Publications by authors named "T O Lilius"

24 Publications

Spared Nerve Injury Causes Sexually Dimorphic Mechanical Allodynia and Differential Gene Expression in Spinal Cords and Dorsal Root Ganglia in Rats.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu 8 (Biomedicum 1), 00014, Helsinki, Finland.

Neuropathic pain is more prevalent in women. However, females are under-represented in animal experiments, and the mechanisms of sex differences remain inadequately understood. We used the spared nerve injury (SNI) model in rats to characterize sex differences in pain behaviour, unbiased RNA-Seq and proteomics to study the mechanisms. Male and female rats were subjected to SNI- and sham-surgery. Mechanical and cold allodynia were assessed. Ipsilateral lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord (SC) segments were collected for RNA-seq analysis with DESeq2 on Day 7. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples for proteomic analysis and DRGs and SCs for analysis of IB-4 and CGRP, and IBA1 and GFAP, respectively, were collected on Day 21. Females developed stronger mechanical allodynia. There were no differences between the sexes in CGRP and IB-4 in the DRG or glial cell markers in the SC. No CSF protein showed change following SNI. DRG and SC showed abundant changes in gene expression. Sexually dimorphic responses were found in genes related to T-cells (cd28, ctla4, cd274, cd4, prf1), other immunological responses (dpp4, c5a, cxcr2 and il1b), neuronal transmission (hrh3, thbs4, chrna4 and pdyn), plasticity (atf3, c1qc and reg3b), and others (bhlhe22, mcpt1l, trpv6). We observed significantly stronger mechanical allodynia in females and numerous sexually dimorphic changes in gene expression following SNI in rats. Several genes have previously been linked to NP, while some are novel. Our results suggest gene targets for further studies in the development of new, possibly sex-specific, therapies for NP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-021-02447-1DOI Listing
July 2021

Electrochemical Detection of Morphine in Untreated Human Capillary Whole Blood.

ACS Omega 2021 May 21;6(17):11563-11569. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Tietotie 3, Espoo 02150, Finland.

Disposable single-use electrochemical sensor strips were used for quantitative detection of small concentrations of morphine in untreated capillary whole blood. Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) networks were fabricated on a polymer substrate to produce flexible, reproducible sensor strips with integrated reference and counter electrodes, compatible with industrial-scale processes. A thin Nafion coating was used on top of the sensors to enable direct electrochemical detection in whole blood. These sensors were shown to detect clinically relevant concentrations of morphine both in buffer and in whole blood samples. Small 38 μL finger-prick blood samples were spiked with 2 μL of morphine solution of several concentrations and measured without precipitation of proteins or any other further pretreatment. A linear range of 0.5-10 μM was achieved in both matrices and a detection limit of 0.48 μM in buffer. In addition, to demonstrate the applicability of the sensor in a point-of-care device, single-determination measurements were done with capillary samples from three subjects. An average recovery of 60% was found, suggesting that the sensor only measures the free, unbound fraction of the drug. An interference study with other opioids and possible interferents showed the selectivity of the sensor. This study clearly indicates that these Nafion/SWCNT sensor strips show great promise as a point-of-care rapid test for morphine in blood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c00773DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8154029PMC
May 2021

Mapping of CSF transport using high spatiotemporal resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in mice: Effect of anesthesia.

Magn Reson Med 2021 06 11;85(6):3326-3342. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Center for Translational Neuromedicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Purpose: Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) represents the only available approach for glymphatic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow 3D mapping in the brain of living animals and humans. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel DCE-MRI protocol for mapping of the glymphatic system transport with improved spatiotemporal resolution, and to validate the new protocol by comparing the transport in mice anesthetized with either isoflurane or ketamine/xylazine.

Methods: The contrast agent, gadobutrol, was administered into the CSF of the cisterna magna and its transport visualized continuously on a 9.4T preclinical scanner using 3D fast-imaging with a steady-state free-precession sequence (3D-FISP), which has a spatial resolution of 0.001 mm and a temporal resolution of 30 s. The MR signals were measured dynamically for 60 min in multiple volumes of interest covering the entire CSF space and brain parenchyma.

