Publications by authors named "T M Cook"

1,510 Publications

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Semper's cells in the insect compound eye: Insights into ocular form and function.

Dev Biol 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Ophthalmological, Visual, and Anatomical Sciences, Wayne State University, School of Medicine, 540 East Canfield Avenue, Detroit, MI, 48201, USA; Center of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 540 East Canfield Avenue, Detroit, MI, 48201, USA. Electronic address:

The arthropod compound eye represents one of two major eye types in the animal kingdom and has served as an essential experimental paradigm for defining fundamental mechanisms underlying sensory organ formation, function, and maintenance. One of the most distinguishing features of the compound eye is the highly regular array of lens facets that define individual eye (ommatidial) units. These lens facets are produced by a deeply conserved quartet of cuticle-secreting cells, called Semper cells (SCs). Also widely known as cone cells, SCs were originally identified for their secretion of the dioptric system, i.e. the corneal lens and underlying crystalline cones. Additionally, SCs are now known to execute a diversity of patterning and glial functions in compound eye development and maintenance. Here, we present an integrated account of our current knowledge of SC multifunctionality in the Drosophila compound eye, highlighting emerging gene regulatory modules that may drive the diverse roles for these cells. Drawing comparisons with other deeply conserved retinal glia in the vertebrate single lens eye, this discussion speaks to glial cell origins and opens new avenues for understanding sensory system support programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2021.07.015DOI Listing
July 2021

Critical care outcomes from COVID-19: patients, interventions, healthcare systems and the need for core datasets.

Anaesthesia 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Intensive Care, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/anae.15545DOI Listing
July 2021

Cisgenderism and transphobia in sexual health care and associations with testing for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections: Findings from the Australian Trans & Gender Diverse Sexual Health Survey.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(7):e0253589. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Kirby Institute, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Transgender and gender diverse people have unique risks and needs in the context of sexual health, but little is known about sexual health care for this population. In 2018, a national, online survey of sexual health and well-being was conducted with trans and gender diverse people in Australia (n = 1,613). Data from this survey were analysed to describe uptake of sexual health care and experiences of interpersonal and structural cisgenderism and transphobia. Experiences of cisgenderism and transphobia in sexual health care were assessed using a new, four-item scale of 'gender insensitivity', which produced scores ranging from 0 (highly gender sensitive) to 4 (highly gender insensitive). Logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted to determine if experiences of gender insensitivity in sexual health care were associated with uptake and frequency of HIV/STI testing in the 12 months prior to participation. Trans and gender diverse participants primarily accessed sexual health care from general practice clinics (86.8%), followed by publicly funded sexual health clinics (45.6%), community-based services (22.3%), and general hospitals (14.9%). Experiences of gender insensitivity were common overall (73.2% of participants reported ≥2 negative experiences) but most common in hospitals (M = 2.9, SD = 1.3) and least common in community-based services (M = 1.3, SD = 1.4; p<0.001). When controlling for sociodemographic factors, social networks, general access to health care, and sexual practices, higher levels of gender insensitivity in previous sexual health care encounters were associated with a lower likelihood of recent HIV/STI testing (adjusted prevalence ratio = 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]:091,0.96, p<0.001) and less-frequent HIV/STI testing (B = -0.07, 95%CI:-0.10,-0.03, p = 0.007). Given the high rates of HIV and other STIs among trans and gender diverse people in Australia and overseas, eliminating cisgenderism and transphobia in sexual health care may help improve access to diagnostic testing to reduce infection rates and support the overall sexual health and well-being of these populations.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0253589PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8294496PMC
July 2021

A quantitative evaluation of aerosol generation during supraglottic airway insertion and removal.

Anaesthesia 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Pain and Critical Care Sciences and School of Physiology, Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Many guidelines consider supraglottic airway use to be an aerosol-generating procedure. This status requires increased levels of personal protective equipment, fallow time between cases and results in reduced operating theatre efficiency. Aerosol generation has never been quantitated during supraglottic airway use. To address this evidence gap, we conducted real-time aerosol monitoring (0.3-10-µm diameter) in ultraclean operating theatres during supraglottic airway insertion and removal. This showed very low background particle concentrations (median (IQR [range]) 1.6 (0-3.1 [0-4.0]) particles.l ) against which the patient's tidal breathing produced a higher concentration of aerosol (4.0 (1.3-11.0 [0-44]) particles.l , p = 0.048). The average aerosol concentration detected during supraglottic airway insertion (1.3 (1.0-4.2 [0-6.2]) particles.l , n = 11), and removal (2.1 (0-17.5 [0-26.2]) particles.l , n = 12) was no different to tidal breathing (p = 0.31 and p = 0.84, respectively). Comparison of supraglottic airway insertion and removal with a volitional cough (104 (66-169 [33-326]), n = 27), demonstrated that supraglottic airway insertion/removal sequences produced <4% of the aerosol compared with a single cough (p < 0.001). A transient aerosol increase was recorded during one complicated supraglottic airway insertion (which initially failed to provide a patent airway). Detailed analysis of this event showed an atypical particle size distribution and we subsequently identified multiple sources of non-respiratory aerosols that may be produced during airway management and can be considered as artefacts. These findings demonstrate supraglottic airway insertion/removal generates no more bio-aerosol than breathing and far less than a cough. This should inform the design of infection prevention strategies for anaesthetists and operating theatre staff caring for patients managed with supraglottic airways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/anae.15542DOI Listing
July 2021

Why Is the Electronic Health Record So Challenging for Research and Clinical Care?

Methods Inf Med 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Informatics, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States.

Background:  The electronic health record (EHR) has become increasingly ubiquitous. At the same time, health professionals have been turning to this resource for access to data that is needed for the delivery of health care and for clinical research. There is little doubt that the EHR has made both of these functions easier than earlier days when we relied on paper-based clinical records. Coupled with modern database and data warehouse systems, high-speed networks, and the ability to share clinical data with others are large number of challenges that arguably limit the optimal use of the EHR OBJECTIVES:  Our goal was to provide an exhaustive reference for those who use the EHR in clinical and research contexts, but also for health information systems professionals as they design, implement, and maintain EHR systems.

Methods:  This study includes a panel of 24 biomedical informatics researchers, information technology professionals, and clinicians, all of whom have extensive experience in design, implementation, and maintenance of EHR systems, or in using the EHR as clinicians or researchers. All members of the panel are affiliated with Penn Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and have experience with a variety of different EHR platforms and systems and how they have evolved over time.

Results:  Each of the authors has shared their knowledge and experience in using the EHR in a suite of 20 short essays, each representing a specific challenge and classified according to a functional hierarchy of interlocking facets such as usability and usefulness, data quality, standards, governance, data integration, clinical care, and clinical research.

Conclusion:  We provide here a set of perspectives on the challenges posed by the EHR to clinical and research users.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1731784DOI Listing
July 2021
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