Publications by authors named "Swathi U Lekshmi"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism-based Genotyping of from Autopsy-Proven Cases of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-associated Cerebral Toxoplasmosis.

Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2018 Oct-Dec;21(4):250-255

Department of Microbiology, Kidwai Cancer Institute, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Context: Published data on genetic characterization of () from clinical cases of toxoplasmosis from India is lacking.

Aims: The present study was aimed at identifying genetic types of in fatal cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis (CT) associated with HIV, from India.

Settings And Design: Archived tissues of CT were obtained postmortem from 25 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients between 2000 and 2014.

Subjects And Methods: Direct amplification of eight different loci, namely, SAG1, 5'-3'SAG2, Alt. SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, C22-8, and L358 followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to genotype the parasite.

Results: The canonical Types I, II, or III were not found in our study. More than 96% of the cases harbored atypical genotypes-likely recombinants of the canonical types; one case closely corresponded to Type II genotype.

Conclusions: Thus, a majority of causing CT in South India belonged to a noncanonical lineage. These nonarchetypal genotypes differed from the conventional Types I, II, and III and caused devastating severity in patients with CT in the background of HIV. These results are a step further to deciphering the population genetics of this important zoonotic parasitic infection in Indian patients, information that has thus far been lacking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/aian.AIAN_358_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6238572PMC
December 2018

Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from autopsy proven cases of AIDS associated cerebral toxoplasmosis in South India.

Infect Genet Evol 2016 Apr 21;39:106-112. Epub 2016 Jan 21.

Department of Microbiology, Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Dr. M. H. Marigowda Road, Bangalore 560029, India. Electronic address:

Toxoplasma gondii (T.gondii) infection can be devastating in the immunodeficient causing high morbidity and mortality. Due to limited availability of both diagnostic facilities and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), toxoplasmosis continues to be a significant problem amongst Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients in India. While scanty literature is available on T. gondii isolates in animals in India, little is known about the genetic diversity of the parasite in humans. Therefore, the present study investigated the genetic diversity of T. gondii in 25 confirmed cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis developing on the background of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection/AIDS. PCR DNA sequencing was performed at four important genetic loci of T. gondii: BTUB, GRA6, alternative SAG2 (alt SAG2) and SAG3 on DNA from tissues obtained at postmortem. The amplified products from all the cases were successfully sequenced except at one locus for one case. Results of the present study suggest that majority of the patients (22/25; 88%) in South India are infected with strains that are recombinants of type II/III and/or strains representing T. gondii different from the archetypal lineages I, II, and III. In addition, clonal types III, MAS, and MAS variant genotypes were encountered. No clonal type I or II was seen in the present study. In addition, variants were observed at alt SAG2 and SAG3 but BTUB and GRA6 were highly conserved. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were observed mainly at two loci which are coding for surface antigens at alt SAG2 and SAG3. In conclusion, the present study reveals genetic diversity in India amongst strains of T. gondii from clinical cases of toxoplasmosis which is in accordance with other recent studies showing a high rate of genetic diversity in this parasite across the globe. There is a need to genotype T. gondii from different forms of toxoplasmosis in humans in India.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2016.01.014DOI Listing
April 2016

AFN-1252 is a potent inhibitor of enoyl-ACP reductase from Burkholderia pseudomallei--Crystal structure, mode of action, and biological activity.

Protein Sci 2015 May 2;24(5):832-40. Epub 2015 Apr 2.

Aurigene Discovery Technologies Ltd, 39-40, KIADB Industrial area, Electronic city Phase II, Hosur Road, Bangalore, 560 100, India.

Melioidosis is a tropical bacterial infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei (B. pseudomallei; Bpm), a Gram-negative bacterium. Current therapeutic options are largely limited to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and β-lactam drugs, and the treatment duration is about 4 months. Moreover, resistance has been reported to these drugs. Hence, there is a pressing need to develop new antibiotics for Melioidosis. Inhibition of enoyl-ACP reducatase (FabI), a key enzyme in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway has shown significant promise for antibacterial drug development. FabI has been identified as the major enoyl-ACP reductase present in B. pseudomallei. In this study, we evaluated AFN-1252, a Staphylococcus aureus FabI inhibitor currently in clinical development, for its potential to bind to BpmFabI enzyme and inhibit B. pseudomallei bacterial growth. AFN-1252 stabilized BpmFabI and inhibited the enzyme activity with an IC50 of 9.6 nM. It showed good antibacterial activity against B. pseudomallei R15 strain, isolated from a melioidosis patient (MIC of 2.35 mg/L). X-ray structure of BpmFabI with AFN-1252 was determined at a resolution of 2.3 Å. Complex of BpmFabI with AFN-1252 formed a symmetrical tetrameric structure with one molecule of AFN-1252 bound to each monomeric subunit. The kinetic and thermal melting studies supported the finding that AFN-1252 can bind to BpmFabI independent of cofactor. The structural and mechanistic insights from these studies might help the rational design and development of new FabI inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pro.2655DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4420531PMC
May 2015

A regioselective multicomponent protocol for the synthesis of novel bioactive 4-hydroxyquinolin-2(1H)-one grafted monospiropyrrolidine and thiapyrrolizidine hybrids.

Mol Divers 2014 May 14;18(2):269-83. Epub 2014 Jan 14.

School of Chemical Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, 641046, Tamilnadu, India.

