Publications by authors named "Sylvie Odent"

206 Publications

10 years of CEMARA database in the AnDDI-Rares network: a unique resource facilitating research and epidemiology in developmental disorders in France.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 08 4;16(1):345. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Centre de Référence Anomalies du Développement et Syndromes Malformatifs, CHU de Dijon, Dijon, France.

Background: In France, the Ministry of Health has implemented a comprehensive program for rare diseases (RD) that includes an epidemiological program as well as the establishment of expert centers for the clinical care of patients with RD. Since 2007, most of these centers have entered the data for patients with developmental disorders into the CEMARA population-based registry, a national online data repository for all rare diseases. Through the CEMARA web portal, descriptive demographic data, clinical data, and the chronology of medical follow-up can be obtained for each center. We address the interest and ongoing challenges of this national data collection system 10 years after its implementation.

Methods: Since 2007, clinicians and researchers have reported the "minimum dataset (MDS)" for each patient presenting to their expert center. We retrospectively analyzed administrative data, demographic data, care organization and diagnoses.

Results: Over 10 years, 228,243 RD patients (including healthy carriers and family members for whom experts denied any suspicion of RD) have visited an expert center. Among them, 167,361 were patients affected by a RD (median age 11 years, 54% children, 46% adults, with a balanced sex ratio), and 60,882 were unaffected relatives (median age 37 years). The majority of patients (87%) were seen no more than once a year, and 52% of visits were for a diagnostic procedure. Among the 2,869 recorded rare disorders, 1,907 (66.5%) were recorded in less than 10 patients, 802 (28%) in 10 to 100 patients, 149 (5.2%) in 100 to 1,000 patients, and 11 (0.4%) in > 1,000 patients. Overall, 45.6% of individuals had no diagnosis and 6.7% had an uncertain diagnosis. Children were mainly referred by their pediatrician (46%; n = 55,755 among the 121,136 total children referrals) and adults by a medical specialist (34%; n = 14,053 among the 41,564 total adult referrals). Given the geographical coverage of the centers, the median distance from the patient's home was 25.1 km (IQR = 6.3 km-64.2 km).

Conclusions: CEMARA provides unprecedented support for epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic studies in the field of RD. Researchers can benefit from the national scope of CEMARA data, but also focus on specific diseases or patient subgroups. While this endeavor has been a major collective effort among French RD experts to gather large-scale data into a single database, it provides tremendous potential to improve patient care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-021-01957-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8335940PMC
August 2021

Care management in a French cohort with Down syndrome from the AnDDI-Rares/CNSA study.

Eur J Med Genet 2021 Oct 15;64(10):104290. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Centre de Référence Anomalies du Développement et Syndromes Malformatifs Ile de France, APHP Robert Debré, Paris, France.

Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder. In individuals with DS, a multidisciplinary approach to care is required to prevent multiple medical complications. The aim of this study was to describe the rehabilitation, medical care, and educational and social support provided to school-aged French DS patients with varying neuropsychological profiles. A mixed study was conducted. Quantitative data were obtained from a French multicentre study that included patients aged 4-20 years with diverse genetic syndromes. Qualitative data were collected by semi-structured face-to-face interviews and focus groups. Ninety-five DS subjects with a mean age of 10.9 years were included. Sixty-six per cent had a moderate intellectual disability (ID) and 18.9% had a severe ID. Medical supervision was generally multidisciplinary but access to medical specialists was often difficult. In terms of education, 94% of children under the age of six were in typical classes. After the age of 15, 75% were in medico-social institutions. Analysis of multidisciplinary rehabilitation conducted in the public and private sectors revealed failure to access physiotherapy, psychomotor therapy and occupational therapy, but not speech therapy. The main barrier encountered by patients was the difficulty accessing appropriate facilities due to a lack of space and long waiting lists. In conclusion, children and adolescents with DS generally received appropriate care. Though the management of children with DS has been improved considerably, access to health facilities remains inadequate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2021.104290DOI Listing
October 2021

High rate of hypomorphic variants as the cause of inherited ataxia and related diseases: study of a cohort of 366 families.

Genet Med 2021 11 7;23(11):2160-2170. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Centre de Référence Maladies Rares Anomalies du Développement, CHU de Rennes, Rennes, France.

Purpose: Diagnosis of inherited ataxia and related diseases represents a real challenge given the tremendous heterogeneity and clinical overlap of the various causes. We evaluated the efficacy of molecular diagnosis of these diseases by sequencing a large cohort of undiagnosed families.

Methods: We analyzed 366 unrelated consecutive patients with undiagnosed ataxia or related disorders by clinical exome-capture sequencing. In silico analysis was performed with an in-house pipeline that combines variant ranking and copy-number variant (CNV) searches. Variants were interpreted according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics/Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) guidelines.

Results: We established the molecular diagnosis in 46% of the cases. We identified 35 mildly affected patients with causative variants in genes that are classically associated with severe presentations. These cases were explained by the occurrence of hypomorphic variants, but also rarely suspected mechanisms such as C-terminal truncations and translation reinitiation.

