Publications by authors named "Sylvain Ladoire"

106 Publications

Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among the staff and patients of a French cancer centre after first lockdown: The canSEROcov study.

Eur J Cancer 2021 05 27;148:359-370. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Methodology and Biostatistics Unit, Centre Georges François Leclerc, Dijon, France.

Background: In view of the potential gravity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection for patients with cancer, epidemiological data are vital to assess virus circulation among patients and staff of cancer centres. We performed a prospective study to investigate seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among staff and patients with cancer at a large cancer centre, at the end of the period of first national lockdown in France and to determine factors associated with the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Methods: After the first lockdown, all medical and non-medical staff, as well as all patients attending the medical oncology department were invited to undergo serological testing for SARS-CoV-2 between 11 May and 30 June 2020. All participants were also invited to complete a questionnaire collecting data about their living and working conditions, and for patients, medical management during lockdown.

Findings: A total of 1,674 subjects (663 staff members, 1011 patients) were included. Seroprevalence was low in both staff (1.8%) and patients (1.7%), despite more features of high risk for severe forms among patients. None of the risk factors tested in our analysis (working or living conditions, comorbidities, management characteristics during lockdown) was found to be statistically associated with seroprevalence in either staff or patients. There was no significant difference in the proportion of symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects between staff and patients. Only fever, loss of smell, and loss of taste were significantly more frequent among seropositive patients, in both staff and patients.

Interpretation: We report very low seroprevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the staff (caregiving and non-caregiving) and patients of a large cancer care centre in which strict hygiene, personal protection, and social distancing measures were implemented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.02.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7914029PMC
May 2021

Triple-negative breast lobular carcinoma: a luminal androgen receptor carcinoma with specific ESRRA mutations.

Mod Pathol 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Unit of Pathology, Department of Biology and Pathology of the Tumors, Centre Georges-François Leclerc, Dijon, France.

Primary triple-negative invasive lobular breast carcinomas (TN-ILCs), which do not express hormone receptors and HER2 at diagnosis, are rare and poorly known. In this study, we analyzed the largest TN-ILC series ever reported in the literature, in comparison to phenotypically similar breast tumor subtypes: triple-negative invasive ductal carcinoma (TN-IDC) and hormone receptor-positive invasive lobular carcinoma (HR + ILC). All primary TN-ILCs registered in our database between 2000 and 2018 (n = 38) were compared to tumors from control groups, matched by stage and Elston/Ellis grade, with regard to clinical, pathologic, and immunohistochemical characteristics. A comparative molecular analysis (whole-exome and RNA sequencing using next-generation technology) was also performed. We found that TN-ILC patients were older than those with HR + ILC (P = 0.002) or TN-IDC (P < 0.001). Morphologically, TN-ILCs had aggressive phenotypes, with more pleomorphism (P = 0.003) and higher nuclear grades than HR + ILCs (P = 0.009). Immunohistochemistry showed that TN-ILCs less frequently expressed basal markers (CK5/6, EGFR and SOX10) than TN-IDCs (P < 0.001), while androgen receptor (AR) positivity was more prevalent (P < 0.001). Survival curves analysis did not show differences between TN-ILC and TN-IDC patients, while overall and distant metastasis-free survival were significantly worse compared to those with HR + ILCs (P = 0.047 and P = 0.039, respectively). At a molecular level, we found that TN-ILCs had particular transcriptomic profiles, characterized by increased AR signaling, and associated with frequent alterations in the PI3K network and ERBB2. Interestingly, whole-exome analysis also identified three specific recurrent ESRRA hotspot mutations in these tumors, which have never been described in breast cancer to date and which were absent in the other two tumor subtypes. Our findings highlight that TN-ILC is a unique aggressive breast cancer associated with elderly age, which belong to the luminal androgen receptor subtype as determined by immunohistochemistry and transcriptomic profiling. Moreover, it harbors specific molecular alterations (PI3K, ERBB2 and ESRRA) which may pave the way for new targeted therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00742-9DOI Listing
March 2021

Population Pharmacokinetics of Palbociclib in aReal-World Situation.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Feb 24;14(3). Epub 2021 Feb 24.

INSERM U1231, University of Burgundy Franche-Comté, 21000 Dijon, France.

Palbociclib is an oral cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that is used in combination with aromatase inhibitors in the treatment of postmenopausal women with metastatic breast cancer. Its metabolism profile is associated with an important interpatient variability. We performed a population pharmacokinetics study of palbociclib in women routinely followed in a cancer center. One hundred and fifty-one samples were analyzed. The sampling times after administration ranged from 0.9 to 75 h and the samples were taken between 1 and 21 days after the beginning of the palbociclib cycle. Palbociclib was determined using a validated mass spectrometry method. The best model that described the concentrations was a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and an absorption lag time. Interindividual variability could only be estimated on the clearance and the first-order absorption. Creatinine clearance was found to be a significant covariate for the apparent clearance. No significant covariates could be observed with the first-order absorption. First-order absorption and absorption lag times were difficult to assess because of the constraints linked to the real-world setting due to the small number of samples used during the absorption process. However, palbociclib apparent clearance was satisfactorily estimated. Population pharmacokinetics (POP PK) with palbociclib could help to optimize dosing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph14030181DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996283PMC
February 2021

ER-/PR+ breast cancer: A distinct entity, which is morphologically and molecularly close to triple-negative breast cancer.

Int J Cancer 2021 Jul 18;149(1):200-213. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Tumour Biology and Pathology, Pathology Unit, Centre Georges-François Leclerc, Dijon, France.

Determining the status of steroid hormone receptors [oestrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR)] is a crucial part of the breast cancer workup. Thereby, breast cancers can be classified into four subtypes. However, the existence of ER-/PR+ tumours, often reported to be ill-classified due to technical errors, remains controversial. In order to address this controversy, we reviewed the hormone receptor status of 49 breast tumours previously classified as ER-/PR+ by immunohistochemistry, and compared clinical, pathological and molecular characteristics of confirmed ER-/PR+ tumours with those of ER+ and triple-negative tumours. We unequivocally confirmed the ER-/PR+ status in 27 of 49 tumours (0.3% of all breast cancers diagnosed in our institution between 2000 and 2014). We found that ER-/PR+ were morphologically and histologically similar to triple-negative tumours, but very distinct from ER+ tumours, with more aggressive phenotypes and more frequent basal marker expression than the latter. On the molecular level, RNA sequencing revealed different gene expression profiles between the three groups. Of particular interest, several genes controlled by the suppressor of zest 12 (SUZ12) were upregulated in ER-/PR+ tumours. Overall, our results confirm that ER-/PR+ breast cancers are an extremely rare but 'real' tumour subtype that requires careful diagnosis and has distinct features warranting different responsiveness to therapies and different clinical outcomes. Studies on larger cohorts are needed to further characterise these tumours. The likely involvement of SUZ12 in their biology is an interesting finding which may - in a long run - give rise to the development of new therapeutic alternatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33539DOI Listing
July 2021

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition).

