Publications by authors named "T P Gibson"

1,294 Publications

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Limited induction of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses in children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome compared to COVID-19.

JCI Insight 2022 Jan 19. Epub 2022 Jan 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, United States of America.

Why Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) develops after SARS-CoV-2 infection in a subset of children is unknown. We hypothesized that aberrant virus52 specific T-cell responses contribute to MIS-C pathogenesis. We quantified SARS-CoV-2 reactive T-cells, serologic responses against major viral proteins, and cytokine responses from plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in children with convalescent COVID-19, acute MIS-C, and healthy controls. Children with MIS-C had significantly lower virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses to major SARS-CoV-2 antigens compared with children convalescing from COVID-19. Further, T-cell responses in participants with MIS-C were similar to or lower than those in healthy controls. Serologic responses against spike receptor binding domain (RBD), full-length spike, and nucleocapsid were similar among convalescent COVID-19 and MIS-C, suggesting functional B cell responses. Cytokine profiling demonstrated predominant Th1 polarization of CD4+ T-cells from children with convalescent COVID-19 and MIS-C, although cytokine production was reduced in MIS-C. Our findings support a role for constrained induction of anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cells in the pathogenesis of MIS-C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.155145DOI Listing
January 2022

Time to Loss of Behavioral and Brainstem Responses of Ducks following Non-Stunned Slaughter.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Dec 11;11(12). Epub 2021 Dec 11.

Department of Pathobiology and Population Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hawkshead Lane, Hatfield AL9 7TA, UK.

Non-stunned slaughter has been extensively described for other farmed species but there has been limited research on waterfowl. The study assessed 34 White Pekin ducks () (study 1) in a non-stunned halal slaughterhouse in Brazil for time to loss of consciousness using various behavioral and brainstem indices (balance, cranial nerve reflexes, and muscle tension) and assessed the relationship between extent of clotting, location of neck cut, level of damage to neck vessels/tissues, and the time to onset of unconsciousness. In addition, operator practices were separately observed and neck pathology following the cut was examined in 217 carcasses after bleeding (study 2). In study 1 following the neck cut there was a wide variation between birds in the time to loss of behavioral and brainstem indices, ranging from 20 to 334 and 20 to 383 s for neck and beak tension, respectively. The median time to loss of balance following the neck cut was 166 ± 14 (22-355) seconds. There was a moderate correlation (R = 0.60 and 0.62) between distance of the neck cut and time to loss of balance and neck tension, respectively. This is the first investigation of the time to loss of consciousness following non-stunned slaughter of ducks in commercial conditions. The findings could be used to improve the welfare of ducks during non-stunned slaughter, such as recommending performance of the neck cut closer to the jaw line and ensuring appropriate waiting periods between slaughter and birds entering the scalding tanks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11123531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8698063PMC
December 2021

Cell-type-specific chromatin occupancy by the pioneer factor Zelda drives key developmental transitions in Drosophila.

Nat Commun 2021 12 9;12(1):7153. Epub 2021 Dec 9.

Department of Biomolecular Chemistry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA.

During Drosophila embryogenesis, the essential pioneer factor Zelda defines hundreds of cis-regulatory regions and in doing so reprograms the zygotic transcriptome. While Zelda is essential later in development, it is unclear how the ability of Zelda to define cis-regulatory regions is shaped by cell-type-specific chromatin architecture. Asymmetric division of neural stem cells (neuroblasts) in the fly brain provide an excellent paradigm for investigating the cell-type-specific functions of this pioneer factor. We show that Zelda synergistically functions with Notch to maintain neuroblasts in an undifferentiated state. Zelda misexpression reprograms progenitor cells to neuroblasts, but this capacity is limited by transcriptional repressors critical for progenitor commitment. Zelda genomic occupancy in neuroblasts is reorganized as compared to the embryo, and this reorganization is correlated with differences in chromatin accessibility and cofactor availability. We propose that Zelda regulates essential transitions in the neuroblasts and embryo through a shared gene-regulatory network driven by cell-type-specific enhancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-27506-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8660810PMC
December 2021

Modifiable Risk Factors for Neurocognitive and Psychosocial Problems After Hodgkin Lymphoma.

Blood 2021 Dec 3. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

St. Jude Children Research Hospital, Memphis, United States.

