Publications by authors named "Sylvester Lyantagaye"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Draft Genome Sequence of sp. Strain BM01, Isolated from a Hypersaline Lake of the Momela Ecosystem in Tanzania.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2021 Apr 22;10(16). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Division of Biotechnology, Center for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lund University, Lund, Sweden

The genus includes cyanobacterial species used for industrial production of dietary supplements and nutraceutical agents. The metagenome-assembled genome of sp. strain BM01 from Big Momela Lake, Tanzania, was 6,228,312 bp long with a GC content of 44.8% and carried 4,921 proteins and 52 RNA genes, including 6 rRNA genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MRA.00132-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8063641PMC
April 2021

Factors associated with risk of preterm delivery in Tanzania: A case-control study at Muhimbili National Hospital.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2020 Dec 5. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Objective: To determine factors associated with risk of preterm delivery among pregnant women delivering at Muhimbili National Hospital in Tanzania.

Methods: A 1:1 case-control study was conducted to assess maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle, and current and previous obstetric factors associated with risk of preterm delivery. Mothers of preterm infants were regarded as cases and those of term infants were controls. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to assess association between the factors and risk of preterm delivery.

Results: A total of 222 case-control pairs were studied. Maternal type of employment (P = 0.039), previous preterm delivery (P = 0.002), previous spontaneous abortion (P = 0.004), uterine scar (P < 0.001), parity (P = 0.034), number of prenatal care visits (P = 0.032), premature rupture of membranes (PROM) (P < 0.001), placenta previa (P = 0.002), bleeding during second trimester (P = 0.004), pre-eclampsia (P < 0.001), and maternal anemia (P = 0.033) were associated with risk of preterm delivery. The main risk factors associated with preterm delivery included previous preterm delivery (odds ratio [OR] 13.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.72-101.95), placenta previa (OR 12.63, 95% CI 1.63-97.98), and PROM (OR 8.77, 95% CI 1.33-4.60).

Conclusion: Close monitoring of pregnant women who present any of the risk factors is important to prevent or reduce the risk of preterm delivery in Tanzania.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijgo.13520DOI Listing
December 2020

Complete genome sequence and epigenetic profile of Bacillus velezensis UCMB5140 used for plant and crop protection in comparison with other plant-associated Bacillus strains.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2020 Sep 10;104(17):7643-7656. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Institut für Biologie, Humboldt Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

The application of biocontrol biopesticides based on plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), particularly members of the genus Bacillus, is considered a promising perspective to make agricultural practices sustainable and ecologically safe. Recent advances in genome sequencing by third-generation sequencing technologies, e.g., Pacific Biosciences' Single Molecule Real-Time (PacBio SMRT) platform, have allowed researchers to gain deeper insights into the molecular and genetic mechanisms of PGPR activities, and to compare whole genome sequences and global patterns of epigenetic modifications. In the current work, this approach was used to sequence and compare four Bacillus strains that exhibited various PGPR activities including the strain UCMB5140, which is used in the commercial biopesticide Phytosubtil. Whole genome comparison and phylogenomic inference assigned the strain UCMB5140 to the species Bacillus velezensis. Strong biocontrol activities of this strain were confirmed in several bioassays. Several factors that affect the evolution of active PGPR B. velezensis strains were identified: (1) horizontal acquisition of novel non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) and adhesion genes; (2) rearrangements of functional modules of NRPS genes leading to strain specific combinations of their encoded products; (3) gain and loss of methyltransferases that can cause global alterations in DNA methylation patterns, which eventually may affect gene expression and regulate transcription. Notably, we identified a horizontally transferred NRPS operon encoding an uncharacterized polypeptide antibiotic in B. velezensis UCMB5140. Other horizontally acquired genes comprised a possible adhesin and a methyltransferase, which may explain the strain-specific methylation pattern of the chromosomal DNA of UCMB5140. KEY POINTS: • Whole genome sequence of the active PGPR Bacillus velezensis UCMB5140. • Identification of genetic determinants responsible for PGPR activities. • Role of methyltransferases and epigenetic mechanisms in evolution of bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-020-10767-wDOI Listing
September 2020

Omics for Bioprospecting and Drug Discovery from Bacteria and Microalgae.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2020 May 4;9(5). Epub 2020 May 4.

Division of Biotechnology, Department of Chemistry, Center for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lund University, Box 124, 22100 Lund, Sweden.