Conclusion: A significant fraction of the clinical heterogeneity and phenotypic overlap is explained by hypomorphic variants that are difficult to identify and not readily predicted. The hypomorphic C-terminal truncation and translation reinitiation mechanisms that we identified may only apply to few genes, as it relies on specific domain organization and alterations. We identified PEX10 and FASTKD2 as candidates for translation reinitiation accounting for mild disease presentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-021-01250-6DOI Listing
November 2021

Heterozygous HMGB1 loss-of-function variants are associated with developmental delay and microcephaly.

Clin Genet 2021 10 28;100(4):386-395. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

13q12.3 microdeletion syndrome is a rare cause of syndromic intellectual disability. Identification and genetic characterization of patients with 13q12.3 microdeletion syndrome continues to expand the phenotypic spectrum associated with it. Previous studies identified four genes within the approximately 300 Kb minimal critical region including two candidate protein coding genes: KATNAL1 and HMGB1. To date, no patients carrying a sequence-level variant or a single gene deletion in HMGB1 or KATNAL1 have been described. Here we report six patients with loss-of-function variants involving HMGB1 and who had phenotypic features similar to the previously described 13q12.3 microdeletion syndrome cases. Common features included developmental delay, language delay, microcephaly, obesity and dysmorphic features. In silico analyses suggest that HMGB1 is likely to be intolerant to loss-of-function, and previous in vitro data are in line with the role of HMGB1 in neurodevelopment. These results strongly suggest that haploinsufficiency of the HMGB1 gene may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of the 13q12.3 microdeletion syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.14015DOI Listing
October 2021

Phenotypic expansion of CACNA1C-associated disorders to include isolated neurological manifestations.

Genet Med 2021 10 23;23(10):1922-1932. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Rare Diseases and Medical Genetic Unit, IRCCS Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, Rome, Italy.

Purpose: CACNA1C encodes the alpha-1-subunit of a voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel expressed in human heart and brain. Heterozygous variants in CACNA1C have previously been reported in association with Timothy syndrome and long QT syndrome. Several case reports have suggested that CACNA1C variation may also be associated with a primarily neurological phenotype.

Methods: We describe 25 individuals from 22 families with heterozygous variants in CACNA1C, who present with predominantly neurological manifestations.

Results: Fourteen individuals have de novo, nontruncating variants and present variably with developmental delays, intellectual disability, autism, hypotonia, ataxia, and epilepsy. Functional studies of a subgroup of missense variants via patch clamp experiments demonstrated differential effects on channel function in vitro, including loss of function (p.Leu1408Val), neutral effect (p.Leu614Arg), and gain of function (p.Leu657Phe, p.Leu614Pro). The remaining 11 individuals from eight families have truncating variants in CACNA1C. The majority of these individuals have expressive language deficits, and half have autism.

Conclusion: We expand the phenotype associated with CACNA1C variants to include neurodevelopmental abnormalities and epilepsy, in the absence of classic features of Timothy syndrome or long QT syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-021-01232-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8488020PMC
October 2021

Adult-onset diagnosis of urea cycle disorders: Results of a French cohort of 71 patients.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2021 09 7;44(5):1199-1214. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Laboratoire de Biochimie-Pharmacologie-Toxicologie, CHU Reims, France.

Urea cycle disorders (UCD) are rare diseases that usually affect neonates or young children. During decompensations, hyperammonemia is neurotoxic, leading to severe symptoms and even coma and death if not treated rapidly. The aim was to describe a cohort of patients with adult onset of UCDs in a multicentric, retrospective and descriptive study of French adult patients with a diagnosis after 16 years of age of UCDs due to a deficiency in one of the 6 enzymes (arginase, ASL, ASS, CPS1, NAGS, OTC) or the two transporters (ORNT1 or citrin). Seventy-one patients were included (68% female, 32% male). The diagnosis was made in the context of (a) a metabolic decompensation (42%), (b) family history (55%), or (c) chronic symptoms (3%). The median age at diagnosis was 33 years (range 16-86). Eighty-nine percent of patients were diagnosed with OTC deficiency, 7% CPS1 deficiency, 3% HHH syndrome and 1% argininosuccinic aciduria. For those diagnosed during decompensations (including 23 OTC cases, mostly female), 89% required an admission in intensive care units. Seven deaths were attributed to UCD-6 decompensations and 1 epilepsy secondary to inaugural decompensation. This is the largest cohort of UCDs diagnosed in adulthood, which confirms the triad of neurological, gastrointestinal and psychiatric symptoms during hyperammonemic decompensations. We stress that females with OTC deficiency can be symptomatic. With 10% of deaths in this cohort, UCDs in adults remain a life-threatening condition. Physicians working in adult care must be aware of late-onset presentations given the implications for patients and their families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jimd.12403DOI Listing
September 2021

How do non-geneticist physicians deal with genetic tests? A qualitative analysis.

Eur J Hum Genet 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

INSERM U1086, Anticipe, Normandie Université, 3 avenue du Général Harris, F-14076, Caen, France.

