Publications by authors named "Tae Sung Park"

250 Publications

Extradural decompression versus duraplasty in Chiari malformation type I with syrinx: outcomes on scoliosis from the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 Jun 18:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

25Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA.

Objective: Scoliosis is common in patients with Chiari malformation type I (CM-I)-associated syringomyelia. While it is known that treatment with posterior fossa decompression (PFD) may reduce the progression of scoliosis, it is unknown if decompression with duraplasty is superior to extradural decompression.

Methods: A large multicenter retrospective and prospective registry of 1257 pediatric patients with CM-I (tonsils ≥ 5 mm below the foramen magnum) and syrinx (≥ 3 mm in axial width) was reviewed for patients with scoliosis who underwent PFD with or without duraplasty.

Results: In total, 422 patients who underwent PFD had a clinical diagnosis of scoliosis. Of these patients, 346 underwent duraplasty, 51 received extradural decompression alone, and 25 were excluded because no data were available on the type of PFD. The mean clinical follow-up was 2.6 years. Overall, there was no difference in subsequent occurrence of fusion or proportion of patients with curve progression between those with and those without a duraplasty. However, after controlling for age, sex, preoperative curve magnitude, syrinx length, syrinx width, and holocord syrinx, extradural decompression was associated with curve progression > 10°, but not increased occurrence of fusion. Older age at PFD and larger preoperative curve magnitude were independently associated with subsequent occurrence of fusion. Greater syrinx reduction after PFD of either type was associated with decreased occurrence of fusion.

Conclusions: In patients with CM-I, syrinx, and scoliosis undergoing PFD, there was no difference in subsequent occurrence of surgical correction of scoliosis between those receiving a duraplasty and those with an extradural decompression. However, after controlling for preoperative factors including age, syrinx characteristics, and curve magnitude, patients treated with duraplasty were less likely to have curve progression than patients treated with extradural decompression. Further study is needed to evaluate the role of duraplasty in curve stabilization after PFD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.12.PEDS20552DOI Listing
June 2021

A multicenter validation of the condylar-C2 sagittal vertical alignment in Chiari malformation type I: a study using the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 Jun 4:1-7. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

1Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Primary Children's Hospital, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Objective: The condylar-C2 sagittal vertical alignment (C-C2SVA) describes the relationship between the occipitoatlantal joint and C2 in patients with Chiari malformation type I (CM-I). It has been suggested that a C-C2SVA ≥ 5 mm is predictive of the need for occipitocervical fusion (OCF) or ventral brainstem decompression (VBD). The authors' objective was to validate the predictive utility of the C-C2SVA by using a large, multicenter cohort of patients.

Methods: This validation study used a cohort of patients derived from the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium; patients < 21 years old with CM-I and syringomyelia treated from June 2011 to May 2016 were identified. The primary outcome was the need for OCF and/or VBD. After patients who required OCF and/or VBD were identified, 10 age- and sex-matched controls served as comparisons for each OCF/VBD patient. The C-C2SVA (defined as the position of a plumb line from the midpoint of the O-C1 joint relative to the posterior aspect of the C2-3 disc space), pBC2 (a line perpendicular to a line from the basion to the posteroinferior aspect of the C2 body), and clival-axial angle (CXA) were measured on sagittal MRI. The secondary outcome was the need for ≥ 2 CM-related operations.

Results: Of the 206 patients identified, 20 underwent OCF/VBD and 14 underwent repeat posterior fossa decompression. A C-C2SVA ≥ 5 mm was 100% sensitive and 86% specific for requiring OCF/VBD, with a 12.6% misclassification rate, whereas CXA < 125° was 55% sensitive and 99% specific, and pBC2 ≥ 9 was 20% sensitive and 88% specific. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that there was a significantly shorter time to second decompression in children with C-C2SVA ≥ 5 mm (p = 0.0039). The mean C-C2SVA was greater (6.13 ± 1.28 vs 3.13 ± 1.95 mm, p < 0.0001), CXA was lower (126° ± 15.4° vs 145° ± 10.7°, p < 0.05), and pBC2 was similar (7.65 ± 1.79 vs 7.02 ± 1.26 mm, p = 0.31) among those who underwent OCF/VBD versus decompression only. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the continuous measurement of C-C2SVA was 0.52; the kappa value was 0.47 for the binary categorization of C-C2SVA ≥ 5 mm.

Conclusions: These results validated the C-C2SVA using a large, multicenter, external cohort with 100% sensitivity, 86% specificity, and a 12.6% misclassification rate. A C-C2SVA ≥ 5 mm is highly predictive of the need for OCF/VBD in patients with CM-I. The authors recommend that this measurement be considered among the tools to identify the "high-risk" CM-I phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.12.PEDS20809DOI Listing
June 2021

Dural augmentation approaches and complication rates after posterior fossa decompression for Chiari I malformation and syringomyelia: a Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium study.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 Feb 12:1-10. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

3Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL.

