Publications by authors named "T P Chandru"

5 Publications

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Comparative evaluation of three different toothpastes on remineralization potential of initial enamel lesions: A scanning electron microscopic study.

Indian J Dent Res 2020 Mar-Apr;31(2):217-223

Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Kannur Dental College, Kannur, Kerala, India.

Background: The early enamel lesions are reversible as it is a process involving mineral transactions between the teeth and saliva.

Aim: To evaluate the efficiency of three different tooth pastes on remineralization potential of initial enamel lesions using Vickers Micro hardness Test and Scanning electron microscopy.

Materials And Methods: Artificial carious lesions were prepared in human enamel with demineralizing solution. The treatment agents included were Colgate sensitive plus toothpaste, Regenerate enamel science™ toothpaste, BioRepair toothpaste and control as Deionized water. All the samples were subjected to treatment solutions as per the pH cycling model for 12 days to simulate the daily oral environment's acid challenge. The remineralization parameters-surface hardness and surface roughness of enamel blocks were evaluated with Vickers indenter and Scanning electron microscope respectively. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA test was used to check mean differences between the groups. Post hoc analysis was done using Tukey's post hoc test. SEM images were graded according to Bonetti et al grading criteria.

Results: As per statistical analysis, maximum remineralization of enamel blocks occurred after applying Colgate Sensitive Plus tooth paste followed by BioRepair tooth paste and Regenerate enamel Science™ toothpaste. Least remineralization potential was shown by control group.

Conclusion: Colgate sensitive plus tooth paste with Pro Argin™ formula can be regarded as a potential remineralising agent. It can be concluded as a noninvasive means of managing early enamel carious lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_745_18DOI Listing
May 2020

Antimicrobial efficacy of medium chain fatty acids as root canal irrigants: An in vitro study.

J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2019 Jul-Sep;37(3):258-264

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, PSM College of Dental Science and Research, Thrissur, Kerala, India.

Background: Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans are the microbes that are most resistant to elimination by disinfecting agents and are the causative agents for reinfection of the root canal treated teeth. Medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs), which are the main components of coconut oil, are proven antimicrobial agents. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate their antimicrobial efficacy against E. faecalis and C. albicans.

Methodology: Ninety extracted single-rooted mandibular premolar teeth were decoronated, biomechanically prepared, autoclaved, and divided into three groups (n = 30): Group A (inoculated with E. faecalis), Group B (inoculated with C. albicans), and Group C (control group). Each group was again subdivided into three groups (n = 10) and irrigated with lauric acid (LA), decanoic acid (DA), and octanoic acid, respectively, for 5 min. Paper point samples were taken from canal walls and transferred into Brain Heart Infusion broth and potato dextrose broth and placed in an incubator at 37°C. The appearance of tubidity was checked at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h using direct contact test. The data were then statistically analyzed using the analysis of variance and Tukey honestly significant difference post hoc tests.

Results: Among the three MCFAs, LA showed the maximum inhibitory against E. faecalis at 24 h and the inhibitory activity decreased considerably at 48, 72, and 96 h. DA was the most effective against C. albicans with a maximum inhibition at 48 h. DA also showed significant substantivity at 72 and 96 h.

Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that MCFAs show promising antimicrobial efficacy against E. faecalis and C. albicans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_63_19DOI Listing
November 2019

Comparison of species isolated from children with and without early childhood caries: A descriptive cross-sectional study.

J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2017 Oct-Dec;35(4):296-300

Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Kannur Dental College, Kannur, Kerala, India.

Background: Early childhood caries (ECC) is characterized by the presence of one or more decayed, missing (due to caries), or filled teeth surfaces in any primary tooth, in a child below 6 years of age. Although ECC is primarily associated with high levels of maternal Streptococcus mutans, there has been an increased interest in finding the relationship between oral fungal flora and dental caries.

Objective: The aim of the study is to identify and characterize the Candida species and to compare the candidal isolates in children with ECC and without ECC.

Materials And Methods: The study was conducted on children below 6 years of age, who were categorized into ECC and non-ECC groups of fifty children each. Samples were collected using sterile cotton swabs and were inoculated on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Candidal colonies were isolated, species identified and virulence factors tested for both ECC and non-ECC groups.

Results: The candidal carriage among the ECC children was found to be 84%, which was significantly higher than the non-ECC group of 24%. Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida (NAC) were isolated in both ECC and non-ECC groups. Phospholipase production was significantly high in ECC group whereas hemolysin production and germ tube formation showed no significant difference between the two groups.

Conclusion: A significant correlation was found between the presence of Candida and ECC. NAC also plays an important role in the development of ECC. The virulence factors such as phospholipase may be responsible for the pathogenicity of Candida in the development of ECC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_160_17DOI Listing
June 2018

Comparison of antibacterial efficacy of coconut oil and chlorhexidine on : An study.

J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2016 Sep-Oct;6(5):447-452. Epub 2016 Oct 24.

Department of Microbiology, Kannur Medical College, Anjarakandy, Kannur, Kerala, India.

Aims: is the most common organism causing dental caries. Various chemotherapeutic agents are available that help in treating the bacteria, with each having their own merits and demerits. Recent research has shown that coconut oil has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial action. Therefore, the present was conducted to determine the antibacterial efficacy of coconut oil and to compare it with chlorhexidine.

Materials And Methods: A total of fifty female children aged 8-12 years were included in the study. Twenty five children were randomly distributed to each group, i.e., the study group (coconut oil) and the control group (chlorhexidine). The participants were asked to routinely perform oil swishing with coconut oil and chlorhexidine and rinse every day in the morning after brushing for 2-3 minutes. in saliva and plaque were determined using a chairside method, i.e., the Dentocult SM Strip Mutans test. Patients were instructed to continue oil swishing for 30 days. . counts in plaque and saliva on day 1, day 15, and day 30 were recorded and the results were compared using Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test.

Results: The results showed that there is a statistically significant decrease in . count from coconut oil as well as chlorhexidine group from baseline to 30 days. The study also showed that in comparison of coconut oil and chlorhexidine there is no statistically significant change regarding the antibacterial efficacy.

Conclusion: Coconut oil is as effective as chlorhexidine in the reduction of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2231-0762.192934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5109859PMC
October 2016

A Cross-sectional Study of the Prevalence of Dental Caries among 12- to 15-year-old Overweight Schoolchildren.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2016 Sep 1;17(9):750-754. Epub 2016 Sep 1.

Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, AIKharj, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Introduction: Overweight and obesity are growing health-related problems worldwide, and it is currently the most prevalent nutritional disorder among children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to assess the association between overweight and dental caries among 12- to 15-year-old schoolchildren in Mangaluru district, Karnataka, India.

Materials And Methods: Data were obtained from 2000 school-going children aged 12 to 15 years. The children were categorized as overweight and normal-weight group by assessing the body mass index (BMI). Body mass index was categorized using the classification system given by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and obtained in units of kg/m. The dental caries was assessed by detection and was performed according to decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index.

Results: Of the 2000 children examined, the mean BMI recorded was 26.87 ± 2.26 for the overweight children and 20.82 ± 1.48 for the normal-weight children. Even though the DMFT (3.90 ± 2.95) in the overweight children was slightly higher than the control group (3.36 ± 2.73), it was not statistically significant.

Conclusion: Within the confines of the present study, it can be concluded that there is no significant association between overweight and dental caries among the schoolchildren of Mangaluru district in Karnataka. Longitudinal studies are necessary to substantiate the possible relationships between dental caries and overweight in children. Knowledge of these relationships could lead to preventive health measures designed to reduce the prevalence of both obesity and dental caries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1924DOI Listing
September 2016