Autophagy 2021 Jan 8;17(1):1-382. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

University of Crete, School of Medicine, Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology and Microbial Pathogenesis, Voutes, Heraklion, Crete, Greece; Foundation for Research and Technology, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB), Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996087PMC
January 2021

Clinical utility of circulating tumour cell-based monitoring of late-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer: the randomised CirCe01 trial.

Br J Cancer 2021 Mar 21;124(7):1207-1213. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Curie, Paris, France.

Background: CirCe01 trial aimed to assess the clinical utility of circulating tumour cell (CTC)-based monitoring in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients beyond the third line of chemotherapy (LC).

Methods: CirCe01 was a prospective, multicentre, randomised trial (NCT01349842) that included patients with MBC after two systemic LC. Patients with ≥5 CTC/7.5 mL (CellSearch®) were randomised between the CTC-driven and the standard arm. In the CTC arm, changes in CTC count were assessed at the first cycle of each LC; patients in whom CTC levels predicted early tumour progression had to switch to a subsequent LC.

Results: Greater than or equal to 5 CTC/7.5 mL were observed in N = 101/204 patients. In the CTC arm (N = 51), 43 (83%) and 18 (44%) patients completed CTC monitoring in the third and fourth lines, respectively, and 18 (42%) and 11 (61%) of these patients, respectively, had no CTC response. Thirteen (72%) and 5 (46%) of these patients underwent early switch to the next LC. Overall survival was not different between the two arms (hazard ratio = 0.95, 95% confidence interval = [0.6;1.4], p = 0.8). In subgroup analyses, patients with no CTC response who switched chemotherapy experienced longer survival than patients who did not.

Conclusions: Due to the limited accrual and compliance, this trial failed to demonstrate the clinical utility of CTC monitoring.

Clinical Trial Registration: NCT, NCT01349842, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01349842 , registered 9 May 2011.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-01227-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8007590PMC
March 2021

Characteristics and outcome of breast cancer-related microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia: a multicentre study.

Breast Cancer Res 2021 Jan 19;23(1). Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Curie, Paris and Saint Cloud, France.

Background: Cancer-related microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia (MAHA) is a rare but life-threatening paraneoplastic syndrome. Only single cases or small series have been reported to date. We set up a retrospective multicentre study focusing on breast cancer-related MAHA.

Methods: Main inclusion criteria were known diagnosis of breast cancer, presence of schistocytes and either low haptoglobin or cytopenia and absence of any causes of MAHA other than breast cancer, including gemcitabine- or bevacizumab-based treatment. Patient characteristics, treatments and outcome were retrieved from digital medical records.

Results: Individual data from 54 patients with breast cancer-related MAHA were obtained from 7 centres. Twenty-three (44%) patients had a breast tumour with lobular features, and most primary tumours were low grade (grade I/II, N = 39, 75%). ER+/HER2-, HER2+ and triple-negative phenotypes accounted for N = 33 (69%), N = 7 (15%) and N = 8 (17%) cases, respectively. All patients had stage IV cancer at the time of MAHA diagnosis. Median overall survival (OS) was 28 days (range 0-1035; Q1:10, Q3:186). Independent prognostic factors for early death (≤ 28 days) were PS > 2 (OR = 7.0 [1.6; 31.8]), elevated bilirubin (OR = 6.9 [1.1; 42.6]), haemoglobin < 8.0 g/dL (OR = 3.7 [0.9; 16.7]) and prothrombin time < 50% (OR = 9.1 [1.2; 50.0]). A score to predict early death displayed a sensitivity of 86% (95% CI [0.67; 0.96]), a specificity of 73% (95% CI [0.52; 0.88]) and an area under the curve of 0.90 (95% CI [0.83; 0.97]).

Conclusions: Breast cancer-related MAHA appears to be a new feature of invasive lobular breast carcinoma. Prognostic factors and scores may guide clinical decision-making in this serious but not always fatal condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13058-021-01386-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7814553PMC
January 2021

Treatment of Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma After Previous Cisplatin-based Chemotherapy for Localized Disease: A Retrospective Comparison of Different Chemotherapy Regimens.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2020 Nov 12. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Seattle, WA. Electronic address:

Background: Optimal chemotherapy for patients who received cisplatin for localized urothelial carcinoma (UC) and develop metastatic disease is unclear. We compared the efficacy of platinum-based (PBC) versus non-platinum-based (NPBC) first-line chemotherapy for metastasis.

Patients And Methods: Data were collected from the Retrospective International Study of Cancers of the Urothelial Tract (RISC), a database of 3024 patients from 28 international academic centers from 2005 to 2012. Patient inclusion criteria included: (1) predominant UC; (2) any primary tumor site; (3) cT2-4, cN0-N2, cM0; (4) prior receipt of perioperative/radiation cisplatin-containing chemotherapy; and (5) receipt of cytotoxic chemotherapy in the first-line metastatic setting. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to show progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) from the first day of chemotherapy for metastatic disease to date of censor.

Results: Eligibility criteria was met by 132 patients (n = 74 PBC; n = 58 NPBC). The median OS was 8.13 months (interquartile range, 4.87-16.64 months) and 8.77 months (interquartile range, 4.01-13.49 months) for PBC and NPBC, respectively. Neither OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64-1.69; P = .87) nor PFS (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.56-1.31; P = .48) differed for PBC versus NPBC. However, for patients who received chemotherapy more than a year after perioperative/radiation chemotherapy, OS was superior for PBC over NPBC (HR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.10-0.92; P = .03).

