Publications by authors named "T Laitinen"

480 Publications

Fatty liver index predicts incident risk of prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

Ann Med 2021 Dec;53(1):1256-1264

Department of Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Aims: To investigate the association between overweight/obesity and fatty liver index (FLI) on the odds of incident prediabetes/type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in 2020 participants after 10 years follow up.

Methods: At baseline (in 2001) 2020 participants, males and females, aged 24-39 years, were stratified according to body mass index (BMI), normal weight (<25 kg/m), overweight (≥25-<30 kg/m), or obese (≥30 kg/m) and FLI (as high FLI ≥60 or low FLI <60). We examined the incidence of prediabetes/type 2 diabetes and NAFLD (ultrasound assessed) over 10 years to 2011 to determine the relative impact of FLI and BMI.

Results: 514 and 52 individuals developed prediabetes and type 2 diabetes during follow-up. Such individuals were older, with higher BMI, serum glucose, insulin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations than those who did not develop prediabetes or type 2 diabetes ( = 1454). The additional presence of high FLI significantly increased the risk of developing prediabetes and type 2 diabetes above the risk of being overweight/obese. Compared with normal weight, low FLI participants, the odds of prediabetes were ∼2-fold higher and the odds of type 2 diabetes were 9-10-fold higher respectively in the overweight/obese, high FLI group. No difference was observed between normal weight, low FLI and overweight/obese and low FLI groups.

Conclusions: An increased FLI significantly increases the odds of incident prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and NAFLD in individuals with overweight/obese highlighting the contributory role of liver fat accumulation in the pathophysiology of prediabetes/type 2 diabetes.Key messagesObesity is a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.Additionally, NAFLD is more prevalent in people with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes when compared to age- and BMI-matched individuals.The presence of a raised fatty liver index (FLI) confers a significantly increased risk of developing prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and NAFLD above that conferred by being overweight/obese.The degree of elevation of FLI can risk stratify for incident prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in people with obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07853890.2021.1956685DOI Listing
December 2021

The Timing and Sequence of Cardiovascular Health Decline.

Am J Prev Med 2021 Jul 5. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.

Introduction: Childhood declines in cardiovascular health have been linked to the development of subclinical atherosclerosis; however, less is known about the timing and sequence of the decline of the specific cardiovascular health components. The study objective is to identify the patterns of decline and associations with adulthood subclinical atherosclerosis.

Methods: Data were pooled from 5 cardiovascular cohorts. Clinical components of cardiovascular health (BMI, blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood glucose) were categorized as ideal or nonideal using American Heart Association definitions. Multitrajectory models simultaneously fitted the probability ideal for each factor. Adjusted associations between trajectory groups and carotid intima-media thickness were modeled. Data were pooled from December 1, 2015 to June 1, 2019; statistical analysis occurred between June 1, 2019 and June 1, 2020.

Results: This study included 9,388 individuals (55% female, 66% White). A total of 5 distinct trajectory groups were created: 1 maintained the ideal levels of all the 4 health factors, 2 had risk onset of a single factor in childhood, 1 had risk onset of multiple factors in childhood, and 1 had risk onset in adulthood. Those with childhood multiple risk onset had 8.1% higher carotid intima-media thickness (95% CI=0.067, 0.095) than those in the ideal group, childhood cholesterol risk onset had 5.9% higher carotid intima-media thickness (95% CI=0.045, 0.072), childhood BMI risk onset had 5.5% higher carotid intima-media thickness (95% CI=0.041, 0.069), and early adulthood multiple risk onset had 2.7% higher carotid intima-media thickness (95% CI=0.013, 0.041).

Conclusions: Those who lost the ideal status of cardiovascular health in childhood and early adulthood had more subclinical atherosclerosis than those who retained the ideal cardiovascular health across the life course, underscoring the importance of preserving the ideal cardiovascular health beginning in childhood and continued into adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2021.04.010DOI Listing
July 2021

Docking-Based 3D-QSAR Studies for 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-one Derivatives as FAAH Inhibitors.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 6;22(11). Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Synthesis and Chemical Technology of Pharmaceutical Substances with Computer Modeling Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Lublin, PL-20059 Lublin, Poland.

This work aimed to construct 3D-QSAR CoMFA and CoMSIA models for a series of 31 FAAH inhibitors, containing the 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-one moiety. The obtained models were characterized by good statistical parameters: CoMFA Q = 0.61, R = 0.98; CoMSIA Q = 0.64, R = 0.93. The CoMFA model field contributions were 54.1% and 45.9% for steric and electrostatic fields, respectively. In the CoMSIA model, electrostatic, steric, hydrogen bond donor, and hydrogen acceptor properties were equal to 34.6%, 23.9%, 23.4%, and 18.0%, respectively. These models were validated by applying the leave-one-out technique, the seven-element test set (CoMFA r = 0.91; CoMSIA r = 0.91), a progressive scrambling test, and external validation criteria developed by Golbraikh and Tropsha (CoMFA r = 0.98, k = 0.95; CoMSIA r = 0.98, k = 0.89). As the statistical significance of the obtained model was confirmed, the results of the CoMFA and CoMSIA field calculation were mapped onto the enzyme binding site. It gave us the opportunity to discuss the structure-activity relationship based on the ligand-enzyme interactions. In particular, examination of the electrostatic properties of the established CoMFA model revealed fields that correspond to the regions where electropositive substituents are not desired, e.g., in the neighborhood of the 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-one moiety. This highlights the importance of heterocycle, a highly electronegative moiety in this area of each ligand. Examination of hydrogen bond donor and acceptor properties contour maps revealed several spots where the implementation of another hydrogen-bond-donating moiety will positively impact molecules' binding affinity, e.g., in the neighborhood of the 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-one ring. On the other hand, there is a large isopleth that refers to the favorable H-bond properties close to the terminal phenoxy group of a ligand, which means that, generally speaking, H-bond acceptors are desired in this area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22116108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8201265PMC
June 2021

Hematopoietic mosaic chromosomal alterations increase the risk for diverse types of infection.

Nat Med 2021 Jun 7;27(6):1012-1024. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, Helsinki, Finland.

Age is the dominant risk factor for infectious diseases, but the mechanisms linking age to infectious disease risk are incompletely understood. Age-related mosaic chromosomal alterations (mCAs) detected from genotyping of blood-derived DNA, are structural somatic variants indicative of clonal hematopoiesis, and are associated with aberrant leukocyte cell counts, hematological malignancy, and mortality. Here, we show that mCAs predispose to diverse types of infections. We analyzed mCAs from 768,762 individuals without hematological cancer at the time of DNA acquisition across five biobanks. Expanded autosomal mCAs were associated with diverse incident infections (hazard ratio (HR) 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15-1.36; P = 1.8 × 10), including sepsis (HR 2.68; 95% CI = 2.25-3.19; P = 3.1 × 10), pneumonia (HR 1.76; 95% CI = 1.53-2.03; P = 2.3 × 10), digestive system infections (HR 1.51; 95% CI = 1.32-1.73; P = 2.2 × 10) and genitourinary infections (HR 1.25; 95% CI = 1.11-1.41; P = 3.7 × 10). A genome-wide association study of expanded mCAs identified 63 loci, which were enriched at transcriptional regulatory sites for immune cells. These results suggest that mCAs are a marker of impaired immunity and confer increased predisposition to infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01371-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245201PMC
June 2021
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