Long-term survivors of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) experience high burden of chronic health morbidities. Correlates of neurocognitive and psychosocial morbidity have not been well established. 1,760 survivors of HL (mean[SD] age 37.5[6.0] years, time since diagnosis 23.6[4.7] years, 52.1% female) and 3,180 siblings (age 33.2[8.5] years, 54.5% female) completed cross-sectional surveys assessing neurocognitive function, emotional distress, quality of life, social attainment, smoking, and physical activity. Treatment exposures were abstracted from medical records. Chronic health conditions were graded according to NCI CTCAE v4.3 (1=mild, 2=moderate, 3=severe/disabling, 4=life-threatening). Multivariable analyses, adjusted for age, sex, and race, estimated relative risk (RR) of impairment in survivors vs. siblings and, among survivors, risk of impairment associated with demographic, clinical, treatment factors and grade 2+ chronic health conditions. Compared with siblings, survivors had significant higher risk (p's<0.05) of neurocognitive impairment (e.g. memory 8.1% vs. 5.7%), anxiety (7.0%%vs. 5.4%),depression (9.1% vs. 7%), unemployment (9.6% vs. 4.4%), and impaired physical/mental quality of life (e.g. physical function 11.2% vs. 3.0%). Smoking was associated with higher risk of impairment in task efficiency (RR=1.56[1.02-2.39]), emotional regulation (RR=1.84[1.35-2.49]), anxiety (RR=2.43[1.51-3.93]), and depression (RR=2.73[1.85-4.04]). Meeting CDC exercise guidelines was associated with lower risk of impairment in task efficiency (RR=0.70[0.52-0.95]), organization (RR=0.60[0.45-0.80]), depression (RR=0.66[0.48-0.92]), and multiple quality of life domains. Cardiovascular and neurologic conditions were associated with impairment in nearly all domains. Survivors of HL are at elevated risk for neurocognitive and psychosocial impairment, and risk is associated with modifiable factors that provide targets for interventions to improve long-term functional outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021013167DOI Listing
December 2021

Heterogeneity in head and neck cancer incidence among black populations from Africa, the Caribbean and the USA: Analysis of cancer registry data by the AC3.

Cancer Epidemiol 2021 12 4;75:102053. Epub 2021 Nov 4.

Jamaica Cancer Registry, Department of Pathology, University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica; African Caribbean Cancer Consortium USA.

Background: Africa and the Caribbean are projected to have greater increases in Head and neck cancer (HNC) burden in comparison to North America and Europe. The knowledge needed to reinforce prevention in these populations is limited. We compared for the first time, incidence rates of HNC in black populations from African, the Caribbean and USA.

Methods: Annual age-standardized incidence rates (IR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) per 100,000 were calculated for 2013-2015 using population-based cancer registry data for 14,911 HNC cases from the Caribbean (Barbados, Guadeloupe, Trinidad & Tobago, N = 443), Africa (Kenya, Nigeria, N = 772) and the United States (SEER, Florida, N = 13,696). We compared rates by sub-sites and sex among countries using data from registries with high quality and completeness.

Results: In 2013-2015, compared to other countries, HNC incidence was highest among SEER states (IR: 18.2, 95%CI = 17.6-18.8) among men, and highest in Kenya (IR: 7.5, 95%CI = 6.3-8.7) among women. Nasopharyngeal cancer IR was higher in Kenya for men (IR: 3.1, 95%CI = 2.5-3.7) and women (IR: 1.5, 95%CI = 1.0-1.9). Female oral cavity cancer was also notably higher in Kenya (IR = 3.9, 95%CI = 3.0-4.9). Blacks from SEER states had higher incidence of laryngeal cancer (IR: 5.5, 95%CI = 5.2-5.8) compared to other countries and even Florida blacks (IR: 4.4, 95%CI = 3.9-5.0).

Conclusion: We found heterogeneity in IRs for HNC among these diverse black populations; notably, Kenya which had distinctively higher incidence of nasopharyngeal and female oral cavity cancer. Targeted etiological investigations are warranted considering the low consumption of tobacco and alcohol among Kenyan women. Overall, our findings suggest that behavioral and environmental factors are more important determinants of HNC than race.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2021.102053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8627451PMC
December 2021
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