Genetic testing is accepted to be a common practice in many medical specialties. These genetic tests raise issues such as respect for basic rights, how to handle results and uncertainty and how to balance concerns for medical confidentiality with the rights of third parties. Physicians need help to deal with the rapid development of genomic medicine as most of them have received no specific training on the medical, ethical, and social issues involved. Analyzing how these professionals integrate genetic testing into the patient-provider relationship is essential to paving the way for a better use of genomics by all. We conducted a qualitative study comprising a series of focus groups with 21 neurologists and endocrinologists about their genetic testing practices in the western part of France. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed for major themes. We identified an automated care management procedure of genetic testing that affects patient autonomy. The simple fact of having a written consent cannot justify a genetic test given the stakes associated with the results. We also suggest orienting practices toward a systemic approach using a multidisciplinary team or network to provide resources for dealing with uncertainties in interpreting results or situations that require additional technical or clinical skills and, if necessary, to allow for joint consultations with both a geneticist and a non-geneticist medical specialist.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-021-00884-zDOI Listing
April 2021

Missense variants in DPYSL5 cause a neurodevelopmental disorder with corpus callosum agenesis and cerebellar abnormalities.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 05 23;108(5):951-961. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Service de Génétique, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 86021 Poitiers, France; Equipe d'Accueil 3808, Université de Poitiers, 86034 Poitiers, France.

The collapsin response mediator protein (CRMP) family proteins are intracellular mediators of neurotrophic factors regulating neurite structure/spine formation and are essential for dendrite patterning and directional axonal pathfinding during brain developmental processes. Among this family, CRMP5/DPYSL5 plays a significant role in neuronal migration, axonal guidance, dendrite outgrowth, and synapse formation by interacting with microtubules. Here, we report the identification of missense mutations in DPYSL5 in nine individuals with brain malformations, including corpus callosum agenesis and/or posterior fossa abnormalities, associated with variable degrees of intellectual disability. A recurrent de novo p.Glu41Lys variant was found in eight unrelated patients, and a p.Gly47Arg variant was identified in one individual from the first family reported with Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome. Functional analyses of the two missense mutations revealed impaired dendritic outgrowth processes in young developing hippocampal primary neuronal cultures. We further demonstrated that these mutations, both located in the same loop on the surface of DPYSL5 monomers and oligomers, reduced the interaction of DPYSL5 with neuronal cytoskeleton-associated proteins MAP2 and βIII-tubulin. Our findings collectively indicate that the p.Glu41Lys and p.Gly47Arg variants impair DPYSL5 function on dendritic outgrowth regulation by preventing the formation of the ternary complex with MAP2 and βIII-tubulin, ultimately leading to abnormal brain development. This study adds DPYSL5 to the list of genes implicated in brain malformation and in neurodevelopmental disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.04.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8206156PMC
May 2021

Clinical spectrum of MTOR-related hypomelanosis of Ito with neurodevelopmental abnormalities.

Genet Med 2021 08 8;23(8):1484-1491. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Pediatric and Fetal Imaging Department, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron, France.

Purpose: Hypomelanosis of Ito (HI) is a skin marker of somatic mosaicism. Mosaic MTOR pathogenic variants have been reported in HI with brain overgrowth. We sought to delineate further the pigmentary skin phenotype and clinical spectrum of neurodevelopmental manifestations of MTOR-related HI.

Methods: From two cohorts totaling 71 patients with pigmentary mosaicism, we identified 14 patients with Blaschko-linear and one with flag-like pigmentation abnormalities, psychomotor impairment or seizures, and a postzygotic MTOR variant in skin. Patient records, including brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) were reviewed. Immunostaining (n = 3) for melanocyte markers and ultrastructural studies (n = 2) were performed on skin biopsies.

Results: MTOR variants were present in skin, but absent from blood in half of cases. In a patient (p.[Glu2419Lys] variant), phosphorylation of p70S6K was constitutively increased. In hypopigmented skin of two patients, we found a decrease in stage 4 melanosomes in melanocytes and keratinocytes. Most patients (80%) had macrocephaly or (hemi)megalencephaly on MRI.

Conclusion: MTOR-related HI is a recognizable neurocutaneous phenotype of patterned dyspigmentation, epilepsy, intellectual deficiency, and brain overgrowth, and a distinct subtype of hypomelanosis related to somatic mosaicism. Hypopigmentation may be due to a defect in melanogenesis, through mTORC1 activation, similar to hypochromic patches in tuberous sclerosis complex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-021-01161-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8354853PMC
August 2021

Multicolor-FISH Characterization of a Prenatal Mosaicism for a Chromosomal Rearrangement Undetected by Molecular Cytogenetics.

Cytogenet Genome Res 2021 7;161(3-4):143-152. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Service de Cytogénétique et Biologie Cellulaire, CHU Rennes, Rennes, France.

Fetal mosaicism for chromosomal rearrangements remains a challenge to diagnose, even in the era of whole-genome sequencing. We present here a case of fetal mosaicism for a chromosomal rearrangement explored in amniocytes and fetal muscle, consisting of a major cell population (95%) with partial monosomy 4q and a minor population (5%) with additional material replacing the 4qter deleted segment. Molecular techniques (MLPA, array-CGH) failed to assess the origin of this material. Only multicolor-FISH identified the additional segment on chromosome 4 as derived from chromosome 17. Due to the poor prognosis, the couple chose to terminate the pregnancy. Because of low-level mosaicism, chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA), now considered as first-tier prenatal genetic analysis, did not allow the identification of the minor cell line. In case of large CNVs (>5 Mb) detected by CMA, karyotyping may be considered to elucidate the mechanism of the underlying rearrangement and eliminate mosaicism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000514592DOI Listing
August 2021

Mutation-specific pathophysiological mechanisms define different neurodevelopmental disorders associated with SATB1 dysfunction.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 02 28;108(2):346-356. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Rehabilitation and Development, Randall Children's Hospital at Legacy Emanuel Medical Center, Portland, OR 97227, USA.