"Omics" represent a combinatorial approach to high-throughput analysis of biological entities for various purposes. It broadly encompasses genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, lipidomics, and metabolomics. Bacteria and microalgae exhibit a wide range of genetic, biochemical and concomitantly, physiological variations owing to their exposure to biotic and abiotic dynamics in their ecosystem conditions. Consequently, optimal conditions for adequate growth and production of useful bacterial or microalgal metabolites are critically unpredictable. Traditional methods employ microbe isolation and 'blind'-culture optimization with numerous chemical analyses making the bioprospecting process laborious, strenuous, and costly. Advances in the next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have offered a platform for the pan-genomic analysis of microbes from community and strain downstream to the gene level. Changing conditions in nature or laboratory accompany epigenetic modulation, variation in gene expression, and subsequent biochemical profiles defining an organism's inherent metabolic repertoire. Proteome and metabolome analysis could further our understanding of the molecular and biochemical attributes of the microbes under research. This review provides an overview of recent studies that have employed omics as a robust, broad-spectrum approach for screening bacteria and microalgae to exploit their potential as sources of drug leads by focusing on their genomes, secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathway genes, transcriptomes, and metabolomes. We also highlight how recent studies have combined molecular biology with analytical chemistry methods, which further underscore the need for advances in bioinformatics and chemoinformatics as vital instruments in the discovery of novel bacterial and microalgal strains as well as new drug leads.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9050229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7277505PMC
May 2020

Association of LEI0258 Marker Alleles and Susceptibility to Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus Infection in Kuroiler, Sasso, and Local Tanzanian Chicken Embryos.

J Pathog 2020 8;2020:5187578. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

School of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 447, Tengeru, Arusha, Tanzania.

Newcastle disease (ND) control by vaccination and an institution of biosecurity measures is less feasible in backyard chicken in developing countries. Therefore, an alternative disease control strategy like the genetic selection of less susceptible chicken genotypes is a promising option. In the present study, genetic polymorphism of LEIO258 marker and association with susceptibility to virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection in Kuroilers, Sasso, and local Tanzanian chicken embryos were investigated. Samples from high (15%) and less (15%) susceptible cohorts were genotyped by sequencing of LEI0258 marker. A total of 75 DNA sequences comprised of 29 Kuroiler, 29 local Tanzanian chickens, and 17 Sasso were analyzed. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees were constructed to depict the clustering of LEI0258 marker alleles and relationship with susceptibility. Alleles with frequency ≥3 were considered for association with susceptibility by the use of the inference technique. The present findings suggest that some LEI0258 marker genetic polymorphisms apart from LEI0258 marker allelic based on sizes may be linked with chicken MHC-B haplotypes that confer chickens variability in resistance or susceptibility to infections. Furthermore, these results demonstrate the presence of relationship between LEI0258 marker polymorphisms and variations in chicken susceptibility to NDV infection, which could be utilized in breeding programs designed to improve chicken disease resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5187578DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7168712PMC
April 2020

Molecular approach to confirm traditional identification of  sampled in Tanzania.

J Nematol 2020 ;52:1-8

Tanzania Agricultural Research Institute, Kibaha, P.O. Box 30031, Kibaha, Tanzania.

Banana ( spp. L.) is an important staple food and cash crop for about 30% of the population in Tanzania; however, the burrowing plant-parasitic nematode causes black head disease and toppling in banana plants, which results in yield losses. We collected and identified 80 specimens of from four agro-ecological zones in Tanzania using morphological characters. We then used universal and specific primers to amplify the small subunit, internal transcribed spacer and large subunit of ribosomal DNA regions of these specimens. The amplicons were subsequently sequenced and analyzed using Bayesian inference. We identified two major clades, one that comprised all sequences derived from this study and another that included and spp. sequences obtained from GenBank, indicating the separation of this species from congeneric sequences. Our findings provide a useful, simple and rapid method for identifying burrowing nematodes. This outcome could contribute to the development of permanent, integrated pest management strategies for the control of in banana and other crops in order to reduce associated yield losses in Tanzania. To our knowledge, this is the first study of nematodes to use combined morphological and molecular methods for the identification of in Tanzania.