Conclusions: There is no significant outcome difference between PBC and NPBC in patients with metastatic UC who previously received cisplatin-based chemotherapy for localized disease. However, if over a year has elapsed, return to PBC is associated with superior OS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clgc.2020.10.006DOI Listing
November 2020

Impact of body mass index on overall survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer.

Breast 2021 Feb 1;55:16-24. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Cancer Medicine, Gustave Roussy, 114 Rue Edouard Vaillant, 94800, Villejuif, France; Department of Medical Oncology, CHU de Limoges, 2 Avenue Martin Luther King, Limoges, France.

Background: High Body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor for breast cancer among postmenopausal women and an adverse prognostic factor in early-stage. Little is known about its impact on clinical outcomes in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC).

Methods: The National ESME-MBC observational cohort includes all consecutive patients newly diagnosed with MBC between Jan 2008 and Dec 2016 in the 18 French comprehensive cancer centers.

Results: Of 22 463 patients in ESME-MBC, 12 999 women had BMI data available at MBC diagnosis. Median BMI was 24.9 kg/m (range 12.1-66.5); 20% of women were obese and 5% underweight. Obesity was associated with more de novo MBC, while underweight patients had more aggressive cancer features. Median overall survival (OS) of the BMI cohort was 47.4 months (95% CI [46.2-48.5]) (median follow-up: 48.6 months). Underweight was independently associated with a worse OS (median OS 33 months; HR 1.14, 95%CI, 1.02-1.27) and first line progression-free survival (HR, 1.11; 95%CI, 1.01; 1.22), while overweight or obesity had no effect.

Conclusion: Overweight and obesity are not associated with poorer outcomes in women with metastatic disease, while underweight appears as an independent adverse prognostic factor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.breast.2020.11.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7725947PMC
February 2021

Real-world evidence of cabozantinib in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: Results from the CABOREAL Early Access Program.

Eur J Cancer 2021 01 27;142:102-111. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Saint-André, Bordeaux, France.

Background: Real-world data on cabozantinib in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is limited. This study (CABOREAL) reports treatment patterns and outcomes for patients treated with cabozantinib through the French Early Access Program.

Patients And Methods: This multicentre (n = 26), observational, retrospective study enrolled patients with mRCC who had received ≥1 dose of cabozantinib. Overall survival (OS) was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method; subgroups were compared using the log-rank test. A multiple Cox regression model assessed predictive factors of OS after cabozantinib initiation.

Results: Four hundred and ten recruited patients started treatment between September 2016 and February 2018: the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status ≥2, 39.3%; poor International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) risk, 31.7%; 0-1, 2 and ≥3 previous treatment lines, 25.3%, 33.4% and 41.2%, respectively; bone metastases, 55.9%; brain metastases, 16.8%. Median (min-max) follow-up was 14.4 (0-30) months. Overall, 57.0% of patients had a dose reduction, 15.6% an alternative dose schedule. The median average daily dose was 40.0 mg. Median (quartile [Q]1-Q3) treatment duration was 7.6 (0.1-29.1) months, median OS was 14.4 months, and the 12-month OS rate was 56.5% (95% confidence interval: 51.5-61.2). Most patients (54.4%) received subsequent treatment. Predictive factors associated with longer OS were body mass index ≥25 kg/m (p = 0.0021), prior nephrectomy (p = 0.0109), favourable or intermediate IMDC risk (p < 0.0001) and cabozantinib initiation at 60 mg/day (p = 0.0486).

Conclusions: In the largest real-world study to date, cabozantinib was effective in unselected, heavily pretreated patients with mRCC. Initiation at 60 mg/day was associated with improved outcomes. CLINICALTRIALS.

Gov Identifier: NCT03744585.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.09.030DOI Listing
January 2021

Efficacy of Circulating Tumor Cell Count-Driven vs Clinician-Driven First-line Therapy Choice in Hormone Receptor-Positive, ERBB2-Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer: The STIC CTC Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Jan;7(1):34-41

Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Curie, Université de Paris, Paris, France.

Importance: The choice between chemotherapy and endocrine therapy as first-line treatment for hormone receptor-positive, ERBB2 (also known as HER2)-negative metastatic breast cancer is usually based on the presence of clinical features associated with a poor prognosis. In this setting, a high circulating tumor cell (CTC) count (≥5 CTCs/7.5 mL) is a strong adverse prognostic factor for overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS).

Objective: To compare the efficacy of a clinician-driven treatment choice vs a CTC-driven choice for first-line treatment.

Interventions: In the CTC arm, patients received chemotherapy or endocrine therapy according to the CTC count (chemotherapy if ≥5 CTCs/7.5 mL; endocrine therapy if <5 CTCs/7.5 mL), whereas in the control arm, the choice was left to the investigator.

Design, Setting, And Participants: In the STIC CTC randomized, open-label, noninferiority phase 3 trial, participants were randomized to a clinician-driven choice of first-line treatment or a CTC count-driven first-line treatment choice. Eligible participants were premenopausal and postmenopausal women 18 years or older diagnosed with hormone receptor-positive, ERBB2-negative metastatic breast cancer. Data were collected at 17 French cancer centers from February 1, 2012, to July 28, 2016, and analyzed June 2019 to October 2019.

Main Outcome And Measures: The primary end point was the investigator-assessed PFS in the per-protocol population, with a noninferiority margin of 1.25 for the 90% CI of the hazard ratio.

Results: Among the 755 women in the per-protocol population, the median (range) age was 63 (30-88) years [64 (30-88) years for the 377 patients allocated to the CTC arm and 63 (31-87) years for the 378 patients allocated to the standard arm]; 138 (37%) and 103 (27%) received chemotherapy, respectively. Median PFS was 15.5 months (95% CI, 12.7-17.3) in the CTC arm and 13.9 months (95% CI, 12.2-16.3) in the standard arm. The primary end point was met, with a hazard ratio of 0.94 (90% CI, 0.81-1.09).

Conclusions And Relevance: This randomized clinical trial found that the CTC count may be a reliable biomarker method for guiding the choice between chemotherapy and endocrine therapy as the first-line treatment in hormone receptor-positive, ERBB2-negative metastatic breast cancer.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01710605.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.5660DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7645742PMC
January 2021

Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes Signature as a New Pan-Cancer Predictive Biomarker of Anti PD-1/PD-L1 Efficacy.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Aug 26;12(9). Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Cancer Biology Transfer Platform, Georges-François Leclerc Cancer Center, 1 rue du Professeur Marion, F-21000 Dijon, France.