Whereas large-scale statistical analyses can robustly identify disease-gene relationships, they do not accurately capture genotype-phenotype correlations or disease mechanisms. We use multiple lines of independent evidence to show that different variant types in a single gene, SATB1, cause clinically overlapping but distinct neurodevelopmental disorders. Clinical evaluation of 42 individuals carrying SATB1 variants identified overt genotype-phenotype relationships, associated with different pathophysiological mechanisms, established by functional assays. Missense variants in the CUT1 and CUT2 DNA-binding domains result in stronger chromatin binding, increased transcriptional repression, and a severe phenotype. In contrast, variants predicted to result in haploinsufficiency are associated with a milder clinical presentation. A similarly mild phenotype is observed for individuals with premature protein truncating variants that escape nonsense-mediated decay, which are transcriptionally active but mislocalized in the cell. Our results suggest that in-depth mutation-specific genotype-phenotype studies are essential to capture full disease complexity and to explain phenotypic variability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.01.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7895900PMC
February 2021

Skraban-Deardorff syndrome: Six new cases of WDR26-related disease and expansion of the clinical phenotype.

Clin Genet 2021 05 8;99(5):732-739. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

CHU Rennes, Service de Génétique Clinique, Centre de Référence Maladies Rares CLAD-Ouest, ERN ITHACA, Hôpital Sud, Rennes, France.

Skraban-Deardorff syndrome (a disease related to variations in the WDR26 gene; OMIM #617616) was first described in a cohort of 15 individuals in 2017. The syndrome comprises intellectual deficiency, severe speech impairment, ataxic gait, seizures, mild hypotonia with feeding difficulties during infancy, and dysmorphic features. Here, we report on six novel heterozygous de novo pathogenic variants in WDR26 in six probands. The patients' phenotypes were consistent with original publication. One patient displayed marked hypotonia with an abnormal muscle biopsy; this finding warrants further investigation. Gait must be closely monitored, in order to highlight any musculoskeletal or neurological abnormalities and prompt further examinations. Speech therapy and alternative communication methods should be initiated early in the clinical follow-up, in order to improve language and oral eating and drinking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.13933DOI Listing
May 2021

Smith-Magenis syndrome: Clinical and behavioral characteristics in a large retrospective cohort.

Clin Genet 2021 04 5;99(4):519-528. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Genetics, APHP Nord-Université de Paris Robert Debré University Hospital and INSERM U1141 NeuroDiderot, Paris, France.

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), characterized by dysmorphic features, neurodevelopmental disorder, and sleep disturbance, is due to an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11.2 (90%) or to point mutations in the RAI1 gene. In this retrospective cohort, we studied the clinical, cognitive, and behavioral profile of 47 European patients with SMS caused by a 17p11.2 deletion. We update the clinical and neurobehavioral profile of SMS. Intrauterine growth was normal in most patients. Prenatal anomalies were reported in 15%. 60% of our patients older than 10 years were overweight. Prevalence of heart defects (6.5% tetralogy of Fallot, 6.5% pulmonary stenosis), ophthalmological problems (89%), scoliosis (43%), or deafness (32%) were consistent with previous reports. Epilepsy was uncommon (2%). We identified a high prevalence of obstipation (45%). All patients had learning difficulties and developmental delay, but ID range was wide and 10% of patients had IQ in the normal range. Behavioral problems included temper tantrums and other difficult behaviors (84%) and night-time awakenings (86%). Optimal care of SMS children is multidisciplinary and requires important parental involvement. In our series, half of patients were able to follow adapted schooling, but 70% of parents had to adapt their working time, illustrating the medical, social, educative, and familial impact of having a child with SMS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.13906DOI Listing
April 2021

Neuropsychological study in 19 French patients with White-Sutton syndrome and POGZ mutations.

Clin Genet 2021 03 15;99(3):407-417. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Service de génétique médicale, CHU de Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

White-Sutton syndrome is a rare developmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, intellectual disabilities (ID), and neurobehavioral abnormalities secondary to pathogenic pogo transposable element-derived protein with zinc finger domain (POGZ) variants. The purpose of our study was to describe the neurocognitive phenotype of an unbiased national cohort of patients with identified POGZ pathogenic variants. This study is based on a French collaboration through the AnDDI-Rares network, and includes 19 patients from 18 families with POGZ pathogenic variants. All clinical data and neuropsychological tests were collected from medical files. Among the 19 patients, 14 patients exhibited ID (six mild, five moderate and three severe). The five remaining patients had learning disabilities and shared a similar neurocognitive profile, including language difficulties, dysexecutive syndrome, attention disorders, slowness, and social difficulties. One patient evaluated for autism was found to have moderate autism spectrum disorder. This study reveals that the cognitive phenotype of patients with POGZ pathogenic variants can range from learning disabilities to severe ID. It highlights that pathogenic variations in the same genes can be reported in a large spectrum of neurocognitive profiles, and that children with learning disabilities could benefit from next generation sequencing techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.13894DOI Listing
March 2021

Histone H3.3 beyond cancer: Germline mutations in cause a previously unidentified neurodegenerative disorder in 46 patients.