Banana ( spp. L.) is an important staple food and cash crop for about 30% of the population in Tanzania; however, the burrowing plant-parasitic nematode causes black head disease and toppling in banana plants, which results in yield losses. We collected and identified 80 specimens of from four agro-ecological zones in Tanzania using morphological characters. We then used universal and specific primers to amplify the small subunit, internal transcribed spacer and large subunit of ribosomal DNA regions of these specimens. The amplicons were subsequently sequenced and analyzed using Bayesian inference. We identified two major clades, one that comprised all sequences derived from this study and another that included and spp. sequences obtained from GenBank, indicating the separation of this species from congeneric sequences. Our findings provide a useful, simple and rapid method for identifying burrowing nematodes. This outcome could contribute to the development of permanent, integrated pest management strategies for the control of in banana and other crops in order to reduce associated yield losses in Tanzania. To our knowledge, this is the first study of nematodes to use combined morphological and molecular methods for the identification of in Tanzania.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21307/jofnem-2020-020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7266020PMC
January 2020

Genetic, Epigenetic and Phenotypic Diversity of Four Strains Used for Plant Protection or as Probiotics.

Front Microbiol 2019 15;10:2610. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

Department of Plant Biology, Linnéan Center for Plant Biology, Uppsala Biocenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.

strains are applied as ecologically safe biopesticides, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), and in veterinary probiotics. They are abundant in various environments including soil, plants, marine habitats, the intestinal micro-flora, etc. The mechanisms underlying this adaptive plasticity and bioactivity are not well understood, nor is it clear why several strains outperform other same species isolates by their bioactivities. The main objective of this work was to demonstrate versatility of bioactivities and lifestyle strategies of the selected strains suitable to serve as model organisms in future studies. Here, we performed a comparative study of newly sequenced genomes of four isolates with distinct phenotypes and isolation origin, which were assessed by RNA sequencing under the effect of root exudate stimuli and profiled by epigenetic modifications of chromosomal DNA. Among the selected strains, UCMB5044 is an oligotrophic PGPR strain adapted to nutrient poor desert soils. UCMB5113 and At1 are endophytes that colonize plants and require nutrient rich media. In contrast, the probiotic strain, UCMB5007, is a copiotroph, which shows no propensity to colonize plants. PacBio and Illumina sequencing approaches were used to generate complete genome assemblies, tracing epigenetic modifications, and determine gene expression profiles. All sequence data was deposited at NCBI. The strains, UCMB5113 and At1, show 99% sequence identity and similar phenotypes despite being isolated from geographically distant regions. UCMB5007 and UCMB5044 represent another group of organisms with almost identical genomes but dissimilar phenotypes and plant colonization propensity. The two plant associated strains, UCMB5044 and UCMB5113, share 398 genes putatively associated with root colonization, which are activated by exposure to maize root exudates. In contrast, UCMB5007 did not respond to root exudate stimuli. It was hypothesized that alterations in the global methylation pattern and some other epigenetic modifications enable adaptation of strains to different habitats and therefore may be of importance in terms of the biotechnological applicability of these bacteria. Contrary, the ability to grow on root exudates as a sole source of nutrients or a strong antagonism against phytopathogens showed by the strains cannot be considered as good predictors of PGPR activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.02610DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6873887PMC
November 2019

Farmers' pesticide usage practices in the malaria endemic region of North-Western Tanzania: implications to the control of malaria vectors.

BMC Public Health 2019 Nov 6;19(1):1456. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

Department of Zoology and Wildlife Conservation, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Background: Pesticides remain the mainstay for the control of agricultural pests and disease vectors. However, their indiscriminate use in agriculture has led to development of resistance to both crop pests and disease vectors. This threatens to undermine the success gained through the implementation of chemical based vector control programs. We investigated the practices of farmers with regard to pesticide usage in the vegetable growing areas and their impact on susceptibility status of An. gambiae s.l.

Methods: A stratified multistage sampling technique using the administrative structure of the Tanzanian districts as sampling frame was used. Wards, villages and then participants with farms where pesticides are applied were purposively recruited at different stages of the process, 100 participants were enrolled in the study. The same villages were used for mosquito larvae sampling from the farms and the surveys were complimented by the entomological study. Larvae were reared in the insectary and the emerging 2-3 days old female adults of Anopheles gambiae s.l were subjected to susceptibility test.

Results: Forty eight pesticides of different formulations were used for control of crop and Livestock pests. Pyrethroids were the mostly used class of pesticides (50%) while organophosphates and carbamates were of secondary importance. Over 80% of all farmers applied pesticides in mixed form. Susceptibility test results confirmed high phenotypic resistance among An. gambiae populations against DDT and the pyrethroids (Permethrin-0.75%, Cyfluthrin-0.15%, Deltametrin-0.05% and Lambdacyhalothrin-0.05%) with mortality rates 54, 61, 76 and 71%, respectively. Molecular analysis showed An. arabiensis as a dominant species (86%) while An. gambiae s.s constituted only 6%. The kdr genes were not detected in all of the specimens that survived insecticide exposures.