Tumor immune infiltrates are associated with tumor prognosis in many cancer types. However, their capacity to predict the efficacy of checkpoint inhibitors is poorly documented. We generate three signatures that evaluate in different ways these infiltrates: lymphoid- and myeloid-alone signatures, and a combined signature of both named the TIL (tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte) transcriptomic signature. We evaluate these signatures in The Cancer Genome Atlas Program (TCGA) Pan-Cancer cohort and four cohorts comprising patients with melanoma, lung, and head and neck cancer treated with anti-PD-1 or anti-CTLA-4 therapies. We observe using TCGA Pan-Cancer cohort that this TIL or lymphoid-alone signature accurately estimates prognosis in most cancer types and outperforms histological TIL evaluation or myeloid signature alone. Both TIL and lymphoid signatures are correlated with response rate to immunotherapy. Combining lymphoid signature or TIL with tumor mutational burden generates a score that is highly efficient in predicting response to immunotherapy. In different series of patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors for non-small cell lung cancer, head and neck cancer, and melanoma, we observed that TIL or lymphoid signature were associated with outcome. These data demonstrate that a simple TIL or lymphoid signature could be used as a Pan-Cancer prognostic and predictive biomarker to estimate patient survival under checkpoint inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12092418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7564481PMC
August 2020

Survival in patients with HR+/HER2- metastatic breast cancer treated with initial endocrine therapy versus initial chemotherapy. A French population-based study.

Br J Cancer 2020 09 17;123(7):1071-1077. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Registry of Côte d'Or, Georges-François Leclerc Comprehensive Cancer Care Centre, 1 rue Professeur Marion, Dijon, France.

Background: According to international guidelines, endocrine therapy (ET) is the preferred option for hormone receptor-positive (HR+) HER2-negative (HER2-) metastatic breast cancer. In spite of clear recommendations, these are not strictly followed in daily practice. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of the first anti-metastatic treatment therapy choice on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).

Methods: In this population-based study, we included patients with HR+/HER2- metastatic breast cancer recorded in the Côte d'Or Breast Cancer Registry. Differences in PFS and OS between patients initially treated with chemotherapy (CT) or ET were analysed in Cox proportional hazards models. In a sensitivity analysis, we used a propensity score (PS) to limit the indication bias.

Results: Altogether, 557 cases were included, 280 received initial ET and 277 received initial CT. PFS and OS in patients initially treated with ET was improved significantly when compared to patients with initial CT (respectively, HR = 0.83 (95% CI 0.69-0.99) and HR = 0.71 (95% CI 0.58-0.86)). The results of the sensitivity analysis supported these findings.

Conclusion: This study shows that treating patients with HR+/HER2- metastatic breast cancer with initial ET could provide a survival advantage in comparison with initial CT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0979-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7525445PMC
September 2020

A subset of activated fibroblasts is associated with distant relapse in early luminal breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Res 2020 07 14;22(1):76. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Stress and Cancer Laboratory, Equipe labelisée Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer, Institut Curie, PSL Research University, 26, rue d'Ulm, F-75005, Paris, France.

Background: Early luminal breast cancer (BC) represents 70% of newly diagnosed BC cases. Among them, small (under 2 cm) BC without lymph node metastasis (classified as T1N0) have been rarely studied, as their prognosis is generally favorable. Nevertheless, up to 5% of luminal T1N0 BC patients relapse with distant metastases that ultimately prove fatal. The aim of our work was to identify the mechanisms involved in metastatic recurrence in these patients.

Methods: Our study addresses the role that autonomous and non-autonomous tumor cell features play with regard to distant recurrence in early luminal BC patients. We created a cohort of T1N0 luminal BC patients (tumors between 0.5-2 cm without lymph node metastasis) with metastatic recurrence ("cases") and corresponding "controls" (without relapse) matched 1:1 on main prognostic factors: age, grade, and proliferation. We deciphered different characteristics of cancer cells and their tumor micro-environment (TME) by deep analyses using immunohistochemistry. We performed in vitro functional assays and highlighted a new mechanism of cooperation between cancer cells and one particular subset of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF).

Results: We found that specific TME features are indicative of relapse in early luminal BC. Indeed, quantitative histological analyses reveal that "cases" are characterized by significant accumulation of a particular CAF subset (CAF-S1) and decrease in CD4 T lymphocytes, without any other association with immune cells. In multivariate analysis, TME features, in particular CAF-S1 enrichment, remain significantly associated with recurrence, thereby demonstrating their clinical relevance. Finally, by performing functional analyses, we demonstrated that CAF-S1 pro-metastatic activity is mediated by the CDH11/osteoblast cadherin, consistent with bones being a major site of metastases in luminal BC patients.

Conclusions: This study shows that distant recurrence in T1N0 BC is strongly associated with the presence of CAF-S1 fibroblasts. Moreover, we identify CDH11 as a key player in CAF-S1-mediated pro-metastatic activity. This is independent of tumor cells and represents a new prognostic factor. These results could assist clinicians in identifying luminal BC patients with high risk of relapse. Targeted therapies against CAF-S1 using anti-FAP antibody or CDH11-targeting compounds might help in preventing relapse for such patients with activated stroma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13058-020-01311-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7362513PMC
July 2020

Impact of timing of adjuvant chemotherapy following radical cystectomy for bladder cancer on patient survival.

Urol Oncol 2020 12 10;38(12):934.e1-934.e9. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Urology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Background: Trials of adjuvant chemotherapy following radical cystectomy generally require chemotherapy to start within 90 days postoperatively. However, it is unclear, whether the interval between surgery and start of adjuvant therapy (S-AC-interval) impacts the oncological outcome.

Methods: Using the Retrospective International Study of Invasive/Advanced Cancer of the Urothelium (RISC) data base, we identified patients who underwent radical cystectomy for muscle invasive bladder cancer and subsequent adjuvant chemotherapy. Univariate analysis of patient characteristics, surgical factors and tumor characteristics regarding their impact on S-AC-interval was performed using Kruskal-Wallis testing and Fisher's exact test. Analysis of progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (follow-up time beginning with the start date of adjuvant chemotherapy) was analyzed in relation to S-AC-interval (continuous and dichotomous with a cut-off at 90 days) using Kaplan-Meier method and COX regression analysis.