Objective: Posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty (PFDD) is commonly performed for Chiari I malformation (CM-I) with syringomyelia (SM). However, complication rates associated with various dural graft types are not well established. The objective of this study was to elucidate complication rates within 6 months of surgery among autograft and commonly used nonautologous grafts for pediatric patients who underwent PFDD for CM-I/SM.

Methods: The Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium database was queried for pediatric patients who had undergone PFDD for CM-I with SM. All patients had tonsillar ectopia ≥ 5 mm, syrinx diameter ≥ 3 mm, and ≥ 6 months of postoperative follow-up after PFDD. Complications (e.g., pseudomeningocele, CSF leak, meningitis, and hydrocephalus) and postoperative changes in syrinx size, headaches, and neck pain were compared for autograft versus nonautologous graft.

Results: A total of 781 PFDD cases were analyzed (359 autograft, 422 nonautologous graft). Nonautologous grafts included bovine pericardium (n = 63), bovine collagen (n = 225), synthetic (n = 99), and human cadaveric allograft (n = 35). Autograft (103/359, 28.7%) had a similar overall complication rate compared to nonautologous graft (143/422, 33.9%) (p = 0.12). However, nonautologous graft was associated with significantly higher rates of pseudomeningocele (p = 0.04) and meningitis (p < 0.001). The higher rate of meningitis was influenced particularly by the higher rate of chemical meningitis (p = 0.002) versus infectious meningitis (p = 0.132). Among 4 types of nonautologous grafts, there were differences in complication rates (p = 0.02), including chemical meningitis (p = 0.01) and postoperative nausea/vomiting (p = 0.03). Allograft demonstrated the lowest complication rates overall (14.3%) and yielded significantly fewer complications compared to bovine collagen (p = 0.02) and synthetic (p = 0.003) grafts. Synthetic graft yielded higher complication rates than autograft (p = 0.01). Autograft and nonautologous graft resulted in equal improvements in syrinx size (p < 0.0001). No differences were found for postoperative changes in headaches or neck pain.

Conclusions: In the largest multicenter cohort to date, complication rates for dural autograft and nonautologous graft are similar after PFDD for CM-I/SM, although nonautologous graft results in higher rates of pseudomeningocele and meningitis. Rates of meningitis differ among nonautologous graft types. Autograft and nonautologous graft are equivalent for reducing syrinx size, headaches, and neck pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.8.PEDS2087DOI Listing
February 2021

Occipital-Cervical Fusion and Ventral Decompression in the Surgical Management of Chiari-1 Malformation and Syringomyelia: Analysis of Data From the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium.

Neurosurgery 2021 01;88(2):332-341

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Background: Occipital-cervical fusion (OCF) and ventral decompression (VD) may be used in the treatment of pediatric Chiari-1 malformation (CM-1) with syringomyelia (SM) as adjuncts to posterior fossa decompression (PFD) for complex craniovertebral junction pathology.

Objective: To examine factors influencing the use of OCF and OCF/VD in a multicenter cohort of pediatric CM-1 and SM subjects treated with PFD.

Methods: The Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium registry was used to examine 637 subjects with cerebellar tonsillar ectopia ≥ 5 mm, syrinx diameter ≥ 3 mm, and at least 1 yr of follow-up after their index PFD. Comparisons were made between subjects who received PFD alone and those with PFD + OCF or PFD + OCF/VD.

Results: All 637 patients underwent PFD, 505 (79.2%) with and 132 (20.8%) without duraplasty. A total of 12 subjects went on to have OCF at some point in their management (PFD + OCF), whereas 4 had OCF and VD (PFD + OCF/VD). Of those with complete data, a history of platybasia (3/10, P = .011), Klippel-Feil (2/10, P = .015), and basilar invagination (3/12, P < .001) were increased within the OCF group, whereas only basilar invagination (1/4, P < .001) was increased in the OCF/VD group. Clivo-axial angle (CXA) was significantly lower for both OCF (128.8 ± 15.3°, P = .008) and OCF/VD (115.0 ± 11.6°, P = .025) groups when compared to PFD-only group (145.3 ± 12.7°). pB-C2 did not differ among groups.

Conclusion: Although PFD alone is adequate for treating the vast majority of CM-1/SM patients, OCF or OCF/VD may be occasionally utilized. Cranial base and spine pathologies and CXA may provide insight into the need for OCF and/or OCF/VD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyaa460DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803430PMC
January 2021

Epidemiology of Congenital Bleeding Disorders: a Nationwide Population-based Korean Study.

J Korean Med Sci 2020 Oct 12;35(39):e350. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Korea.

Background: Except for data in the Korea Hemophilia Foundation Registry, little is known of the epidemiology of congenital bleeding disorders in Korea.

Methods: Data were obtained from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) database.

