and key enzymes involved in the proteolytic processing of APP has been demonstrated to be critical for modulating the generation of Aβ by either altering the subcellular localization of APP or changing the enzymatic activities of the secretases responsible for APP processing. In addition, the phosphorylation may also have an impact on the physiological function of these proteins. In this review, we summarize the kinases and signaling pathways that may participate in regulating the phosphorylation of APP and secretases and how this further affects the function and processing of APP and Aβ pathology. We also discuss the potential of approaches that modulate these phosphorylation-signaling pathways or kinases as interventions for AD pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6981488PMC
December 2019

Neural Representation of Parental Monitoring and Links to Adolescent Risk Taking.

Front Neurosci 2019 3;13:1286. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States.

Decades of developmental research have demonstrated the positive role of parental monitoring during adolescence, a time during which youth seek exploration and show heightened risk taking. The present study employed a novel neural pattern similarity approach to identify neural patterns underpinning parental monitoring, with attention to implications for adolescent risk taking. Mothers ( = 23) underwent an fMRI scan during which they completed a risk-taking task and viewed the risk-taking behavior of their adolescent child. Using a representational similarity analysis, we examined the neural pattern similarity between mothers' anticipation of their child's risk taking and their own decisions. Higher parental monitoring was reflected in greater similarity between neural pattern of anticipating their adolescents' risk taking and experiencing their own safe outcomes. Moreover, greater neural pattern similarity between mothers' anticipation and their own safe outcomes was associated with lower risk-taking propensity in adolescents. Taken together, the present study provides preliminary evidence for the neural patterns underpinning parental monitoring, highlighting the importance of incorporating parents' brain as a window to understand parenting practices and adolescent risk taking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2019.01286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6901698PMC
December 2019

Pathophysiological role of endogenous irisin against tumorigenesis and metastasis: Is it a potential biomarker and therapeutic?

Tumour Biol 2019 Dec;41(12):1010428319892790

Department of Rehabilitation Science, Graduate School of Inje University, Gimhae, Korea.

In the last few decades, there has been notable progress in understanding the molecular and cellular basis of the complex process involved in cancer. In this context, tumor-promoting inflammation, dysregulation of apoptotic signaling, tissue invasion and metastasis, and cancer microenvironment have recently attracted interest from researchers. Irisin is a hormone released by muscles during exercise and it directly acts on key functional cells involving energy metabolism and homeostasis. Recently, many studies have reported the anticancer effect of irisin against different types of cancer. Translation of these findings to clinical practice for the diagnosis and treatment of several types of cancer is urgently required. In this review, we summarized preclinical and clinical studies on the anticancer effects of irisin in various types of cancer, and also discussed the mechanisms activated by irisin to suppress cancer pathogenesis. We further discussed the serum level of irisin related to different types of cancer to understand more clearly the association between irisin concentration and tumor burden. This review may serve as a solid foundation for researchers and physicians to support basic and clinical studies on irisin as a promising strategy for early diagnosis and treatment of a various types of cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010428319892790DOI Listing
December 2019

Effect of tungsten on the oxidation of alumina-forming austenitic stainless steel.

Appl Microsc 2019 Nov 14;49(1):13. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Korea Institute of Materials Science, 797 Changwon-daero, Changwon, Gyeongnam, 51508, Republic of Korea.

As more W replaced Mo in alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels, weight gain by oxidation decreased after 336 h at 1053 K. Electron microscopy revealed slower growth of scale in the presence of more numerous second phases by W addition. The retardation of oxidation was attributed to the necessary partitioning of W in front of the metal-oxide interface. The W-rich second phases interacted with growing oxides and finally transformed to fine particles of metallic W alloy within the scale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s42649-019-0014-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7809583PMC
November 2019

Direct observation of dislocation plasticity in high-Mn lightweight steel by in-situ TEM.

Sci Rep 2019 Oct 23;9(1):15171. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Advanced Metals Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, 797 Changwondaero, Changwon, 51508, Republic of Korea.

To gain the fundamental understanding of deformation mechanisms in an aluminum-containing austenitic high-Mn steel (Fe-32Mn-8.9Al-0.78 C (wt.%)), in-situ straining transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis is conducted. The in-situ observation during the deformation demonstrates that the plastic deformation is accommodated by the pronounced planar dislocation gliding followed by the formation of slip bands (SBs) and highly dense dislocation walls (HDDWs). Experimental evidences of the glide plane softening can be obtained from the interaction between the gliding perfect dislocations and the L'1 ordered precipitates in the austenite matrix. Furthermore, the observation of the localized cross-slip of dislocations at the slip band intersections enables to understand why slip bands are extensively developed without mutual obstructions between the slip bands. The enhanced strain hardening rate of the aluminum-containing austenitic high-Mn steels can be attributed to the pronounced planar dislocation glides followed by formation of extensive slip band which prevent premature failure by suppressing strain localization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-51586-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6811588PMC
October 2019

New oncogenic signalling pathway: EWS-Oct4 mediates bone and soft tissue tumourigenesis by activating fibroblast growth factor-4.

FEBS J 2019 11 9;286(22):4418-4421. Epub 2019 Aug 9.

Fujian Key Laboratory for Translational Research in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases, Institute for Translational Medicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China.

Chromosomal translocations involving the interchange of parts between two non-homologous chromosomes can often lead to cancer by creating new fusion proteins. Here, Kim and co-workers show that a chimeric protein, EWS-Oct-4, transcriptionally activates fibroblast growth factor-4 (FGF-4) and triggers a downstream cascade of oncogenic signalling pathways, thereby facilitating the initiation of human bone and soft tissue tumour development. Comment on: https://doi.org/10.1111/febs.14946.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.15023DOI Listing
November 2019