Results: We identified 238 eligible patients (83.5% male, mean age: 63.4 years, 76.1% T3/T4, 66.4% pN+, 14.7% R+, 70.6% urothelial carcinoma, 71% cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy). The majority of patients (n = 207, 87%) started chemotherapy within 90 days after surgery. Median S-AC-interval was 57 days (interquartile range 32.8). S-AC-interval did not have consistent association with any patient/tumor characteristics or surgery related factors (type of surgery, urinary diversion). Survival analysis using continuous S-AC-interval revealed a trend toward an impact of S-AC-interval on OS (hazard ratio 1.004, 95% confidence ratio 0.9997-1.0084, P = 0.071). With regards to PFS, that impact was shown to be statistically significant (hazard ratio 1.004, 95% confidence ratio 1.0003-1.0075, P = 0.032). In multivariate analysis, however, S-AC-interval was negated by tumor and patient related factors (pathological T-stage, N-stage, ECOG performance status). Accounting for eligibility criteria defined in some clinical trials, we extended our analysis dividing S-AC-interval in ≤90 and >90 days. Although we could confirm the trend toward better outcome in patients with a shorter S-AC interval in dichotomous analysis, neither differences in OS nor in PFS reached statistical significance (P = 0.438 and P = 0.056).

Conclusions: In a large multi-institutional experience, 87% of patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy received it within the guideline recommended window of 90 days. While it was not possible to determine whether this is the optimal cut-off, early start of adjuvant chemotherapy seems to be reasonable. Regarding prognosis, tumor-related pathological factors abrogated the importance of the S-AC-interval in our analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2020.06.008DOI Listing
December 2020

Are immune checkpoint inhibitors a valid option for papillary renal cell carcinoma? A multicentre retrospective study.

Eur J Cancer 2020 09 9;136:76-83. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Medical Oncology, Gustave Roussy, Université Paris-Saclay, Villejuif, France. Electronic address:

Background: Papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) is the most common non-clear cell RCC (nccRCC). Pivotal studies evaluating immune checkpoint inhibitors mostly excluded nccRCC. The aim of this retrospective and multicentre study was to evaluate the activity of programmed death-1 (PD-1)/ programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors specifically in metastatic pRCC.

Methods: The primary end-point was time to treatment failure (TTF). Secondary endpoints included objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS) and treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs).

Results: From 02/2016 to 01/2019, 57 patients with pRCC were included. Histology included 16 (28%) type 1 pRCC, 34 (60%) type 2 pRCC and 7 (12%) unclassified pRCC. Treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors was used in the first-line setting in 4 patients (7%), in the second-line setting in 32 patients (56%) and in the third-line setting or more in 21 patients (37%). With a median follow-up of 12 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.9-21.0), the median TTF was 3.1 months (95% CI: 2.7-5.0). Among the 55 patients evaluable for ORR, best response was complete response/partial response in 6 patients (11%), stable disease in 18 patients (33%) and progressive disease in 31 patients (56%). The median OS was 14.6 months (95% CI: 9.0- not reached). TRAEs of grade III-IV were noted in 6 patients (10%) leading to treatment discontinuation, and no grade V TRAEs were observed.

Conclusion: PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors exhibit limited activity as monotherapy in this pRCC population, which remains an unmet need. Our findings underline the need for further prospective clinical trials evaluating immune checkpoint inhibitor combinations in patients with pRCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.02.019DOI Listing
September 2020

[Non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma: clinico-biological characteristics and therapeutic management except surgery].

Bull Cancer 2020 Jun;107(5S):S56-S65

Département d'oncologie médicale, Centre Georges-François-Leclerc, 1, rue du Professeur-Marion, 21000 Dijon, France; UFR des sciences de santé, Université de Bourgogne, 7, boulevard Jeanne-d'Arc, 21079 Dijon, France.

Non-clear cell renal cell carcinomas (nccRCC) account for nearly 25% of all kidney cancers, and represent a group of highly heterogeneous tumors both in terms of histological varieties and also oncogenic biological abnormalities. The clinical presentation as well as the prognosis of the patients is also very variable. Given the rarity of each tumor entity, there are very few clinical trials that have focused on a well-defined variety of non-clear cell cancer. So, it is difficult to interpret these studies, and therefore to develop clear recommendations for medical management of advanced disease. In this article, the main clinico-biological characteristics, as well as a summary of the clinical results obtained in patients with nccRCC cancer, except surgery, will be presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0007-4551(20)30279-4DOI Listing
June 2020

Monitoring HSP70 exosomes in cancer patients' follow up: a clinical prospective pilot study.

J Extracell Vesicles 2020 20;9(1):1766192. Epub 2020 May 20.

Centre d'investigation Clinique INSERM 1432, CHU Dijon-Bourgogne, Dijon, France.

Exosomes are nanovesicles released by all cells that can be found in the blood. A key point for their use as potential biomarkers in cancer is to differentiate tumour-derived exosomes from other circulating nanovesicles. Heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) has been shown to be abundantly expressed by cancer cells and to be associated with bad prognosis. We previously showed that exosomes derived from cancer cells carried HSP70 in the membrane while those from non-cancerous cells did not. In this work, we opened a prospective clinical pilot study including breast and lung cancer patients to determine whether it was possible to detect and quantify HSP70 exosomes in the blood of patients with solid cancers. We found that circulating exosomal HSP70 levels, but not soluble HSP70, reflected HSP70 content within the tumour biopsies. Circulating HSP70 exosomes increased in metastatic patients compared to non-metastatic patients or healthy volunteers. Further, we demonstrated that HSP70-exosome levels correlated with the disease status and, when compared with circulating tumour cells, were more sensitive tumour dissemination predictors. Finally, our case studies indicated that HSP70-exosome levels inversely correlated with response to the therapy and that, therefore, monitoring changes in circulating exosomal HSP70 might be useful to predict tumour response and clinical outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20013078.2020.1766192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7301715PMC
May 2020

Implementation and use of whole exome sequencing for metastatic solid cancer.