Results: From 2010 to 2015, there were 2,029 patients with congenital bleeding disorders in the Korean HIRA database: 38% (n = 775) of these patients had hemophilia A (HA), 25% (n = 517) had von Willebrand disease (vWD), 7% (n = 132) had hemophilia B (HB), and 25% (n = 513) had less common factor deficiencies. The estimated age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) of HA and HB was 1.78-3.15/100,000 and 0.31-0.51/100,000, respectively. That of vWD was 1.38-1.95/100,000. The estimated ASR of HA showed increase over time though the number of new patients did not increase. Most patients with congenital bleeding disorders were younger than 19 years old (47.8%), and most were registered in Gyeonggi (22.1%) and Seoul (19.2%).

Conclusion: This is the first nationwide population-based study of congenital bleeding disorders in Korea. This study provides data that will enable more accurate estimations of patients with vWD. This information will help advance the comprehensive care of congenital bleeding disorders. We need to continue to obtain more detailed information on patients to improve the management of these diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7550232PMC
October 2020

Clinometric Gait Analysis Using Smart Insoles in Patients With Hemiplegia After Stroke: Pilot Study.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2020 09 10;8(9):e22208. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, Republic of Korea.

Background: For effective rehabilitation after stroke, it is essential to conduct an objective assessment of the patient's functional status. Several stroke severity scales have been used for this purpose, but such scales have various limitations.

Objective: Gait analysis using smart insole technology can be applied continuously, objectively, and quantitatively, thereby overcoming the shortcomings of other assessment tools.

Methods: To confirm the reliability of gait analysis using smart insole technology, normal healthy controls wore insoles in their shoes during the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. The gait parameters were compared with the manually collected data. To determine the gait characteristics of patients with hemiplegia due to stroke, they were asked to wear insoles and take the TUG test; gait parameters were calculated and compared with those of control subjects. To investigate whether the gait analysis accurately reflected the patients' clinical condition, we analyzed the relationships of 22 gait parameters on 4 stroke severity scales.

Results: The smart insole gait parameter data were similar to those calculated manually. Among the 18 gait parameters tested, 14 were significantly effective at distinguishing patients from healthy controls. The smart insole data revealed that the stance duration on both sides was longer in patients than controls, which has proven difficult to show using other methods. Furthermore, the sound side in patients showed a markedly longer stance duration. Regarding swing duration, that of the sound side was shorter in patients than controls, whereas that of the hemiplegic side was longer. We identified 10 significantly correlated gait parameters on the stroke severity scales. Notably, the difference in stance duration between the sound and hemiplegic sides was significantly correlated with the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) lower extremity score.

Conclusions: This study confirmed the feasibility and applicability of the smart insole as a device to assess the gait of patients with hemiplegia due to stroke. In addition, we demonstrated that the FMA score was significantly correlated with the smart insole data. Providing an environment where stroke patients can easily measure walking ability helps to maintain chronic functions as well as acute rehabilitation.

Trial Registration: UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000041646, https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr_e/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000047538.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/22208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7516684PMC
September 2020

Acute myeloid leukemia with t(11;19)(q23;p13.1) in a patient with a gastrointestinal stromal tumor undergoing imatinib therapy: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2020 Apr;8(7):1251-1256

Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, South Korea.

Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harboring 11q23 translocations is classified as therapy-related AML in patients who have undergone prior treatment with cytotoxic agents. There have been only a few reports of AML that subsequently developed during imatinib mesylate (IM) treatment for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs).

Case Summary: A 63-year-old woman was diagnosed with a hepatic GIST recurrence in April 2012; she was administered IM 400 mg/d. In November 2015, she developed dyspnea with pancytopenia while IM treatment was continued for 42 mo. A chromosome study using a bone marrow sample showed a 46, XX karyotype with t(11;19)(q23;p13.1) in 22 of 26 analyzed metaphase cells. Fluorescence hybridization using the locus-specific indicator (11q23) gene break-apart probe showed positive rearrangement in 82% of interphase cells. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reactions subsequently confirmed the KMT2A/ELL transcript. She achieved complete response with incomplete neutrophil recovery with two decitabine treatment cycles. After the third cycle of decitabine, the disease relapsed, and she refused further treatment. She died of hemorrhagic stroke 5 mo after diagnosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of AML with gene rearrangements in a patient with a GIST receiving IM treatment.

Conclusion: Physicians should consider the potential risks of developing hematologic malignancies, including therapy-related AML, in patients with GISTs receiving IM treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v8.i7.1251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176619PMC
April 2020

Obex position is associated with syringomyelia and use of posterior fossa decompression among patients with Chiari I malformation.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2020 Apr 10:1-8. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Departments of1Neurological Surgery.

Objective: Chiari I malformation (CM-I) has traditionally been defined by measuring the position of the cerebellar tonsils relative to the foramen magnum. The relationships of tonsillar position to clinical presentation, syringomyelia, scoliosis, and the use of posterior fossa decompression (PFD) surgery have been studied extensively and yielded inconsistent results. Obex position has been proposed as a useful adjunctive descriptor for CM-I and may be associated with clinical disease severity.

Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed of 442 CM-I patients with MRI who presented for clinical evaluation between 2003 and 2018. Clinical and radiological variables were measured for all patients, including presence/location of headaches, Chiari Severity Index (CSI) grade, tonsil position, obex position, clival canal angle, pB-C2 distance, occipitalization of the atlas, basilar invagination, syringomyelia, syrinx diameter, scoliosis, and use of PFD. Radiological measurements were then used to predict clinical characteristics using regression and survival analyses, with performing PFD, the presence of a syrinx, and scoliosis as outcome variables.

Results: Among the radiological measurements, tonsil position, obex position, and syringomyelia were each independently associated with use of PFD. Together, obex position, tonsil position, and syringomyelia (area under the curve [AUC] 89%) or obex position and tonsil position (AUC 85.4%) were more strongly associated with use of PFD than tonsil position alone (AUC 76%) (Pdiff = 3.4 × 10-6 and 6 × 10-4, respectively) but were only slightly more associated than obex position alone (AUC 82%) (Pdiff = 0.01 and 0.18, respectively). Additionally, obex position was significantly associated with occipital headaches, CSI grade, syringomyelia, and scoliosis, independent of tonsil position. Tonsil position was associated with each of these traits when analyzed alone but did not remain significantly associated with use of PFD when included in multivariate analyses with obex position.

Conclusions: Compared with tonsil position alone, obex position is more strongly associated with symptomatic CM-I, as measured by presence of a syrinx, scoliosis, or use of PFD surgery. These results support the role of obex position as a useful radiological measurement to inform the evaluation and potentially the management of CM-I.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.2.PEDS19486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7554138PMC
April 2020

Radiological and clinical associations with scoliosis outcomes after posterior fossa decompression in patients with Chiari malformation and syrinx from the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2020 Apr 10:1-7. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

1Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Objective: In patients with Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) and a syrinx who also have scoliosis, clinical and radiological predictors of curve regression after posterior fossa decompression are not well known. Prior reports indicate that age younger than 10 years and a curve magnitude < 35° are favorable predictors of curve regression following surgery. The aim of this study was to determine baseline radiological factors, including craniocervical junction alignment, that might predict curve stability or improvement after posterior fossa decompression.

Methods: A large multicenter retrospective and prospective registry of pediatric patients with CM-I (tonsils ≥ 5 mm below the foramen magnum) and a syrinx (≥ 3 mm in width) was reviewed for clinical and radiological characteristics of CM-I, syrinx, and scoliosis (coronal curve ≥ 10°) in patients who underwent posterior fossa decompression and who also had follow-up imaging.

Results: Of 825 patients with CM-I and a syrinx, 251 (30.4%) were noted to have scoliosis present at the time of diagnosis. Forty-one (16.3%) of these patients underwent posterior fossa decompression and had follow-up imaging to assess for scoliosis. Twenty-three patients (56%) were female, the mean age at time of CM-I decompression was 10.0 years, and the mean follow-up duration was 1.3 years. Nine patients (22%) had stable curves, 16 (39%) showed improvement (> 5°), and 16 (39%) displayed curve progression (> 5°) during the follow-up period. Younger age at the time of decompression was associated with improvement in curve magnitude; for those with curves of ≤ 35°, 17% of patients younger than 10 years of age had curve progression compared with 64% of those 10 years of age or older (p = 0.008). There was no difference by age for those with curves > 35°. Tonsil position, baseline syrinx dimensions, and change in syrinx size were not associated with the change in curve magnitude. There was no difference in progression after surgery in patients who were also treated with a brace compared to those who were not treated with a brace for scoliosis.

Conclusions: In this cohort of patients with CM-I, a syrinx, and scoliosis, younger age at the time of decompression was associated with improvement in curve magnitude following surgery, especially in patients younger than 10 years of age with curves of ≤ 35°. Baseline tonsil position, syrinx dimensions, frontooccipital horn ratio, and craniocervical junction morphology were not associated with changes in curve magnitude after surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.1.PEDS18755DOI Listing
April 2020

Factors associated with syrinx size in pediatric patients treated for Chiari malformation type I and syringomyelia: a study from the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2020 Mar 6:1-11. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

31Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Objective: Factors associated with syrinx size in pediatric patients undergoing posterior fossa decompression (PFD) or PFD with duraplasty (PFDD) for Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) with syringomyelia (SM; CM-I+SM) are not well established.

Methods: Using the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium registry, the authors analyzed variables associated with syrinx radiological outcomes in patients (< 20 years old at the time of surgery) with CM-I+SM undergoing PFD or PFDD. Syrinx resolution was defined as an anteroposterior (AP) diameter of ≤ 2 mm or ≤ 3 mm or a reduction in AP diameter of ≥ 50%. Syrinx regression or progression was defined using 1) change in syrinx AP diameter (≥ 1 mm), or 2) change in syrinx length (craniocaudal, ≥ 1 vertebral level). Syrinx stability was defined as a < 1-mm change in syrinx AP diameter and no change in syrinx length.

