Publications by authors named "Syed Muhammad Zaka"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) as a potential biocontrol agent for aphids based on age-stage, two-sex life table.

PLoS One 2020 25;15(9):e0228367. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.

The Zigzag ladybird beetle, Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is a biological control agent that feeds on a variety of aphid species. Life table and predation data of C. sexmaculata were collected under laboratory conditions at 25±2⁰C, 60±5% RH and L14: D10 h in connection with feeding on four different aphid species; Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Aphis nerii (Boyer de Fonscolombe) and Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko). Larval development of C. sexmaculata was long when fed on M. persicae (12.18 days) and shorter on D. noxia (10.64 days). The male's lifespan was longer on M. persicae (26.70 days) and shorter on L. erysimi (23.67 days). Fecundity was maximum when the beetle was fed D. noxia (316.8 eggs/female) and minimum on M. persicae (199.1 eggs/female). Net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase and finite rate of increase were highest on D. noxia with values of 158.4 (offspring individual-1), 0.22 d-1, and 1.24 d-1, respectively whereas the respective parameters were lowest on L. erysimi (99.5 offspring individual-1, 0.19 d-1, and 1.20 d-1, respectively). However, the mean of the generation (T) was shorter on A. nerii (22.48 d-1) and longer on M. persicae (24.68 d-1). Based on life table parameters obtained under laboratory conditions, the most appropriate host of C. sexmaculata was D. noxia. This study should help us to improve mass rearing and use of C. sexmaculata in the biological control of aphids on field and horticultural crops.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0228367PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7518597PMC
October 2020

Interaction of HaNPVs with two novel insecticides against Hubner (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera).

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Aug 20;27(8):2124-2128. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Tabuk University, Tabuk 71491, Saudi Arabia.

Nucleopolyhedrosis viruses can be utilized for effective management of agriculture pests. Their efficacy can be increased if they are mixed with certain insecticides. In the current study, HaNPV was mixed with two insecticides: spinetoram and emamectin benzoate in various combinations and applied to larvae of in laboratory conditions. There were a total of 15 combinations of HaNPV with each of the two insecticides in addition to five doses of HaNPV and three doses of insecticides alone. The synergistic and antagonistic effects of combinations were explored. The results revealed that there was synergistic effect of HaNPV @ 0.5 × 10 PIB/ml × Spinetoram @ 40, 20, 10 ml/100 L of water. In case of emamectin benzoate, synergistic effects were recorded at 1 × 10 PIB/ml HaNPV × emamectin benzoate @ 100 ml/100 L of water. However, 0.5 × 10 PIB/ml HaNPV has synergistic effects with all three doses of emamectin benzoate. The results suggested that HaNPV can be used in combination with spinetoram and emamectin benzoate for the management of resistant population of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.06.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7376185PMC
August 2020

Field evaluation of nucleopolyhedrosis virus and some biorational insecticides against Hubner (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera).

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Aug 20;27(8):2106-2110. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, Al-Sharm, Yanbu El-Bahr 46429, Saudi Arabia.

American bolloworm, Hubner (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) is considered as a major pest of various crops all over the world. It is mainly controlled by indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides in the world due to which this pest developed resistance to most of the available insecticides. Therefore, in the current study, the efficacy of virulent strain of HaNPV (0.5 × 10 PIB/ml) alone and in combination with recommended doses of spintoram (20 g/100 L of water) and emamectin benzoate (200 ml/100 L of water) was tested in field. The combination of HaNPV with spintoram and emamectin benzoate 100% reduced the larval population as compared to emamectin benzoate and HaNPV alone. This suggested that the combination of spintoram and emamectin benzoate with HaNPV could be used in field to manage the infestation of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.06.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7376122PMC
August 2020

Manifold passages in an assorted infection in a host could improve virulence of Nucleopolyhedrovirus (HaNPV).

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Jun 10;27(6):1419-1422. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Institute of Plant Protection, MNS-University of Agriculture, Multan (60000), Pakistan.

Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is serious pests of cotton and several other crops. (HaNPV) can be important alternative to synthetic insecticides for the management of . However, the efficacy of HaNPV can vary in horizontal and vertical transmission. In the current study, we evaluated the efficacy of HaNPV of a virulent strain (vertically transmitted up to six generations) and wild strains (used after isolation from the field infected larvae). Both strains were applied to the 2nd instar larvae of @ 1 × 10 polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB)/ml. There were six replications of each strain (strains). The results indicated higher mortalities in larvae exposed to virulent strains (68.33 ± 6.07%) as compared to wild strain (45 ± 2.24%). Virulent strains killed the larvae quite faster than wild strain. The lethal time (LT) to kill 50% of the larvae by virulent strain was 7.15 days and for wild strain it was 19.47 days. The results showed that multiple passage of HaNPV through several generations enhances its efficacy to kill larvae faster. The results of this study will be helpful to manage and other related lepidopoterous pests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.02.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253915PMC
June 2020

First record and taxonomic description of the genus (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Plusiinae) from Pakistan.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 May 13;27(5):1375-1379. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Research Center for Advanced Materials Science (RCAMS), King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.