Conclusion: The study found out that there is a common use of pyrethroids in farms, Livestocks as well as in public health. The study also reports high phenotypic resistance among An. gambiae s.l against most of the pyrethroids tested. The preponderance of pyrethroids in agriculture is of public health concern because this is the class of insecticides widely used in vector control programs and this calls for combined integrated pest and vector management (IPVM).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7767-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6833290PMC
November 2019

Polymorphisms of the Chicken Mx Gene Promoter and Association with Chicken Embryos' Susceptibility to Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus Challenge.

Biomed Res Int 2019 3;2019:1486072. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

School of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 447, Tengeru, Arusha, Tanzania.

Newcastle disease is a devastating viral disease of chicken in low- and middle-income countries where the backyard production system is predominant. Marker-assisted selection of chickens that are resistant to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is the promising strategy that needs to be explored. The aim of the present study was to investigate polymorphisms of the promoter region of the chicken Mx gene and association with Kuroiler, Sasso, and local Tanzanian chicken embryos' survival variability to virulent NDV infection. Chicken embryos were initially challenged with a minimum lethal dose of virulent NDV suspension and then were followed over time to gather information on their survival variability. Using the survival data, high and less susceptible cohorts were established, and a total of 88 DNA samples from high and less susceptible groups were genotypes by sequencing. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which were previously reported, were detected. Interestingly, for the first time, the findings demonstrated the association of the promoter region of chicken myxovirus-resistance (Mx) gene polymorphisms with chicken embryos' susceptibility to the virulent NDV challenge. At the genotypic level, the SNP4 > mutation that was located within the IFN-stimulating response element was associated (LR: 6.97, =0.03) with chicken embryos' susceptibility to the virulent NDV challenge. An allele frequency was higher in the less susceptible cohort, whereas an allele frequency was higher in the high susceptible cohort. At the haplotype level, the haplotype group ACGC was associated (OR: 9.8, 95% CI: 1.06-79.43, =0.042) with the same trait and had a resistant effect. In conclusion, the results have demonstrated the association of chicken Mx gene promoter polymorphisms and chicken embryos' survival variability to the virulent NDV challenge, and the information is useful for breeding programs designed to develop chicken genotypes that are resistant to Newcastle disease virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/1486072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6794983PMC
March 2020

Pyrethroids and DDT tolerance of Anopheles gambiae s.l. from Sengerema District, an area of intensive pesticide usage in north-western Tanzania.

Trop Med Int Health 2017 04 9;22(4):388-398. Epub 2017 Mar 9.

University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Objective: To assess the susceptibility status of malaria vectors to pyrethroids and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), characterise the mechanisms underlying resistance and evaluate the role of agro-chemical use in resistance selection among malaria vectors in Sengerema agro-ecosystem zone, Tanzania.

Methods: Mosquito larvae were collected from farms and reared to obtain adults. The susceptibility status of An. gambiae s.l. was assessed using WHO bioassay tests to permethrin, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, etofenprox, cyfluthrin and DDT. Resistant specimens were screened for knock-down resistance gene (kdr), followed by sequencing both Western and Eastern African variants. A gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS) was used to determine pesticide residues in soil and sediments from mosquitoes' breeding habitats.

Results: Anopheles gambiae s.l. was resistant to all the insecticides tested. The population of Anopheles gambiae s.l was composed of Anopheles arabiensis by 91%. The East African kdr (L1014S) allele was found in 13 of 305 specimens that survived insecticide exposure, with an allele frequency from 0.9% to 50%. DDTs residues were found in soils at a concentration up to 9.90 ng/g (dry weight).

Conclusion: The observed high resistance levels of An. gambiae s.l., the detection of kdr mutations and pesticide residues in mosquito breeding habitats demonstrate vector resistance mediated by pesticide usage. An integrated intervention through collaboration of agricultural, livestock and vector control units is vital.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tmi.12850DOI Listing
April 2017

Gene expression regulation in the plant growth promoting Bacillus atrophaeus UCMB-5137 stimulated by maize root exudates.

Gene 2016 Sep 1;590(1):18-28. Epub 2016 Jun 1.