Results: The authors identified 380 patients with CM-I+SM who underwent PFD or PFDD. Cox proportional hazards modeling revealed younger age at surgery and PFDD as being independently associated with syrinx resolution, defined as a ≤ 2-mm or ≤ 3-mm AP diameter or ≥ 50% reduction in AP diameter. Radiological syrinx resolution was associated with improvement in headache (p < 0.005) and neck pain (p < 0.011) after PFD or PFDD. Next, PFDD (p = 0.005), scoliosis (p = 0.007), and syrinx location across multiple spinal segments (p = 0.001) were associated with syrinx diameter regression, whereas increased preoperative frontal-occipital horn ratio (FOHR; p = 0.007) and syrinx location spanning multiple spinal segments (p = 0.04) were associated with syrinx length regression. Scoliosis (HR 0.38 [95% CI 0.16-0.91], p = 0.03) and smaller syrinx diameter (5.82 ± 3.38 vs 7.86 ± 3.05 mm; HR 0.60 [95% CI 0.34-1.03], p = 0.002) were associated with syrinx diameter stability, whereas shorter preoperative syrinx length (5.75 ± 4.01 vs 9.65 ± 4.31 levels; HR 0.21 [95% CI 0.12-0.38], p = 0.0001) and smaller pB-C2 distance (6.86 ± 1.27 vs 7.18 ± 1.38 mm; HR 1.44 [95% CI 1.02-2.05], p = 0.04) were associated with syrinx length stability. Finally, younger age at surgery (8.19 ± 5.02 vs 10.29 ± 4.25 years; HR 1.89 [95% CI 1.31-3.04], p = 0.01) was associated with syrinx diameter progression, whereas increased postoperative syrinx diameter (6.73 ± 3.64 vs 3.97 ± 3.07 mm; HR 3.10 [95% CI 1.67-5.76], p = 0.003), was associated with syrinx length progression. PFD versus PFDD was not associated with syrinx progression or reoperation rate.

Conclusions: These data suggest that PFDD and age are independently associated with radiological syrinx improvement, although forthcoming results from the PFDD versus PFD randomized controlled trial (NCT02669836, clinicaltrials.gov) will best answer this question.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.1.PEDS19493DOI Listing
March 2020

Prevalence and Impact of Underlying Diagnosis and Comorbidities on Chiari 1 Malformation.

Pediatr Neurol 2020 05 21;106:32-37. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Department of Neurology, Washington University in St. Louis, St Louis, Missouri. Electronic address:

Background: Chiari malformation type 1 affects approximately one in 1,000 people symptomatically, although one in 100 meet radiological criteria, making it a common neurological disorder. The diagnosis of underlying conditions has become more sophisticated, and new radiological markers of disease have been described. We sought to determine the prevalence and impact of additional comorbidities and underlying diagnoses in patients with Chiari malformation type 1 on symptomatology and surgical treatment.

Methods: A retrospective review of 612 pediatric patients with a Chiari malformation type 1 diagnosis and imaging data evaluated between 2008 and 2018 was performed. Because of extensive clinical heterogeneity, patients were separated into four categories based on their primary comorbidities (nonsyndromic, central nervous system, skeletal, and multiple congenital anomalies) to identify associations with age of onset, radiographic measurements, syringomyelia, and surgical treatment.

Results: The largest group had nonsyndromic Chiari malformation type 1 (70%) and the latest age at diagnosis of any group. In the syndromic group, 6% were diagnosed with a known genetic abnormality, with overgrowth syndromes being the most common. Patients with multiple congenital anomalies had the earliest Chiari malformation type 1 onset, the most severe tonsillar ectopia and obex position, and were overrepresented among surgical cases. Although there were no statistically significant differences between groups and rates of syrinx, we observed differences in individual diagnoses.

Conclusion: The underlying diagnoses and presence of comorbidities in patients with Chiari malformation type 1 impacts rates of syringomyelia and surgery. Although most Chiari malformation type 1 cases are nonsyndromic, clinical evaluation of growth parameters, scoliosis, and joint hypermobility should be routine for all patients as they are useful to determine syringomyelia risk and may impact treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2019.12.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7156318PMC
May 2020

Radiological and clinical predictors of scoliosis in patients with Chiari malformation type I and spinal cord syrinx from the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2019 Aug 16:1-8. Epub 2019 Aug 16.

23Department of Neurosurgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Objective: Scoliosis is frequently a presenting sign of Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) with syrinx. The authors' goal was to define scoliosis in this population and describe how radiological characteristics of CM-I and syrinx relate to the presence and severity of scoliosis.