Species belonging to genus, Fabricius of the subfamily Plusiinae which are polyphagous in nature and pest of vegetables, foods, legumes, fodder, fruits, ornamental plants and cotton crops. Samples were collected from different localities of district Bahawalpur. For collection, comprehensive and comparative surveys were carried out during 2017-18 on taxonomic account of species of the genus Fabricius and resulted identified one species (Fabricius) first time from Pakistan. Morphological characters viz., vertex, frons, labial palpi, antennae, compound eyes, ocelli, proboscis, wing venation, male and female genital characteristics were used for the identification and classification. Dichotomous keys and photographs are also provided. There is hardly any substantial research work on taxonomic studies of subfamily Plusiinae Pakistan. So to fill this gap the present proposal was designed to study the diversity of Noctuid moths from Pakistan and very fruitful results have been obtained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.12.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7182779PMC
May 2020

Graphene quantum dots as cysteine protease nanocarriers against stored grain insect pests.

Sci Rep 2020 02 26;10(1):3444. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences & Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, 60800, Multan, Pakistan.

Storing grains remain vulnerable to insect pest attack. The present study developed a biopesticide using biomolecules and their encapsulation in nanoparticles. A 25 kDa cysteine protease extracted from seeds of Albizia procera (ApCP) was encapsulated in graphene quantum dots (GQDs). The insecticidal activity of ApCP, with or without GQDs, against two stored grain insect pests, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius) was explored. Insects were exposed to three concentrations 7.0, 3.5 and 1.7 mg of ApCP per a gram of wheat flour and grains. The insecticidal activity of ApCP encapsulated with GQDs was improved compared to that of ApCP without GQDs for both insect pests. The number of eggs and larvae of T. castaneum was reduced by 49% and 86%, respectively. Larval mortality was increased to 72%, and adult eclosion of T. castaneum was reduced by 98% at a 7.0 mg/g concentration of ApCP with GQDs compared to that of ApCP without GQDs. Exposure to 7.0 mg/g ApCP with GQDs, the number of R. dominica eggs and larvae was reduced by 72% and 92% respectively, larval mortality was increased by 90%, and eclosion was reduced by 97%. The extraction, purification, characterization, quantification and encapsulation of ApCP with GQDs were also studied. Cysteine protease nanocarriers have the potential to control stored grain insect pests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-60432-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044290PMC
February 2020

Effects of temperature on baseline susceptibility and stability of insecticide resistance against (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in the absence of selection pressure.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Jan 15;27(1):1-5. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Research Center for Advanced Materials Science (RCAMS), King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.

L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is an important pest causing significant losses to vegetables worldwide. Insecticides resistance in is a serious issue for scientists since last 30 years. However, deltamethrin and are commonly used insecticides against but studies involving development of resistance in against these two insecticides at different temperatures are lacking. The current study was aimed to find out the toxicity of deltamethrin and , and resistance development in . Results showed that the positive correlation between the temperature and toxicities of deltamethrin and . The results indicated -0.051, -0.049, -0.047, and -0.046 folds of deltamethrin resistance at 15 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C, and 30 °C temperatures, respectively from 1 to 12 generations. The toxicity of after 24 h was 2.2 and 4.8 folds on 1 generation at 20 °C and 25 °C temperatures, respectively compared to the toxicity recorded at 15 °C (non-overlapping of 95% confidence limits). Based on the results of this study, it is concluded that the temperature has a positive correlation with the toxicity of deltamethrin and against the larvae of This study suggests that deltamethrin and can be included in the management program of on many vegetable crops The baseline susceptibility data might be helpful to understand the resistance mechanisms in .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.03.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6933245PMC
January 2020

Comparative insecticidal activity of different plant materials from six common plant species against (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

Saudi J Biol Sci 2019 Nov 27;26(7):1804-1808. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan.

(Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is one of the major insect pests of stored grains. Due to export legislation and zero-tolerance for live insect in trade commodities, extensive use of synthetic insecticides is in practice in order to eliminate pest infestations from the lots. Currently, the one and only acceptable chemical to be used in stored grain is phosphine but due to its excessive usage the stored grain pests are becoming resistant against it. Hence discovery of alternative compounds is much needed. In this study we have compared insecticidal efficacy of different plant materials from six commonly grown plants of Pakistan, (Alliaceae), (Zingiberaceae), (Poaceae), (Myrtaceae), (Solanaceae), and (Meliaceae) against infesting stored wheat, rice, corn and gram pulse. Various plant parts were dried, powdered, and used as admixtures to the stored commodities in the experiments. The results have suggested that (garlic) and (ginger) were more effective resulting into 15 times higher adult mortality and 4 to 5 times reduction in grain weight losses when mixed with rice grains. Similarly, when admixture with wheat checked the population growth in the resources resulting into 3.5 times less adult production compared to controls. A subsequent experiment was conducted to study the dose response of neem seed powder against the beetle pest infesting milled products. Surprisingly, better control was observed either at lowest (1% w/w) or the highest doses (5% w/w). This finding is of great interest to understand the underlying phenomenon which we assume is the ability of to feed selectively in flour mediums, however, further research on this aspect is required to be investigated. The results of this study support the use of botanicals for stored product pest management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.02.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6864196PMC
November 2019

Toxic effects of some insecticides, herbicides, and plant essential oils against Jacquelin du val (Insecta: Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

Saudi J Biol Sci 2019 Nov 7;26(7):1767-1771. Epub 2018 May 7.

Research Farm Crops, Baldmas District Kotli, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

Cereals are staple food for many countries and are grown on millions of hectares of land, but much of the harvest is wasted due to losses by pests. To minimize these losses, many pesticides are used which are damaging to the environment and human health. There are debates to get rid of these chemicals but they are still in use at large scale. An alternative control strategy for insect pests in storage houses is the use of botanicals. In this study, four plant essential oils, two plant extracts, two herbicides, and two insecticides were used against and the comparison of toxicity was made by calculating LC and LT values. LC values were higher for abamectin (2.09-10.23 mg/L) and cypermethrin (3.41-11.78 mg/L) insecticides followed by neem essential oil (7.39-19.24 mg/L) and citrus extract (10.14-24.50 mg/L). However, LC values were maximum in case of jaman plant extract (22.38-176.42 mg/L) followed by two herbicides, Logran (19.66-39.72 mg/L) and Topik (29.09-47.67 mg/L) However, LC values were higher for topic herbicide (24.098 ppm) and jaman essential oil (16.383 ppm) after four days of treatment. Abamectin and cypermethrin insecticides, neem essential oil and citrus plant extract also killed adults of quicker as compared other essential oils, extracts and herbicides. Results revealed that botanical formulations being environmentally safe could be used instead of highly hazardous pesticides for stored products' pests. This study also elaborates the non-host toxicity of herbicides commonly applied in our agroecosystem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.05.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6864198PMC
November 2019

Fitness parameters of (L.) (Lepidoptera; Plutellidae) at four constant temperatures by using age-stage, two-sex life tables.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2019 Nov 27;26(7):1661-1667. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Department of Botany, Hindu College Moradabad, 244001, India.

Different temperature zones have significant impact on the population dynamics of . Effective management of requires the knowledge of temperature tolerance by different life stages. In the current study, fitness parameters of diamondback moth were reported by using age-stage, two-sex life table traits at four constant temperatures (15, 20, 25 and 30 °C). The life cycle of was significantly longer at 15 °C. The 20 °C level of temperature was found optimal for fecundity, gross reproductive rate (51.74 offspring) and net reproductive rate (44.35 offspring per individual). The adult pre-oviposition period was statistically at par at all four level of temperatures. However, the survival was maximum at 20 °C as compared to other three temperature ranges. Based on the current study, it was concluded that temperature has a great role in population build-up of and effective management tactics should be applied to prevent significant damage to cabbage and other cruciferous crops when the temperature in the field is near 20 °C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.08.026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6864165PMC
November 2019

Pollination biology of (L.) Benth. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) with reference to insect floral visitors.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2019 Nov 4;26(7):1548-1552. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Statistics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan.

Indian siris, (L.) Benth. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) has significant importance to human beings for its multipurpose use. Insects play a crucial role in the pollination biology of flowering plants. In the current study, we studied the pollination biology of with special reference to insect floral visitors. The effectiveness of floral visitors was investigated in term of visitation frequency, visitation rate and pollen load during 2012 and 2013. In the second experiment, effect of pollinators on yield of was studied in open and cage pollination experiments. Floral visitor fauna of included eight-bees, two wasps, two flies, and two butterflies species. Among them, , , and had maximum abundance ranging from 349-492, 339-428, 291-342 and 235-255 numbers of individuals, respectively during two flowering seasons. had the highest visitation frequency (6.44 ± 0.49-8.78 ± 0.48 visits/flower/5min) followed by (6.03 ± 0.43-7.99 ± 0.33 visits/flower/5min) and (3.61 ± 0.31-4.44 ± 0.18 visits/flower/5min). , and had the highest visitation rates (18.904 ± 1.53-11.43 ± 1.17 flower visited/min) and pollen load (15333 ± 336.22-19243 ± 648.45 pollen grains). The open pollinated flowers had significantly higher capsule weight (4.97 ± 0.21 g), seed weight (1.04 ± 0.05 g), seed numbers per pod (9.80 ± 0.34) and seed germination percentage (84.0 ± 1.78%) as compared to caged flowers. The results suggested bees especially , and could be effective pollinators of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.12.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6864188PMC
November 2019

Effect of short-term cold temperature stress on development, survival and reproduction of Dysdercus koenigii (Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae).