Sci Adv 2020 Dec 2;6(49). Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Institut für Neurogenomik, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Munich, Germany.

Although somatic mutations in Histone 3.3 (H3.3) are well-studied drivers of oncogenesis, the role of germline mutations remains unreported. We analyze 46 patients bearing de novo germline mutations in histone 3 family 3A () or with progressive neurologic dysfunction and congenital anomalies without malignancies. Molecular modeling of all 37 variants demonstrated clear disruptions in interactions with DNA, other histones, and histone chaperone proteins. Patient histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs) analysis revealed notably aberrant local PTM patterns distinct from the somatic lysine mutations that cause global PTM dysregulation. RNA sequencing on patient cells demonstrated up-regulated gene expression related to mitosis and cell division, and cellular assays confirmed an increased proliferative capacity. A zebrafish model showed craniofacial anomalies and a defect in Foxd3-derived glia. These data suggest that the mechanism of germline mutations are distinct from cancer-associated somatic histone mutations but may converge on control of cell proliferation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abc9207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7821880PMC
December 2020

Antenatal finding of 16q24.1 duplication including FOXF1, revealing an autosomal dominant familial pathology with congenital short bowel, malrotation and renal abnormalities.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2021 09 15;45(5):101562. Epub 2020 Nov 15.

CHU Rennes, Service de Cytogénétique et Biologie Cellulaire, F-35033 Rennes, France; Univ Rennes, CHU Rennes, INSERM, EHESP, IRSET (Institut de Recherche en Santé, Environnement et Travail) - UMR_S 1085, F-35000 Rennes, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinre.2020.10.007DOI Listing
September 2021

A BBS1 SVA F retrotransposon insertion is a frequent cause of Bardet-Biedl syndrome.

Clin Genet 2021 02 14;99(2):318-324. Epub 2020 Nov 14.

Laboratoire de Génétique Médicale, Institut de génétique médicale d'Alsace IGMA, INSERM U1112, Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle de Strasbourg (FMTS), Université de Strasbourg UMRS_1112, Strasbourg, France.

Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a ciliopathy characterized by retinitis pigmentosa, obesity, polydactyly, cognitive impairment and renal failure. Pathogenic variants in 24 genes account for the molecular basis of >80% of cases. Toward saturated discovery of the mutational basis of the disorder, we carefully explored our cohorts and identified a hominid-specific SINE-R/VNTR/Alu type F (SVA-F) insertion in exon 13 of BBS1 in eight families. In six families, the repeat insertion was found in trans with c.1169 T > G, p.Met390Arg and in two families the insertion was found in addition to other recessive BBS loci. Whole genome sequencing, de novo assembly and SNP array analysis were performed to characterize the genomic event. This insertion is extremely rare in the general population (found in 8 alleles of 8 BBS cases but not in >10 800 control individuals from gnomAD-SV) and due to a founder effect. Its 2435 bp sequence contains hallmarks of LINE1 mediated retrotransposition. Functional studies with patient-derived cell lines confirmed that the BBS1 SVA-F is deleterious as evidenced by a significant depletion of both mRNA and protein levels. Such findings highlight the importance of dedicated bioinformatics pipelines to identify all types of variation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.13878DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8253169PMC
February 2021

ATP7A mutation with occipital horns and distal motor neuropathy: A continuum.

Eur J Med Genet 2020 Dec 31;63(12):104087. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Service de génétique, CLAD Ouest, CHU Rennes, Rennes, France; Service de génétique, CRDI, CHU Rennes, Rennes, France.

ATP7A-related copper transport disorders are classically separated in three pathologies according to their severity, all inherited in an X-linked recessive manner: Menkes disease (MD, OMIM #309400) which represent more than 90% of cases; occipital Horn Syndrome (OHS, OMIM #304150) and ATP7A-related distal motor neuropathy also named X-linked distal spinal muscular atrophy-3 (SMAX3, OMIM #300489) (Kennerson et al., 2010). Although there is no clear cut correlation between Cu and ceruloplasmin levels in ATP7A related disorders, these three entities probably represent a continuum partly depending on residual functional ATP7A protein (Møller, 2015). Thus far OHS and SMAX3 only partially overlap. In fact patients with OHS usually have no distal motor neuropathy signs but, on the other hand, occipital horns, which are the main sign of OHS, have not been described in SMAX3 patient. We describe here a patient bearing a missense ATP7A mutation with associated signs of distal motor neuropathy as well as occipital horns, confirming that OHS and SMAX3 are a continuum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2020.104087DOI Listing
December 2020

Next-generation sequencing in a series of 80 fetuses with complex cardiac malformations and/or heterotaxy.

Hum Mutat 2020 12 10;41(12):2167-2178. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Centre de Génétique Humaine, CHU Franche-Comté, Besançon, France.