Methods: A large multicenter retrospective and prospective registry of pediatric patients with CM-I (tonsils ≥ 5 mm below the foramen magnum) and syrinx (≥ 3 mm in axial width) was reviewed for clinical and radiological characteristics of CM-I, syrinx, and scoliosis (coronal curve ≥ 10°).

Results: Based on available imaging of patients with CM-I and syrinx, 260 of 825 patients (31%) had a clear diagnosis of scoliosis based on radiographs or coronal MRI. Forty-nine patients (5.9%) did not have scoliosis, and in 516 (63%) patients, a clear determination of the presence or absence of scoliosis could not be made. Comparison of patients with and those without a definite scoliosis diagnosis indicated that scoliosis was associated with wider syrinxes (8.7 vs 6.3 mm, OR 1.25, p < 0.001), longer syrinxes (10.3 vs 6.2 levels, OR 1.18, p < 0.001), syrinxes with their rostral extent located in the cervical spine (94% vs 80%, OR 3.91, p = 0.001), and holocord syrinxes (50% vs 16%, OR 5.61, p < 0.001). Multivariable regression analysis revealed syrinx length and the presence of holocord syrinx to be independent predictors of scoliosis in this patient cohort. Scoliosis was not associated with sex, age at CM-I diagnosis, tonsil position, pB-C2 distance (measured perpendicular distance from the ventral dura to a line drawn from the basion to the posterior-inferior aspect of C2), clivoaxial angle, or frontal-occipital horn ratio. Average curve magnitude was 29.9°, and 37.7% of patients had a left thoracic curve. Older age at CM-I or syrinx diagnosis (p < 0.0001) was associated with greater curve magnitude whereas there was no association between syrinx dimensions and curve magnitude.

Conclusions: Syrinx characteristics, but not tonsil position, were related to the presence of scoliosis in patients with CM-I, and there was an independent association of syrinx length and holocord syrinx with scoliosis. Further study is needed to evaluate the nature of the relationship between syrinx and scoliosis in patients with CM-I.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.5.PEDS18527DOI Listing
August 2019

Hemoglobin Concentration Reference Interval Revisited: a Nationwide Study from Korea.

Clin Lab 2019 Jun;65(6)

Background: Anemia is a common cause among the elderly for increased mortality. Hemoglobin concentration can be affected by many factors, but the reference interval defined by the World Health Organization has not been adjusted for the previous half century.

Methods: Through using the dataset generated by the National Health Insurance (NHI) health screening program of Republic of Korea, here we attempt to present a close to actual hemoglobin concentration of the Korean population. Between January 2009 and December 2013, a total of 57,409,872 health screening events were registered in the NHI database. Following the exclusion criteria, 6,759,566 participants were enrolled for analyses.

Results: Significant portion of the study population was considered 'anemic', while the mean value (2.5% ~ 97.5%) of hemoglobin concentration from the study was 14.8 (12.5 ~ 16.8) g/dL in men and 12.8 (10.6 ~ 14.7) g/ dL in women. Concordant results of hemoglobin concentration declining with age were observed as previous studies have described, supporting the need for separate, possibly lower cutoff in the elderly.

Conclusions: A considerable portion of the participants being categorized as anemia contests the accuracy of the current lower cutoff for anemia. From a large representative dataset, the need for adjustment to the lower cutoff for anemia is suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7754/Clin.Lab.2018.181033DOI Listing
June 2019

TRIB2 regulates the differentiation of MLL-TET1 transduced myeloid progenitor cells.

J Mol Med (Berl) 2018 11 15;96(11):1267-1277. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

School of Life Science, BK21 plus KNU Creative BioResearch Group, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41566, Republic of Korea.

The function and mechanism of action of MLL-TET1 (MT1) fusion protein in hematological cells are unclear and require further investigation. In the present study, we found that the MT1 fusion protein attenuated the expression of Cebpa, Csf1r, and Cd11b and inhibited the differentiation of myeloid progenitor cells. Increased binding of the MT1 fusion protein to the Trib2 promoter upregulated Trib2 mRNA and protein expression and downregulated Cebpa expression. Trib2 knockdown relieved the inhibition of myeloid cell differentiation induced by the MT1 fusion protein. Thus, TRIB2 is important for the survival of leukemia cells during MT1-related leukemogenesis and is important in maintaining differentiation blockade of leukemic cells. KEY MESSAGES: • MLL-TET1 fusion decreases the 5-hmC levels in the myeloid progenitor cells. • MLL-TET1 fusion inhibits myeloid differentiation through decreased expression of Cebpa. • MLL-TET1 fusion blocks the differentiation of the myeloid progenitor cells by overexpressing Trib2. • Knockdown of Trib2 in MLL-TET1 transduced cells induces myeloid differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00109-018-1700-3DOI Listing
November 2018

MLL-TET1 fusion protein promotes immortalization of myeloid progenitor cells and leukemia development.