EBioMedicine 2020 Jan 7;51:102624. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Department of Medical Oncology, Georges François Leclerc Cancer Center - UNICANCER, 1 rue Professeur Marion, Dijon 21000, France; Platform of Transfer in Cancer Biology, Georges François Leclerc Cancer Center - UNICANCER, Dijon, France; Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Dijon, France; Genomic and Immunotherapy Medical Institute, Dijon, France; INSERM U1231, Dijon, France. Electronic address:

Background: Genomically-guided clinical trials are performed across different tumor types sharing genetic mutations, but trial organization remains complex. Here we address the feasibility and utility of routine somatic and constitutional exome analysis in metastatic cancer patients.

Methods: Exoma trial (NCT02840604) is a multicenter, prospective clinical trial. Eligible patients presented a metastatic cancer progressing after at least one line of systemic therapy. Constitutional genetics testing required geneticist consultation. Somatic and germline exome analysis was restricted to 317 genes. Variants were classified and molecular tumor board made therapeutic recommendations based on ESMO guidelines. Primary endpoint was the feasibility of the approach evaluated by the proportion of patient that received a therapeutic proposal.

Findings: Between May 2016 and October 2018, 506 patients were included. Median time required for tumor sample reception was 8 days. Median time from sample reception to results was 52 days. Somatic analysis was performed for 456 patients (90.1%). Both somatic and constitutional analyses were successfully performed for 386 patients (76.3%). In total, 342 patients (75%) received a therapeutic proposal. Genetic susceptibility to cancer was found in 35 (9%) patients. Only, 79 patients (23.1%) were treated with NGS matched therapy mainly PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors 22 (27.8%), followed by PARP inhibitors 19 (24.1%), antiangiogenics 17 (21.5%), MEK inhibitors 7 (8.9%) and immunotherapy 5 (6.3%). Matched treatment was finally stopped because of disease progression 50 (63%), treatment toxicity 18 (23%), patients' death 4 (5%). PFS2/PFS1 ratio was > 1,3 for 23,5% of patients treated with the NGS matched therapy and 23,7% of patients treated with standard therapy.

Interpretation: Study shows that exome analysis is feasible in cancer routine care. This strategy improves detection of genetic predispositions and enhances access to target therapies. However, no differences were observed between PFS ratios of patients treated with matched therapy versus standard therapy.

Funding: This work was funding by the centre Georges Francois Leclerc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.102624DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7000332PMC
January 2020

EAU-ESMO Consensus Statements on the Management of Advanced and Variant Bladder Cancer-An International Collaborative Multistakeholder Effort: Under the Auspices of the EAU-ESMO Guidelines Committees.

Eur Urol 2020 02 19;77(2):223-250. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Milan, Italy; Humanitas Research Hospital, Milan, Italy.

Background: Although guidelines exist for advanced and variant bladder cancer management, evidence is limited/conflicting in some areas and the optimal approach remains controversial.

Objective: To bring together a large multidisciplinary group of experts to develop consensus statements on controversial topics in bladder cancer management.

Design: A steering committee compiled proposed statements regarding advanced and variant bladder cancer management which were assessed by 113 experts in a Delphi survey. Statements not reaching consensus were reviewed; those prioritised were revised by a panel of 45 experts prior to voting during a consensus conference.

Setting: Online Delphi survey and consensus conference.

Participants: The European Association of Urology (EAU), the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), experts in bladder cancer management.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Statements were ranked by experts according to their level of agreement: 1-3 (disagree), 4-6 (equivocal), and 7-9 (agree). A priori (level 1) consensus was defined as ≥70% agreement and ≤15% disagreement, or vice versa. In the Delphi survey, a second analysis was restricted to stakeholder group(s) considered to have adequate expertise relating to each statement (to achieve level 2 consensus).

Results And Limitations: Overall, 116 statements were included in the Delphi survey. Of these statements, 33 (28%) achieved level 1 consensus and 49 (42%) achieved level 1 or 2 consensus. At the consensus conference, 22 of 27 (81%) statements achieved consensus. These consensus statements provide further guidance across a broad range of topics, including the management of variant histologies, the role/limitations of prognostic biomarkers in clinical decision making, bladder preservation strategies, modern radiotherapy techniques, the management of oligometastatic disease, and the evolving role of checkpoint inhibitor therapy in metastatic disease.

Conclusions: These consensus statements provide further guidance on controversial topics in advanced and variant bladder cancer management until a time when further evidence is available to guide our approach.

Patient Summary: This report summarises findings from an international, multistakeholder project organised by the EAU and ESMO. In this project, a steering committee identified areas of bladder cancer management where there is currently no good-quality evidence to guide treatment decisions. From this, they developed a series of proposed statements, 71 of which achieved consensus by a large group of experts in the field of bladder cancer. It is anticipated that these statements will provide further guidance to health care professionals and could help improve patient outcomes until a time when good-quality evidence is available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2019.09.035DOI Listing
February 2020

[Strategies in case of metastatic sentinel lymph node in breast cancer].

Bull Cancer 2020 Jun 4;107(6):672-685. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

Centre de lutte contre le cancer Georges-François Leclerc, département de chirurgie oncologique, 21000 Dijon, France; Université de Bourgogne, UFR des Sciences de Santé, 21000 Dijon, France. Electronic address:

Management strategy of micro or macro metastatic sentinel lymph node(s) (SLNs) in breast cancer has dramatically changed over the past ten years and the publication of five randomized trials results: ACOSOG Z0011, IBCSG 23-01, and AATRM comparing axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) versus SLNs biopsy alone; and AMAROS and OTOASOR comparing ALND versus axillary radiotherapy. Despite methodological limitations of several of these trials, notably ACOSOG Z0011, the international recommendations (ASCO, NCCN) and the expert consensus of St Gallen do not recommend the performance of a complementary ALND in case of macro or micro metastatic SLN, if all ACOSOG Z0011 inclusion criteria are met. Moreover, in the context of a mastectomy, with one or two positive SLN and a wall irradiation indication, an axillary radiotherapy can be proposed as an alternative to ALND. Additionally, ALND is also indicated in extracapsular involvement or when three or more SLNs are metastatic. This change in strategy led to a significant decrease on the number of ALNDs performed and resulted on the abandon of SLNs extemporaneous examination. In France, there are no national recommendations on axillary management in the context of SLN involvement. Moreover, a multitude of different local guidelines, led to very heterogeneous practices in our country. The next evolution on axillary management strategy will be the implementation of a SLNs procedure after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for patients with lymph node involvement proven before NAC and for whom NAC has allowed axillary downstaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2019.09.005DOI Listing
June 2020

Prognostic value of transcriptomic determination of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes in localised breast cancer.

