Publications by authors named "Syed Muddassar Hussain Gilani"

3 Publications

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Comparative analysis of chicken cecal microbial diversity and taxonomic composition in response to dietary variation using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

The Karachi Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (KIBGE), University of Karachi, Karachi, 75270, Pakistan.

Background: Antibiotic resistance poses a grave threat to One-Health. By replacing antibiotics with non-antibiotic additives (are alternatives to antibiotics, ATAs) like phytogenic feed additives and organic acids in poultry feed. ATAs are a potential alternative as these decline the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria and strengthen gut function in broiler chickens. In this study, we use 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of the V3-V4 region to evaluate phytogenic feed additives and organic acids on the cecal microbial diversity of broiler chickens.

Methods And Results: Two hundred & forty broiler chicks were divided into five treatments comprising: a controlled basal diet (CON), antibiotic group (AB), phytogenic feed additives (PHY), organic acids (ORG), and a combination of PHY + ORG (COM). A distinctive microbial community structure was observed amongst different treatments with increased microbial diversity in AB, ORG, and COM (p < 0.05). The synergistic effects of PHY and ORG increased bacterial population of phyla: Firmicutes, Bacteroides, and Proteobacteria in the cecum. The presence of species, Akkermansia muciniphila (involved in mucin degradation) and Bacillus safensis (a probiotic bacterium) were noticed in COM and PHY, respectively. Clustering analysis revealed a higher relative abundance of similar microbial community composition between AB and ORG groups.

Conclusions: Treatments with PHY and ORG modified the relative abundance and presence/absence of specific microbiota in the chicken cecum. Hence, cecal microbiota modulation through diet is a promising strategy to reduce cross-contamination of zoonotic poultry pathogens, led to healthy and economical broiler meat.
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September 2021

Growth performance, intestinal histomorphology, gut microflora and ghrelin gene expression analysis of broiler by supplementing natural growth promoters: A nutrigenomics approach.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jun 13;28(6):3438-3447. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

In an epoch of escalating number of antibiotic-resistance bacteria, there is a dire need to develop efficient and novel feeding strategies for animal nutrition as alternatives to antibiotics. Here, implicating nutrigenomic approach, phytobiotics and organic acids were used to evaluate ghrelin gene expression levels, gut microflora composition, performance parameters and intestinal histomorphological changes in broiler chickens. One-day-old chicks (n = 315) were reared for 42 days and distributed randomly into five experimental groups; each with three replicates (21 birds per replicate). Experimental groups were control: basal diet only, antimicrobial growth promoter: 40 g/metric ton of basal diet (virginiamycin), organic acids: 4 kg/metric ton of basal diet, phytobiotics: 3 kg/metric ton of basal diet, combination: 7 kg/metric ton of basal diet (organic acids 4 kg and phytobiotics 3 kg metric ton of feed). Growth performance, histological and ghrelin gene expression analysis were executed on 21 and 42 days while, quantitative bacterial analysis of cecum and ileum was performed on day 42. Increased feed intake and body weight () were noticed in phytobiotics group. Addition of phytobiotics significantly improved () villus height and ratio of villus height/crypt depth in ileum, jejunum, and duodenum and down-regulated ghrelin gene expression levels. Total coliform and in cecal and ileal digesta were decreased significantly () in organic acids group. Correlation analysis revealed spp. were positively correlated to villus height/crypt depth ration in duodenum. The findings indicated the importance of gene-nutrient-microbiota interactions based on nutrigenomics approach. Hence, phytobiotics and organic acids might be suitable alternatives to antibiotics for improved performance and immunity, along with healthier meat production in poultry.
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June 2021

Enhanced modulation of gut microbial dynamics affecting body weight in birds triggered by natural growth promoters administered in conventional feed.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Oct 24;27(10):2747-2755. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Karachi Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

This study explored the effects of natural growth promoters (phytogenic feed additives and organic acids) on animal performance, carcass characteristics, blood parameters, gut microflora composition, and microbe-host interactions in broiler chickens over a 42-day feeding period. Two-hundred-fifty-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to one of five treatments: (i) control diets (CON); (ii) control diets + 40 g/tons antibiotic growth promoter (AB); (iii) control diets + 3 kg/tons organic acids (ORG); (iv) control diets + 3 kg/tons phytogenic feed additives (PHY); (v) control diets + 3 kg/tons organic acids + phytogenic feed additive combination (COM). A non-significant differences ( > ) were observed in broiler performance among treatments at 21 days of age; however, a gradually increasing body weight gain and reduced feed conversion ratio were observed at 42 days in treatments versus control group. Biochemical indices were non-significant ( > ) except for decreased cholesterol ( < ) and increased A/G ratio ( < ) recorded in the treatment groups. The addition of PHY and ORG improved total counts of spp. and spp. ( < ) as well as reduced caecal and ileal spp. and ( < ). Correlation analysis elucidated beneficial bacteria ( spp. and spp.) were positively and pathogenic bacteria ( spp. and ) were negatively correlated ( < ) with host weight gain. The findings indicated that dietary supplementation of PHY and ORG sustained balanced gut microflora, which in turn improved body weight. This study broadens the significance of using PHY and ORG as safe alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters for achieving healthier and economical broiler production.
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October 2020