Haematologica 2017 11 10;102(11):e434-e437. Epub 2017 Aug 10.

School of Life Science, BK21 plus KNU Creative BioResearch Group, Kyungpook National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2017.169789DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5664403PMC
November 2017

ABO genotype-phenotype discrepancy due to chimerism resolved by clonal separation.

Ann Hematol 2017 Sep 20;96(9):1583-1585. Epub 2017 Jun 20.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Inje University College of Medicine, 75, Bokji-ro, Busanjin-gu, Busan, 47392, Republic of Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-017-3048-0DOI Listing
September 2017

Analysis and interrater reliability of pB-C2 using MRI and CT: data from the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium on behalf of the Pediatric Craniocervical Society.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2017 Aug 19;20(2):170-175. Epub 2017 May 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, Columbia University, Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital of NewYork-Presbyterian, New York, New York.

OBJECTIVE The distance to the ventral dura, perpendicular to the basion to C2 line (pB-C2), is commonly employed as a measure describing the anatomy of the craniovertebral junction. However, both the reliability among observers and the clinical utility of this measurement in the context of Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) have been incompletely determined. METHODS Data were reviewed from the first 600 patients enrolled in the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium with CM-I and syringomyelia. Thirty-one cases were identified in which both CT and MRI studies were available for review. Three pediatric neurosurgeons independently determined pB-C2 values using common imaging sequences: MRI (T1-weighted and T2-weighted with and without the inclusion of retro-odontoid soft tissue) and CT. Values were compared and intraclass correlations were calculated among imaging modalities and observers. RESULTS Intraclass correlation of pB-C2 demonstrated strong agreement between observers (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] range 0.72-0.76). Measurement using T2-weighted MRI with the inclusion of retro-odontoid soft tissue showed no significant difference with measurement using T1-weighted MRI. Measurements using CT or T2-weighted MRI without retro-odontoid soft tissue differed by 1.6 mm (4.69 and 3.09 mm, respectively, p < 0.05) and were significantly shorter than those using the other 2 sequences. Conclusions pB-C2 can be measured reliably by multiple observers in the context of pediatric CM-I with syringomeyelia. Measurement using T2-weighted MRI excluding retro-odontoid soft tissue closely approximates the value obtained using CT, which may allow for the less frequent use of CT in this patient population. Measurement using T2-weighted MRI including retro-odontoid soft tissue or using T1-weighted MRI yields a more complete assessment of the extent of ventral brainstem compression, but its association with clinical outcomes requires further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2017.3.PEDS16604DOI Listing
August 2017

Pure Red Cell Aplasia Associated with Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance and Literature Review.

Clin Lab 2017 Feb;63(2):373-378

Background: Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is an uncommon disease which involves an almost complete absence of the erythroid lineage in bone marrow (BM) and causes severe anemia. Cases due to monoclonal gammopathy occurring in plasma cell disorder have been infrequently reported. Here we report a case of PRCA associated plasma cell disorder, especially monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS).

Methods: A 55-year-old male visited the ER due to general weakness. At his initial visit he exhibited severe anemia. Mild intravascular hemolysis was suspected. For anemia evaluation, BM examination was performed. In BM aspiration, almost no erythroid precursor cells were observed. Also, plasma cells were relatively elevated, at 7.2%. Serum electrophoresis and immunofixation revealed paraproteinemia of 5.1 g/L (IgG and lambda). No hypercalcemia, renal insufficiency or lytic bone lesions were found. This unusual case showed MGUS accompanied by PCRA. We were also able to assume the erythroid cell-specific restriction due to paraprotein, because we ruled out possible causes of PRCA.

Results: We discovered several reported cases associated with plasma cell dyscrasia. However, most of these cases involved plasma cell myeloma, characterized by high immunoglobulin burden. Our case demonstrates that PRCA is also observed in cases with MGUS, where immunoglobulin burden is low.

Conclusions: It is not yet accurately known, what parts of erythroid precursors are targeted by M-protein nor what the mechanism is. Therefore, additional research into this matter is necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7754/Clin.Lab.2016.160730DOI Listing
February 2017

Evaluation of the adhesion on the nano-scaled polymeric film systems.

Ultrasonics 2017 04 31;76:166-176. Epub 2016 Dec 31.

Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond, USA.

We applied scanning acoustic microscopy known as the V(z) curve technique to photoresist thin-film systems for the evaluation of the adhesive strength at the film-substrate interface. Through the measurement of the SAW (Surface Acoustic Wave) velocity, the V(z) curve analysis allows us to quantify the stiffness of the film-substrate interface. In addition, we conducted a nano-scratch test to quantify the ultimate strength of the adhesion through the evaluation of the critical load. To vary the adhesive conditions, we prepared thin-film specimens with three different types of pre-coating surface treatments, i.e., oxygen-plasma bombardment, HMDS (Hexametyldisilazane) treatment and untreated. The magnitudes of the quantified stiffness and ultimate strength are found consistent with each other for all the specimens tested, indicating that the pre-coating surface treatment can strengthen both the stiffness and ultimate strength of the adhesion. The results of this study demonstrate the usefulness of the V(Z) analysis as a nondestructive method to evaluate the adhesion strength of nano-structured thin-film systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultras.2016.12.019DOI Listing
April 2017

Real world epidemiology of myeloproliferative neoplasms: a population based study in Korea 2004-2013.