Centre for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Dep. Biochemistry, University of Pretoria, Lynnwood Rd, Hillcrest, Pretoria 0002, South Africa. Electronic address:

Despite successful use of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) in agriculture, little is known about specific mechanisms of gene regulation facilitating the effective communication between bacteria and plants during plant colonization. Active PGPR strain Bacillus atrophaeus UCMB-5137 was studied in this research. RNA sequencing profiles were generated in experiments where root exudate stimulations were used to mimic interactions between bacteria and plants. It was found that the gene regulation in B. atrophaeus UCMB-5137 in response to the root exudate stimuli differed from the reported gene regulation at similar conditions in B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42, which was considered as a paradigm PGPR. This difference was explained by hypersensitivity of UCMB-5137 to the root exudate stimuli impelling it to a sessile root colonization behavior through the CcpA-CodY-AbrB regulation. It was found that the transcriptional factor DegU also could play an important role in gene regulations during plant colonization. A significant stress caused by the root exudates on in vitro cultivated B. atrophaeus UCMB-5137 was noticed and discussed. Multiple cases of conflicted gene regulations showed scantiness of our knowledge on the regulatory network in Bacillus. Some of these conflicted regulations could be explained by interference of non-coding RNA (ncRNA). Search through differential expressed intergenic regions revealed 49 putative loci of ncRNA regulated by the root exudate stimuli. Possible target mRNA were predicted and a general regulatory network of B. atrophaeus UCMB-5137 genome was designed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2016.05.045DOI Listing
September 2016

H3ABioNet, a sustainable pan-African bioinformatics network for human heredity and health in Africa.

Genome Res 2016 Feb 1;26(2):271-7. Epub 2015 Dec 1.

University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa 9300;

The application of genomics technologies to medicine and biomedical research is increasing in popularity, made possible by new high-throughput genotyping and sequencing technologies and improved data analysis capabilities. Some of the greatest genetic diversity among humans, animals, plants, and microbiota occurs in Africa, yet genomic research outputs from the continent are limited. The Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) initiative was established to drive the development of genomic research for human health in Africa, and through recognition of the critical role of bioinformatics in this process, spurred the establishment of H3ABioNet, a pan-African bioinformatics network for H3Africa. The limitations in bioinformatics capacity on the continent have been a major contributory factor to the lack of notable outputs in high-throughput biology research. Although pockets of high-quality bioinformatics teams have existed previously, the majority of research institutions lack experienced faculty who can train and supervise bioinformatics students. H3ABioNet aims to address this dire need, specifically in the area of human genetics and genomics, but knock-on effects are ensuring this extends to other areas of bioinformatics. Here, we describe the emergence of genomics research and the development of bioinformatics in Africa through H3ABioNet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.196295.115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4728379PMC
February 2016

In vitro evaluation of dichloro-bis(pyrazole)palladium(II) and dichloro-bis(pyrazole)platinum(II) complexes as anticancer agents.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2008 Dec 19;63(1):127-38. Epub 2008 Mar 19.

Department of Chemistry, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006, South Africa.

Introduction: Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum) was first identified for its anti-bacterial activity, and was later also shown to be an efficient anticancer agent. However, the therapeutic use of this anticancer drug is somewhat limited by its toxic side effects, which include nephrotoxicity, nausea, and vomiting. Furthermore the development of drug-resistant tumours is commonly observed following therapy with cisplatin. Hence there is a need for improved platinum derived drugs to overcome these limitations.

Aims: Apoptosis contributes significantly to the cytotoxic effects of anticancer agents such as cisplatin; therefore in this study the potential anticancer properties of a series of pyrazole palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes, [(3,5-R(2)pz)(2)PdCl(2)] [R = H (1), R = Me (2)] and [(3,5-R(2)pz)(2)PtCl(2)] [R = H (3), R = Me (4)], were evaluated by assessment of their pro-apoptotic activity.

Methods: The induction of apoptosis was measured in CHO cells by the detection of phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure using the annexin V and APOPercentage assays; DNA fragmentation using the Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labelling (TUNEL) assay; and the detection of activated caspase-3.

Results: The platinum complexes were shown to be considerably more active than the palladium complexes, with complex 3 demonstrating the highest level of cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activity. The LD(50) values for complex 3 and cisplatin were 20 and 70 microM, respectively, demonstrating that the cytotoxic activity for complex 3 was three times higher than for cisplatin. Various human cancer cell lines, including CaSki, HeLa, as well as the p53 mutant Jurkat T cell line were also shown to be susceptible to complex 3.

Conclusions: Collectively, this in vitro study provides insights into action of palladium and platinum complexes and demonstrates the potential use of these compounds, and in particular complex 3, in the development of new anticancer agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-008-0721-yDOI Listing
December 2008