Cryobiology 2020 02 30;92:47-52. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Red cotton bug Dysdercus koenigii F. (Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae), is found destructive pest in various cotton growing areas. Under natural conditions insects are highly subjected to thermal stresses. In present work the developmental duration and survival rate of all immature stages, adult longevity and reproduction of D. koenigii by exposed to rapid changes in very low temperatures were studied. When 3 h short-stress of low temperatures (12-0 °C) was given to different stages of D. koenigii, the results revealed that survival rate of all stages were significantly reduced. Survival rate of female was significantly higher than male after exposed to cold temperature stress. Mating percentage, fecundity and hatching percentage were decreased significantly with the decrease of short-term cold temperature stress. Based on these results, we concluded that the developmental duration, survival rate and reproduction of D. koenigii significantly affected when they exposed to short term cold temperature stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cryobiol.2019.09.015DOI Listing
February 2020

Chemical control of polyphagous pests on their auxiliary hosts can minimize insecticide resistance: A case study of Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in cotton agroecosystem.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Apr 16;171:721-727. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.

Use of insecticides for agricultural pest management have significant environmental impacts. Using integrated approaches to minimize the frequency of insecticide application by incorporating cultural control tactics can keep environmental hazards to the minimum. The alternate hosts of polyphagous pests have significant role in population development and success of chemical control. Spodoptera exigua Hübner is a polyphagous insect pest of frequently cultivated crops (castor, cauliflower, okra and spinach) in cotton agroecosystem of Pakistan. Since the timeline of cultivation of these crops coincide and the field are often adjoining, S. exigua therefore keeps on migrating from one crop to the other both in winter and summer. Such shifting has a significant effect on the susceptibility of the larvae against the commonly used insecticides. To reveal these effects, toxicity of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were tested against the larvae fed on their natal hosts, then shifted to their auxiliary hosts and finally upon their reversal to the natal host. Results have demonstrated that resistance of S. exigua decreased significantly when the populations are cultured on a single host in the laboratory. Field population collected from castor crop demonstrated the highest decrease in resistance ratios against chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin (i.e., 210- and 403-folds, respectively) compared to its field population. Moreover, alternation of generations among cotton and alternate crops, in general, decreased the resistance against chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin. But when these populations return to cotton again, their resistance has been found to be increased significantly. A similar but more obvious change in resistance ratio is observed when the pest population from cotton hosts is fed on spinach (a host available in the later developmental stages of cotton) and vice versa upon their return to cotton. Hence it is suggested that for effective management of S. exigua a continual routine of pest control on available alternate hosts, especially castor and spinach should be administered at critical stages of cotton crop development, i.e. early seedling stage and the late fruiting stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.01.038DOI Listing
April 2019

Activity of acetylcholinesterase and acid and alkaline phosphatases in different insecticide-treated Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Aug 1;25(23):22903-22910. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan.

Helicoverpa armigera is a major devastating insect pest on a wide range of vegetables and cash crops. Insecticides are presently indispensable for its control in nearly all crops. H. armigera has acquired resistance against almost all insecticides because of the activity of detoxification enzymes used for the defensive mechanism. The current research was carried out to evaluate the activity of detoxification enzymes, i.e., acetylcholinesterase and alkaline and acid phosphatases in chlorpyrifos-, bifenthrin-, lufenuron-, lambda cyhalothrin-, and emamectin benzoate-treated larvae of H. armigera. The maximum AChE activity was recorded in emamectin benzoate-treated larval samples followed by chlorpyrifos, lufenuron, lambda cyhalothrin and bifenthrin, respectively, while the highest alkaline phosphatases' activity was recorded in emamectin and the lowest in bifenthrin-treated H. armigera. As far as acid phosphatases' activity is concerned, the highest activity was noted in lufenuron samples while the lowest in lambda cyhalothrin samples, respectively. Comparatively, activities of alkaline and acid phosphatases were higher than AChE. The elevated activities of detoxification enzymes can possibly lead to increase in resistance development against synthetic chemical insecticides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2394-3DOI Listing
August 2018