Herein, we report the screening of a large panel of genes in a series of 80 fetuses with congenital heart defects (CHDs) and/or heterotaxy and no cytogenetic anomalies. There were 49 males (61%/39%), with a family history in 28 cases (35%) and no parental consanguinity in 77 cases (96%). All fetuses had complex CHD except one who had heterotaxy and midline anomalies while 52 cases (65%) had heterotaxy in addition to CHD. Altogether, 29 cases (36%) had extracardiac and extra-heterotaxy anomalies. A pathogenic variant was found in 10/80 (12.5%) cases with a higher percentage in the heterotaxy group (8/52 cases, 15%) compared with the non-heterotaxy group (2/28 cases, 7%), and in 3 cases with extracardiac and extra-heterotaxy anomalies (3/29, 10%). The inheritance was recessive in six genes (DNAI1, GDF1, MMP21, MYH6, NEK8, and ZIC3) and dominant in two genes (SHH and TAB2). A homozygous pathogenic variant was found in three cases including only one case with known consanguinity. In conclusion, after removing fetuses with cytogenetic anomalies, next-generation sequencing discovered a causal variant in 12.5% of fetal cases with CHD and/or heterotaxy. Genetic counseling for future pregnancies was greatly improved. Surprisingly, unexpected consanguinity accounts for 20% of cases with identified pathogenic variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.24132DOI Listing
December 2020

New insights into the genetic basis of premature ovarian insufficiency: Novel causative variants and candidate genes revealed by genomic sequencing.

Maturitas 2020 Nov 20;141:9-19. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, 3052, Australia; Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 3052, Australia.

Ovarian deficiency, including premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) and diminished ovarian reserve (DOR), represents one of the main causes of female infertility. POI is a genetically heterogeneous condition but current understanding of its genetic basis is far from complete, with the cause remaining unknown in the majority of patients. The genes that regulate DOR have been reported but the genetic basis of DOR has not been explored in depth. Both conditions are likely to lie along a continuum of degrees of decrease in ovarian reserve. We performed genomic analysis via whole exome sequencing (WES) followed by in silico analyses and functional experiments to investigate the genetic cause of ovarian deficiency in ten affected women. We achieved diagnoses for three of them, including the identification of novel variants in STAG3, GDF9, and FANCM. We identified potentially causative FSHR variants in another patient. This is the second report of biallelic GDF9 and FANCM variants, and, combined with functional support, validates these genes as bone fide autosomal recessive "POI genes". We also identified new candidate genes, NRIP1, XPO1, and MACF1. These genes have been linked to ovarian function in mouse, pig, and zebrafish respectively, but never in humans. In the case of NRIP1, we provide functional support for the deleterious nature of the variant via SUMOylation and luciferase/β-galactosidase reporter assays. Our study provides multiple insights into the genetic basis of POI/DOR. We have further elucidated the involvement of GDF9, FANCM, STAG3 and FSHR in POI pathogenesis, and propose new candidate genes, NRIP1, XPO1, and MACF1, which should be the focus of future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2020.06.004DOI Listing
November 2020

Associations between cognitive performance and the rehabilitation, medical care and social support provided to French children with Prader-Willi syndrome.

Eur J Med Genet 2020 Dec 28;63(12):104064. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Clinical Investigation Centre, INSERM 1432 - Clinical Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dijon University Hospital, France.

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder with a characteristic behavioural phenotype. A multidisciplinary approach to care is required to prevent multiple medical complications in individuals affected by PWS. The aim of this study was to describe the rehabilitation, medical care, educational and social support provided to school-aged French PWS patients with varying neuropsychological profiles. Data were obtained from a French multicentre study that included patients aged 4-20 years with diverse genetic syndromes. Nineteen PWS subjects with a mean age of 9.2 years were included. The mean full-scale intellectual quotient (IQ) was 58 (Wechsler scale). There were frequent dissociations between verbal and performance IQ that were not associated with a specific profile. We also observed lower autonomy and communication scores (5.3 years and 5.9 years equivalent, respectively, Vineland scale), the absence of hyperactivity (Conners scale), and the presence of behavioural abnormalities (CBCL scale). Multidisciplinary medical supervision was generally coordinated by the paediatric endocrinologist and did not always include follow-up with all of the recommended specialists, in particular with a paediatric psychiatrist. Analysis of multidisciplinary rehabilitation conducted in public and private-sector establishment revealed failings in psychological support, occupational therapy and dietary follow-up. Regarding education, most children younger than 10 years were in normal schools, while older individuals were often cared for in medico-social institutions. In conclusion, children and adolescents with PWS generally received appropriate care. Though there have been considerable improvements in the management of children with PWS, reference centres should continue reinforcing the coordination of multidisciplinary supervision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2020.104064DOI Listing
December 2020

Developmental and epilepsy spectrum of KCNB1 encephalopathy with long-term outcome.

Epilepsia 2020 11 21;61(11):2461-2473. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Reference Center for Rare Developmental Abnormalities CLAD-Ouest, Rennes University Hospital Center, Rennes, France.

Objective: We aimed to delineate the phenotypic spectrum and long-term outcome of individuals with KCNB1 encephalopathy.