Results: The results confirm earlier findings that glymphatic CSF influx is higher under ketamine/xylazine than with isoflurane anesthesia. This was extended to account for new details about the distinct CSF efflux pathways under the two anesthetic regimens. Dynamic contrast MR shows that CSF clearance occurs mainly along the vagus nerve near the jugular vein under isoflurane and via the olfactory bulb under ketamine/xylazine.

Conclusion: The improved spatial and temporal sampling rates afforded by 3D-FISP shed new light on the pharmacological modulation of CSF efflux paths. The present observations may have the potential to set a new standard for future experimental DCE-MRI studies of the glymphatic system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.28645DOI Listing
June 2021

Rifampin Reduces the Plasma Concentrations of Oral and Intravenous Hydromorphone in Healthy Volunteers.

Anesth Analg 2021 08;133(2):423-434

From the Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine.

Background: Several opioids are metabolized by the inducible cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A isozymes. Coadministration with strong inducers of drug metabolism, such as rifampin, can dramatically reduce systemic exposure to these opioids. As the CYP metabolism of hydromorphone is of minor importance, we studied in healthy volunteers whether hydromorphone would be an effective analgesic for patients who concomitantly receive the prototypical enzyme inducer rifampin.

Methods: In this paired, randomized, crossover study, 12 participants received oral placebo or rifampin for 8 days. Oral hydromorphone (2.6 mg) was administered on day 6 followed by intravenous hydromorphone (0.02 mg/kg) on day 8. Hydromorphone and hydromorphone-3-glucuronide (HM3G) plasma concentrations were measured for 24 hours and psychomotor responses, including perceived drug effect, change in pupil diameter, and cold pressor threshold were evaluated for 6 hours. Our primary outcome was the change in the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-last) of oral and intravenous hydromorphone after pretreatment with rifampin or placebo. Pharmacodynamic parameters and other pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed as secondary outcomes.

Results: Rifampin reduced the AUC0-last of oral and intravenous hydromorphone by 43% (ratio to control: 0.57, 90% confidence interval [CI], 0.50-0.65) and 26% (ratio to control: 0.74, 90% CI, 0.69-0.79), respectively. The maximum concentration of oral hydromorphone was reduced by 37% (ratio to control: 0.63, 90% CI, 0.55-0.72), and oral bioavailability decreased from 33% to 26% (ratio to control: 0.78, 90% CI, 0.67-0.91) in the rifampin phase compared with placebo. The HM3G-to-hydromorphone ratio increased by 50% (90% CI, 25-79) and 42% (90% CI, 29-55) after oral and intravenous hydromorphone, respectively. Rifampin did not significantly affect the pharmacodynamic parameters.

Conclusions: Rifampin significantly reduces the concentrations of oral and intravenous hydromorphone. This interaction is due to an increase in the first-pass and systemic metabolism of hydromorphone, likely involving induction of uridine 5'-diphospho- glucuronosyltransferase enzymes by rifampin. The enhancement of hydromorphone elimination should be considered when managing pain of patients who are treated with strong enzyme inducers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000005229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8257471PMC
August 2021

Disposable Nafion-Coated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Test Strip for Electrochemical Quantitative Determination of Acetaminophen in a Finger-Prick Whole Blood Sample.

Anal Chem 2020 10 11;92(19):13017-13024. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Aalto University, Kemistintie 1, 02150 Espoo, Finland.

A disposable electrochemical test strip for the quantitative point-of-care (POC) determination of acetaminophen (paracetamol) in plasma and finger-prick whole blood was fabricated. The industrially scalable dry transfer process of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and screen printing of silver were combined to produce integrated electrochemical test strips. Nafion coating stabilized the potential of the Ag reference electrode and enabled the selective detection in spiked plasma as well as in whole blood samples. The test strips were able to detect acetaminophen in small 40 μL samples with a detection limit of 0.8 μM and a wide linear range from 1 μM to 2 mM, well within the required clinical range. After a simple 1:1 dilution of plasma and whole blood, a quantitative detection with good recoveries of 79% in plasma and 74% in whole blood was achieved. These results strongly indicate that these electrodes can be used directly to determine the unbound acetaminophen fraction without the need for any additional steps. The developed test strip shows promise as a rapid and simple POC quantitative acetaminophen assay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c01857DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7547857PMC
October 2020
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