Ann Hematol 2017 Mar 27;96(3):373-381. Epub 2016 Dec 27.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, 23, Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, 02447, Republic of Korea.

Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), with an expected increment in number, impose substantial economic and social burdens. To this end, we conducted a nationwide population-based descriptive epidemiology study. We also investigated medical cost associated with MPNs. Prevalence was the highest for essential thrombocythemia (ET) (range 4.1-9.0 per 100,000), followed by polycythemia vera (PV) (range 2.8-5.4 per 100,000) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) (range 0.5-0.9 per 100,000). ET incurred the highest cumulative total cost at US$35 million and the most frequent hospital visits, while PMF incurred the highest average cost per person at US$5000. The mean hemoglobin level was 16.9 ± 2.2 g/dL for PV males and 15.5 ± 2.7 g/dL for PV females. Further analyses on hemoglobin levels showed the true positive rate of PV from the significantly elevated hemoglobin group (defined as >18.5 g/dL for men and >16.5 g/dL for women) was 3.01% and that of MPNs was 3.1%. Here, we provide the biggest population-based report on MPN epidemiology that can readily be used as a representative Asian data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-016-2902-9DOI Listing
March 2017

Recurrent Cytogenetic Abnormalities in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Methods Mol Biol 2017 ;1541:223-245

Haematology Division, Department of Anatomical & Cellular Pathology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong.

The spectrum of chromosomal abnormality associated with leukemogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is broad and heterogeneous when compared to chronic myeloid leukemia and other myeloid neoplasms. Recurrent chromosomal translocations such as t(8;21), t(15;17), and inv(16) are frequently detected, but hundreds of other uncommon chromosomal aberrations from AML also exist. This chapter discusses 22 chromosomal abnormalities that are common structural, numerical aberrations, and other important but infrequent (less than 1 %) translocations emphasized in the WHO classification. Brief morphologic, cytogenetic, and clinical characteristics are summarized, so as to provide a concise reference to cancer cytogenetic laboratories. Morphology based on FAB classification is used together with the current WHO classification due to frequent mentioning in a vast number of reference literatures. Characteristic chromosomal aberrations of other myeloid neoplasms such as myelodysplastic syndrome and myeloproliferative neoplasm will be discussed in separate chapters-except for certain abnormalities such as t(9;22) in de novo AML. Gene mutations detected in normal karyotype AML by cutting edge next generation sequencing technology are also briefly mentioned.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-6703-2_19DOI Listing
January 2018

Familial aplasia cutis congenita associated with mega-cisterna magna.

Pediatr Int 2016 Oct 4;58(10):1054-1056. Epub 2016 Sep 4.

Green Cross Genome, Yongin, Korea.

Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC; MIM 107600) is a congenital skin disorder that manifests as localized absence of skin. Here we report a case of familial ACC and mega-cisterna magna. A female neonate was born with skin defects on the scalp. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated retrocerebellar space widening suggesting mega-cisterna magna. Her father also had a skin defect on the scalp at birth, and brain computed tomography of the father showed a cystic lesion over the right occipital lobe, similar to the patient's brain imaging. Karyotype 46,XX, t(6;18)(q23.2;q11.2) was identified on G-banded karyotype analysis of the patient and her father, after which whole exome sequencing was carried out, but this was thought to be a coincidental finding. This indicates that ACC may be associated with brain anomaly, although it is very rare.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ped.13041DOI Listing
October 2016

Chronic eosinophilic leukemia with rearrangement.

Blood Res 2016 Sep 23;51(3):204-206. Epub 2016 Sep 23.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5045/br.2016.51.3.204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5054254PMC
September 2016

Mean Platelet Volume in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

Biomed Res Int 2016 22;2016:7508763. Epub 2016 Jun 22.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea.

Introduction. Mean platelet volume (MPV) has been thought as a useful index of platelet activation. It is supposed that MPV is also associated with several inflammatory and infectious diseases. Korea still has a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to investigate MPV as an inflammatory marker in TB patients. Materials and Methods. MPV were determined in 221 patients with TB and 143 individuals for control group. MPV was estimated by an Advia 2120 (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Tarrytown, NY, USA). Results. In the TB patient group, a positive correlation was found between CRP and MPV. Age and MPV had a positive correlation in TB patient group. Conclusions. We conclude that there is a significant relation between MPV and inflammatory conditions. MPV can be an inflammatory marker to determine the disease activity in TB patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7508763DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4933846PMC
February 2017
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