Methods: We collected genetic, clinical, electroencephalographic, and imaging data of individuals with KCNB1 pathogenic variants recruited through an international collaboration, with the support of the family association "KCNB1 France." Patients were classified as having developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) or developmental encephalopathy (DE). In addition, we reviewed published cases and provided the long-term outcome in patients older than 12 years from our series and from literature.

Results: Our series included 36 patients (21 males, median age = 10 years, range = 1.6 months-34 years). Twenty patients (56%) had DEE with infantile onset seizures (seizure onset = 10 months, range = 10 days-3.5 years), whereas 16 (33%) had DE with late onset epilepsy in 10 (seizure onset = 5 years, range = 18 months-25 years) and without epilepsy in six. Cognitive impairment was more severe in individuals with DEE compared to those with DE. Analysis of 73 individuals with KCNB1 pathogenic variants (36 from our series and 37 published individuals in nine reports) showed developmental delay in all with severe to profound intellectual disability in 67% (n = 41/61) and autistic features in 56% (n = 32/57). Long-term outcome in 22 individuals older than 12 years (14 in our series and eight published individuals) showed poor cognitive, psychiatric, and behavioral outcome. Epilepsy course was variable. Missense variants were associated with more frequent and more severe epilepsy compared to truncating variants.

Significance: Our study describes the phenotypic spectrum of KCNB1 encephalopathy, which varies from severe DEE to DE with or without epilepsy. Although cognitive impairment is worse in patients with DEE, long-term outcome is poor for most and missense variants are associated with more severe epilepsy outcome. Further understanding of disease mechanisms should facilitate the development of targeted therapies, much needed to improve the neurodevelopmental prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.16679DOI Listing
November 2020

Renal cell carcinoma with leiomyomatous stroma in tuberous sclerosis complex: a distinct entity.

Virchows Arch 2021 Apr 26;478(4):793-799. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Pathology, University Hospital, 2 rue Henri le Guilloux, 35000, Rennes, France.

Renal cell carcinoma with leiomyomatous stroma (RCCLS) is an emerging entity frequently associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). We described herein a series of RCCLS in TSC patients at pathological and cytogenetic levels. Three male patients with TSC and RCCLS were identified between 2000 and 2019 at the University Hospital of Rennes. Histologically, the architecture was tubulo-papillary with thick bundles of smooth muscle cells. The tumor cells showed clear cytoplasm with eosinophilic globules. The immunohistochemical profile was identical with an intense positivity of CK7, CAIX, and CD10 and a heterogeneous positivity of CK20. SDHB was low but positive and TFE3 was not expressed. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) did not show any quantitative chromosome abnormality. No recurrence was observed with a median follow-up of 4 years. RCCLS in TSC patients has morphological, immunohistochemical, and cytogenetic distinct features that could constitute a distinct entity and a sentinel manifestation for the diagnosis of TSC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-020-02910-9DOI Listing
April 2021

Genotype-first in a cohort of 95 fetuses with multiple congenital abnormalities: when exome sequencing reveals unexpected fetal phenotype-genotype correlations.

J Med Genet 2021 06 30;58(6):400-413. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Service d'Imagerie médicale, CHU de Besançon, Besançon, France.

Purpose: Molecular diagnosis based on singleton exome sequencing (sES) is particularly challenging in fetuses with multiple congenital abnormalities (MCA). Indeed, some studies reveal a diagnostic yield of about 20%, far lower than in live birth individuals showing developmental abnormalities (30%), suggesting that standard analyses, based on the correlation between clinical hallmarks described in postnatal syndromic presentations and genotype, may underestimate the impact of the genetic variants identified in fetal analyses.

Methods: We performed sES in 95 fetuses with MCA. Blind to phenotype, we applied a genotype-first approach consisting of combined analyses based on variants annotation and bioinformatics predictions followed by reverse phenotyping. Initially applied to OMIM-morbid genes, analyses were then extended to all genes. We complemented our approach by using reverse phenotyping, variant segregation analysis, bibliographic search and data sharing in order to establish the clinical significance of the prioritised variants.

Results: sES rapidly identified causal variant in 24/95 fetuses (25%), variants of unknown significance in OMIM genes in 8/95 fetuses (8%) and six novel candidate genes in 6/95 fetuses (6%).

Conclusions: This method, based on a genotype-first approach followed by reverse phenotyping, shed light on unexpected fetal phenotype-genotype correlations, emphasising the relevance of prenatal studies to reveal extreme clinical presentations associated with well-known Mendelian disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-106867DOI Listing
June 2021

De novo SMARCA2 variants clustered outside the helicase domain cause a new recognizable syndrome with intellectual disability and blepharophimosis distinct from Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome.

Genet Med 2020 11 22;22(11):1838-1850. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Department of Genetics, Robert Debré Hospital, AP-HP, Paris, France.

Purpose: Nontruncating variants in SMARCA2, encoding a catalytic subunit of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, cause Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome (NCBRS), a condition with intellectual disability and multiple congenital anomalies. Other disorders due to SMARCA2 are unknown.

Methods: By next-generation sequencing, we identified candidate variants in SMARCA2 in 20 individuals from 18 families with a syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder not consistent with NCBRS. To stratify variant interpretation, we functionally analyzed SMARCA2 variants in yeasts and performed transcriptomic and genome methylation analyses on blood leukocytes.