Eur J Cancer 2019 10 6;120:97-106. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Platform of Transfer in Biology of Cancer, Georges Francois Leclerc Cancer Center, 1 Rue Du Professeur Marion, 21000 Dijon, France; GIMI Genetic and Immunology Medical Institute, 21000 Dijon, France; Department of Medical Oncology, Georges Francois Leclerc Cancer Center, 1 Rue Du Professeur Marion, 21000 Dijon, France; INSERM U1231, Dijon, France; Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Dijon, France. Electronic address:

Purpose: Tumour-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) detection by histology is associated with outcomes in breast cancer; nevertheless, analysis standardisation is difficult. We determined whether transcriptomic data could generate a genomic signature that estimated TIL infiltrates and determined patient prognosis in localised breast cancer.

Experimental Design: Using 1928 transcriptomic profiles of pure cells, we generated a genetic signature specific to lymphocyte, myeloid, stromal and cancer cells. We then computed a score based on this signature and tested the association between the score and the TILs estimated for patients in an adjuvant setting from public and private data sets. We tested the capacity of the transcriptomic RNA TIL score to predict disease-free survival (DFS) or overall survival (OS) through multivariate Cox models adjusted for classical clinical variables and PAM50 molecular classification in two public data sets (Carte d'Identité des Tumeurs [CIT], n = 530; Metabric, n = 1832).

Results: A high RNA TIL score was significantly associated with the presence of a high level of TILs as assessed by histology. The score was also associated with DFS and OS in multivariate Cox models adjusted for molecular and clinical variables (CIT: OS hazard ratio [HR] = 0.15 [0.04, 0.61], p-value = 0.007; DFS: 0.27 [0.08, 0.8] p-value = 0.02; Metabric: OS HR = 0.87 [0.77, 0.97], p-value = 0.01). The association between the RNA TIL score and survival was tested by univariate analysis in each molecular subgroup; the RNA TIL score was associated with survival only in basal-like tumours.

Conclusions: Determination of the TIL rate using a transcriptomic signature is feasible and has a high prognostic value in patients with basal-like tumours in an adjuvant setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2019.07.020DOI Listing
October 2019

Incidence, Patterns, and Outcomes with Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Residual Disease After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Muscle-invasive Urinary Tract Cancers.

Eur Urol Oncol 2020 10 31;3(5):671-679. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Patients with residual muscle-invasive urinary tract cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) have a high risk of recurrence.

Objective: To retrospectively evaluate whether additional adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) improves outcomes compared with surveillance in patients with significant residual disease despite NAC.

Design, Setting, And Participants: We identified 474 patients who received NAC from the Retrospective International Study of Cancers of the Urothelium database, of whom 129 had adverse residual disease (≥ypT3 and/or ypN).

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Time to relapse (TTR) was the primary endpoint assessed starting from 2mo after surgery to minimize immortal time bias. Secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), incidence of AC use, and chemotherapy patterns. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models estimated TTR, OS, and associations with AC, adjusting for the type of NAC, age, and pathological stage in multivariable analyses.

Results And Limitations: A total of 106 patients underwent surveillance, while 23 received AC. Gemcitabine-cisplatin was the most frequent regimen employed in both settings (30.4%), and the majority (82.6%) of the patients switched to a different regimen. Median follow-up was 30mo. Over 50% of patients developed a recurrence. Median TTR was 16mo (range: <1-108mo). Longer median TTR was observed with AC compared with surveillance (18 vs 10mo, p=0.06). Risk of relapse significantly decreased with AC when adjusted in multivariable analyses (p=0.01). The subgroup analyses of ypT4b/ypN patients (AC: 19; surveillance: 50) who received AC had significantly greater median TTR (20 vs 9mo; hazard ratio 0.43; 95% confidence interval: 0.21-0.89). No difference in OS was found. Limitations include the retrospective design.

Conclusions: The utilization of AC after NAC in patients with high-risk residual disease is not frequent in clinical practice but might reduce the risk of recurrence. Further investigation is needed in this high-risk population to identify optimal therapy and to improve clinical outcomes such as the ongoing adjuvant immunotherapy trials.

Patient Summary: We found that administering additional chemotherapy in patients who had significant residual disease despite preoperative chemotherapy is not frequent in clinical practice. While it might reduce the risk of recurrence, it did not clearly increase overall survival. We encourage participation in the ongoing immunotherapy trials to see whether we can improve outcomes using a different type of therapy that stimulates the immune system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euo.2018.12.013DOI Listing
October 2020

Safety and Efficacy of Nivolumab in Brain Metastases From Renal Cell Carcinoma: Results of the GETUG-AFU 26 NIVOREN Multicenter Phase II Study.

J Clin Oncol 2019 08 13;37(23):2008-2016. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

1Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Université Paris-Saclay, Villejuif, France.

Purpose: Nivolumab is standard of care for patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) after failure of antiangiogenic therapies, but its activity on brain metastases from ccRCC remains unknown, because these patients were excluded from pivotal studies. We aimed to assess the activity of nivolumab in this population.

Methods: The GETUG-AFU 26 NIVOREN phase II trial assessed the activity and safety of nivolumab in patients with metastatic ccRCC who failed vascular endothelial growth factor-directed therapies (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03013335). Patients with asymptomatic brain metastases were prospectively identified and underwent dedicated brain evaluation. Two cohorts were constituted: cohort A comprised patients with previously untreated brain metastases, and cohort B comprised patients whose brain metastases underwent prior therapy. The primary end point was intracranial response rate in cohort A.

Results: Seventy-three patients with brain metastases were included: 39 in cohort A and 34 in cohort B. Intracranial response rate was 12% in cohort A; no objective response was reported in patients with brain lesions that were multiple or larger than 1 cm. Median intracranial progression-free survival was 2.7 months (95% CI, 2.3 to 4.6 months) in cohort A and 4.8 months (95% CI, 3.0 to 8.0 months) in cohort B, with adjusted hazard ratio of 2.04 (95% CI, 1.08 to 3.83). Overall survival rate at 12 months was 67% (95% CI, 49.6% to 79.1%) in cohort A and 59% (95% CI, 40.6% to 73.2%) in cohort B. Most patients in cohort A (72%) needed subsequent focal brain therapy. Nivolumab was well tolerated, with no unexpected toxicity.