An expedient route toward the synthesis of 4-hydroxyquinolone grafted spiropyrrolidines or pyrrolizidines has been accomplished through 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of various azomethine ylides derived from isatin or acenaphthalene and sarcosine with 4-hydroxyquinolone derivatives as dipolarophile. The regio and stereo chemical outcome of the cycloaddition reaction is ascertained by X-ray crystallographic studies and spectroscopic techniques of the cycloadducts. Furthermore, cytotoxicity evaluation of selected compounds showed significant inhibition of cell proliferation against cervical as well as colon cancer cell lines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11030-013-9498-yDOI Listing
May 2014

Upregulation of DR5 receptor by the diaminothiazole DAT1 [4-amino-5-benzoyl-2-(4-methoxy phenyl amino) thiazole] triggers an independent extrinsic pathway of apoptosis in colon cancer cells with compromised pro and antiapoptotic proteins.

Apoptosis 2013 Jun;18(6):713-26

Division of Cancer Research, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Trivandrum 695014, India.

Mitochondria mediated signalling is the more common way of apoptosis induction exhibited by many chemotherapeutic agents in cancer cells. Death receptor mediated signalling for apoptosis in many cells also requires further amplification from the mitochondrial pathway activation through tBid. Thus the potential of most chemotherapeutic agents in tumours with intrinsic apoptosis resistance due to changes in molecules involved in the mitochondrial pathway is limited. Diaminothiazoles were shown earlier to bind to tubulin thereby exhibiting cytotoxicity towards different cancer cells. We observed that the lead diaminothiazole, DAT1 [4-amino-5-benzoyl-2-(4-methoxy phenyl amino) thiazole] could induce apoptosis in the colon cancer cell line HCT116 by both pathways. However, in contrast to many other chemotherapeutic agents, DAT1 triggered apoptosis where the intrinsic pathway was blocked by changing the pro and antiapoptotic proteins. An independent extrinsic pathway activation triggered by the upregulation of DR5 receptor accounted for that. The induction of DR5 occurred in the transcriptional level and the essential role of DR5 was confirmed by the fact that siRNA downregulation of DR5 significantly reduced DAT1 induced apoptosis. HCT116 cells were earlier shown to have a type II response for apoptosis induction where extrinsic pathway was connected to the intrinsic pathway via the mediator protein tBid. Our finding thus indicates that the signalling events in the manifestation of apoptosis depend not only on the cancer cell type, but also on the inducer. Our results also place diaminothiazoles in a promising position in the treatment of tumours with compromised apoptotic factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10495-013-0826-6DOI Listing
June 2013

Endoplasmic reticulum targeted Bcl2 confers long term cell survival through phosphorylation of heat shock protein 27.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2010 Dec 26;42(12):1984-92. Epub 2010 Aug 26.

Integrated Cancer Research, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Poojappura, Thycaud PO, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695014, India.

Overexpression of anti-apoptotic Bcl2 family proteins is often seen in cancers rendering them insensitive to apoptosis inducing anticancer strategies. Anti-apoptotic Bcl2 family proteins are associated with different organelles like mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and exert their anti-apoptotic activity by inhibiting the release of Cyt.C from mitochondria irrespective of its localization. Here, we have identified a long term survival function for Bcl2 targeted at ER in mammalian system compared to wild type Bcl2 that is mediated by enhanced phosphorylation of heat shock protein 27 at ser 15, 78 and 82 sites with inhibition of caspase9 activity. Phosphorylation of hsp27 was prevented and the survival of ER-Bcl2 cells was reversed by inhibiting p38 and MEK suggesting that these kinases can act as the upstream targets for hsp27 phosphorylation. The results suggest that Bcl2 possess additional survival function in the regulation of apoptosis which is primarily regulated by its association with the ER in an hsp27 dependent manner. The interplay of both hsp27 and ER-Bcl2 in providing long term survival to cancer cells is interesting since both of these proteins are overexpressed in tumors with aggressive phenotype. The results suggest that spatial localization of Bcl2 family proteins also play a key role in long term survival of cancers indicating another level of functional regulation of Bcl2 in cancer cell survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2010.08.011DOI Listing
December 2010

Bax deficiency mediated drug resistance can be reversed by endoplasmic reticulum stress induced death signaling.

Biochem Pharmacol 2010 Jun 4;79(11):1589-99. Epub 2010 Feb 4.

Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Jagathy, Poojappura, Trivandrum, Kerala, India.

Tumors often acquire drug resistance due to functional loss of pro apoptotic gene Bax, a critical and essential component of cell death rendering them insensitive to most anti-tumor agents. Compounds that can induce Bax independent apoptotic cell death are expected to overcome such drug resistance. We have employed a live cell based screening platform to identify potential compounds that can induce programmed cell death in Bax deficiency. Release of cytochrome C from mitochondria into the cytosol is a decisive initial event required for the caspase dependent cell death. We have engineered both wild type and Bax knock out colon cancer cells stably expressing cytochrome C with EGFP fusion protein to identify compounds that can trigger cytochrome C release in both cells with equal efficiency. In the fluorescent translocation assay, most of the drugs tested failed to induce cytochrome C release in Bax deficient cells validating the sensitivity of the assay. This study identified five lead compounds such as thapsigargin, tunicamycine, MG132, kaempferol and camptothecin that could induce cytochrome C release in both wild type and Bax deficient cells with equal potency. All the positive hits induced ER stress signaling as evidenced by up-regulation of Grp78. Studies with a Bak deficient cells indicate that Bak deficiency confers protection to cells from ER stress through autophagy. Further studies revealed that ER stress inducing agents are capable of triggering classical mitochondrial apoptotic cell death through the conformational activation of Bak, substantiating the potential of this pathway in designing drugs against Bax deficiency mediated drug resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2010.01.032DOI Listing
June 2010
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