Results: Of 20 individuals, 14 showed a recognizable phenotype with recurrent features including epicanthal folds, blepharophimosis, and downturned nasal tip along with variable degree of intellectual disability (or blepharophimosis intellectual disability syndrome [BIS]). In contrast to most NCBRS variants, all SMARCA2 variants associated with BIS are localized outside the helicase domains. Yeast phenotype assays differentiated NCBRS from non-NCBRS SMARCA2 variants. Transcriptomic and DNA methylation signatures differentiated NCBRS from BIS and those with nonspecific phenotype. In the remaining six individuals with nonspecific dysmorphic features, clinical and molecular data did not permit variant reclassification.

Conclusion: We identified a novel recognizable syndrome named BIS associated with clustered de novo SMARCA2 variants outside the helicase domains, phenotypically and molecularly distinct from NCBRS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-0898-yDOI Listing
November 2020

Incidental diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis type I in an infant with chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction by exome sequencing.

Mol Genet Metab Rep 2020 Sep 7;24:100621. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

CHU Rennes, Service de Génétique Clinique, Centre de Référence Maladies Rares CLAD-Ouest, ERN ITHACA, Hôpital Sud, Rennes, France.

Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIPO) is a severe form of intestinal dysmotility, and patients often undergo iterative abdominal surgeries and require parenteral nutrition. Several genes are known to be responsible for this pathology, including (autosomal dominant) and (autosomal recessive) We report the first case of unexpected trio medical exome sequencing diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS-I) in a patient with an early CIPO. There was no clinical suspicion of MPS-I at the time of the prescription. It allowed biochemical confirmation of MPS-I, expert clinical evaluation and early treatment. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with laronidase was started at 9 months old, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was carried out at 10 months and a half. The patient also had a 1.7 mb heterozygous deletion in chromosomal region 16p13.11p12.3, comprising several genes, including paternally inherited. Her father has no symptoms of CIPO or other digestive symptoms. One previous association of CIPO and MPS-I was reported in 1986. Moreover, the number of incidental findings of inherited metabolic disorders with therapeutic impact will inevitably increase as pangenomic analyses become cheaper and easily available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgmr.2020.100621DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7341448PMC
September 2020

STAG3 homozygous missense variant causes primary ovarian insufficiency and male non-obstructive azoospermia.

Mol Hum Reprod 2020 09;26(9):665-677

Reproductive Development, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia 3052.

Infertility, a global problem affecting up to 15% of couples, can have varied causes ranging from natural ageing to the pathological development or function of the reproductive organs. One form of female infertility is premature ovarian insufficiency (POI), affecting up to 1 in 100 women and characterised by amenorrhoea and elevated FSH before the age of 40. POI can have a genetic basis, with over 50 causative genes identified. Non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), a form of male infertility characterised by the absence of sperm in semen, has an incidence of 1% and is similarly heterogeneous. The genetic basis of male and female infertility is poorly understood with the majority of cases having no known cause. Here, we study a case of familial infertility including a proband with POI and her brother with NOA. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) and identified a homozygous STAG3 missense variant that segregated with infertility. STAG3 encodes a component of the meiosis cohesin complex required for sister chromatid separation. We report the first pathogenic homozygous missense variant in STAG3 and the first STAG3 variant associated with both male and female infertility. We also demonstrate limitations of WES for the analysis of homologous DNA sequences, with this variant being ambiguous or missed by independent WES protocols and its homozygosity only being established via long-range nested PCR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molehr/gaaa050DOI Listing
September 2020

Synonymous variants in holoprosencephaly alter codon usage and impact the Sonic Hedgehog protein.

Brain 2020 07;143(7):2027-2038

Univ Rennes, CNRS, IGDR (Institut de génétique et développement de Rennes)-UMR 6290, F-35000 Rennes, France.

Synonymous single nucleotide variants (sSNVs) have been implicated in various genetic disorders through alterations of pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA structure and miRNA regulation. However, their impact on synonymous codon usage and protein translation remains to be elucidated in clinical context. Here, we explore the functional impact of sSNVs in the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) gene, identified in patients affected by holoprosencephaly, a congenital brain defect resulting from incomplete forebrain cleavage. We identified eight sSNVs in SHH, selectively enriched in holoprosencephaly patients as compared to healthy individuals, and systematically assessed their effect at both transcriptional and translational levels using a series of in silico and in vitro approaches. Although no evidence of impact of these sSNVs on splicing, mRNA structure or miRNA regulation was found, five sSNVs introduced significant changes in codon usage and were predicted to impact protein translation. Cell assays demonstrated that these five sSNVs are associated with a significantly reduced amount of the resulting protein, ranging from 5% to 23%. Inhibition of the proteasome rescued the protein levels for four out of five sSNVs, confirming their impact on protein stability and folding. Remarkably, we found a significant correlation between experimental values of protein reduction and computational measures of codon usage, indicating the relevance of in silico models in predicting the impact of sSNVs on translation. Considering the critical role of SHH in brain development, our findings highlight the clinical relevance of sSNVs in holoprosencephaly and underline the importance of investigating their impact on translation in human pathologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awaa152DOI Listing
July 2020
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