Conclusion: Nivolumab activity is limited in patients with untreated brain metastases from ccRCC. Brain imaging and focal therapy should be considered before immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with metastatic ccRCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.18.02218DOI Listing
August 2019

The Impact of Cisplatin- or Non-Cisplatin-Containing Chemotherapy on Long-Term and Conditional Survival of Patients with Advanced Urinary Tract Cancer.

Oncologist 2019 10 1;24(10):1348-1355. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Tisch Cancer Institute, New York New York, USA.

Background: The impact of cisplatin use on long-term survival of unselected patients with advanced urinary tract cancer (aUTC) has not been adequately investigated. We used a multinational database to study long-term survival and the impact of treatment type in unselected patients with aUTC.

Materials And Methods: A total of 1,333 patients with aUTC (cT4bN0M0, cTanyN+M0, cTanyNanyM+), transitional-cell, squamous, or adenocarcinoma histology who received systemic chemotherapy and had available survival data were selected. Long-term survival was defined as alive at 3 years following initiation of first-line chemotherapy. Conditional overall survival (COS) analysis was employed to study change in prognosis given time survived from initiation of first-line chemotherapy.

Results: Median follow-up was 31.7 months. The combination of cisplatin use and cisplatin eligibility accurately predicted long-term survival. Eligible patients treated with cisplatin conferred a 31.6% probability of 3-year survival (95% confidence interval [CI]: 25.1-38.3), and 2-year COS for patients surviving 3 years after initiation of cisplatin-based chemotherapy was 83% (95% CI: 59.7-93.5). The respective probabilities for patients who were ineligible for cisplatin or not treated with cisplatin despite eligibility were 14% (95% CI: 10.8-17.6) and 49.3% (95% CI: 28.2-67.4). Two-year COS remained significantly different between these two groups up to 3 years after chemotherapy initiation.

Conclusion: Cisplatin-based therapy was associated with the highest likelihood of long-term survival in patients with aUTC and should be used in patients who fulfill the established eligibility criteria. Novel therapies are necessary to increase long-term survival in cisplatin-ineligible patients.

Implications For Practice: Long-term, disease-free survival is possible in one in four eligible-for-cisplatin patients with advanced urinary tract cancer (aUTC) treated with cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy. Therefore, deviations from eligibility criteria should be avoided. Consolidation surgery should be considered in responders. These data provide benchmarks for the study of novel therapies in aUTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2018-0739DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6795165PMC
October 2019

Combination of breast imaging parameters obtained from F-FDG PET and CT scan can improve the prediction of breast-conserving surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in luminal/HER2-negative breast cancer.

Eur J Radiol 2019 Apr 7;113:81-88. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Nice, France; TIRO-UMR E 4320, University of Nice-Sophia-Antipolis, France.

Introduction: The luminal/Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2 (HER2) negative subtype of breast cancer has low chemo-sensitivity. When neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is indicated in this subtype, before a possible breast-conserving surgery (BCS), it is more reasonable to target tumor shrinkage than complete pathological tumor response. We aimed to identify breast and tumor Fluoro-deoxy-glucose (F-FDG) PET-CT scan imaging features for the early prediction of BCS after NAC in luminal/HER2 negative subtypes of breast cancer.

Material And Methods: Seventy-seven consecutive women with luminal/HER2-negative breast cancer for whom BCS was initially not feasible and NAC was prescribed, to decrease tumor size before surgery, were included retrospectively. An F-FDG PET-CT scan exam was performed before and after the first course of NAC.

Results: After NAC, 36% (28/77) of women had a mastectomy and 64% (49/77) underwent BCS. Patients with a mastectomy had lower total breast volume (BV) (p = 0.002), lower decrease in Δmetabolic tumor volume (ΔMTV) (p = 0.03) and lower SUV (p = 0.05). Using ROC Curve analyses to define the optimal predictive threshold of BV (496 cm) and ΔMTV (-17.1%), 3 subgroups of women with different odds of BCS after treatment were identified (p = 0.001): low, medium and high probability groups (respectively 29%, 62% and 82%).

Conclusions: For patients with Luminal/HER2 negative breast cancer, the combination of the imaging features of the tumor and the mammary gland, obtained with F-FDG PET-CT at baseline and after the first cycle of NAC, may allow the physician to evaluate the probability of BCS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2019.02.005DOI Listing
April 2019

Patterns of Bone Failure in Localized Prostate Cancer Previously Irradiated: The Preventive Role of External Radiotherapy on Pelvic Bone Metastases.

Front Oncol 2019 15;9:70. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Unicancer-Georges-Francois Leclerc Cancer Center, Dijon, France.

External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) can cure localized prostate cancer (PCa) by sterilizing cancer cells in the prostate gland and surrounding tissues at risk of microscopic dissemination. We hypothesized that pelvic EBRT for localized PCa might have an unexpected prophylactic impact on the occurrence of pelvic bone metastases. We reviewed the data of 332 metastatic PCa patients. We examined associations between the number (≤5 vs. >5) and the location of bone metastases (in-field vs. out-of-field), which occurred at first relapse, and a previous history of EBRT for PCa (EBRT vs. No-EBRT). One hundred and ten patients M0 at baseline were eligible. Fifty-six patients (51%) were in the No-EBRT group, and 54 patients (49%) in the EBRT group. The proportion of patients who developed >5 bone metastases in the bony pelvis was higher in the No-EBRT group vs. the EBRT group: 10 patients (18%) vs. 2 patients (4%), respectively ( = 0.02). By multivariate analysis EBRT was associated with a lesser occurrence of patients who had >5 bone metastases in the bony pelvis (OR = 0.17 [95%CI, 0.04-0.87], = 0.03). Time to occurrence of bone metastases ≥5 years (OR = 0.10 [95%CI, 0.05-0.19], < 0.01), prior curative prostate treatment (OR = 0.58 [95%CI, 0.36-0.91], = 0.02), >5 bone metastases in bony pelvis (OR = 2.61 [95%CI, 1.28-5.31], < 0.01), >5 bone metastases out of bony pelvis (OR = 1.73 [95%CI, 1.09-2.76], = 0.02) were all predictive of overall survival. Previous pelvic EBRT for PCa is associated with a lower number of pelvic bone metastases, which is associated with better overall survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6384223PMC
February 2019