Publications by authors named "Svetlana Turcan"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Acid suppression therapy, gastrointestinal bleeding and infection in acute pancreatitis - An international cohort study.

Pancreatology 2020 Oct 22;20(7):1323-1331. Epub 2020 Aug 22.

Institute for Translational Medicine, Medical School, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.

Background: Acid suppressing drugs (ASD) are generally used in acute pancreatitis (AP); however, large cohorts are not available to understand their efficiency and safety. Therefore, our aims were to evaluate the association between the administration of ASDs, the outcome of AP, the frequency of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and GI infection in patients with AP.

Methods: We initiated an international survey and performed retrospective data analysis on AP patients hospitalized between January 2013 and December 2018.

Results: Data of 17,422 adult patients with AP were collected from 59 centers of 23 countries. We found that 23.3% of patients received ASDs before and 86.6% during the course of AP. ASDs were prescribed to 57.6% of patients at discharge. ASD administration was associated with more severe AP and higher mortality. GI bleeding was reported in 4.7% of patients, and it was associated with pancreatitis severity, mortality and ASD therapy. Stool culture test was performed in 6.3% of the patients with 28.4% positive results. Clostridium difficile was the cause of GI infection in 60.5% of cases. Among the patients with GI infections, 28.9% received ASDs, whereas 24.1% were without any acid suppression treatment. GI infection was associated with more severe pancreatitis and higher mortality.

Conclusions: Although ASD therapy is widely used, it is unlikely to have beneficial effects either on the outcome of AP or on the prevention of GI bleeding during AP. Therefore, ASD therapy should be substantially decreased in the therapeutic management of AP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2020.08.009DOI Listing
October 2020

The use of 5-aminosalicylate for patients with Crohn's disease in a prospective European inception cohort with 5 years follow-up - an Epi-IBD study.

United European Gastroenterol J 2020 10 26;8(8):949-960. Epub 2020 Jul 26.

Hull University Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Hull, UK.

Background: The lack of scientific evidence regarding the effectiveness of 5-aminosalicylate in patients with Crohn's disease is in sharp contrast to its widespread use in clinical practice.

Aims: The aim of the study was to investigate the use of 5-aminosalicylate in patients with Crohn's disease as well as the disease course of a subgroup of patients who were treated with 5-aminosalicylate as maintenance monotherapy during the first year of disease.

Methods: In a European community-based inception cohort, 488 patients with Crohn's disease were followed from the time of their diagnosis. Information on clinical data, demographics, disease activity, medical therapy and rates of surgery, cancers and deaths was collected prospectively. Patient management was left to the discretion of the treating gastroenterologists.

Results: Overall, 292 (60%) patients with Crohn's disease received 5-aminosalicylate period during follow-up for a median duration of 28 months (interquartile range 6-60). Of these, 78 (16%) patients received 5-aminosalicylate monotherapy during the first year following diagnosis. Patients who received monotherapy with 5-aminosalicylate experienced a mild disease course with only nine (12%) who required hospitalization, surgery, or developed stricturing or penetrating disease, and most never needed more intensive therapy. The remaining 214 patients were treated with 5-aminosalicylate as the first maintenance drug although most eventually needed to step up to other treatments including immunomodulators (75 (35%)), biological therapy (49 (23%)) or surgery (38 (18%)).

Conclusion: In this European community-based inception cohort of unselected Crohn's disease patients, 5-aminosalicylate was commonly used. A substantial group of these patients experienced a quiescent disease course without need of additional treatment during follow-up. Therefore, despite the controversy regarding the efficacy of 5-aminosalicylate in Crohn's disease, its use seems to result in a satisfying disease course for both patients and physicians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2050640620945949DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7707880PMC
October 2020

Health-care costs of inflammatory bowel disease in a pan-European, community-based, inception cohort during 5 years of follow-up: a population-based study.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 05 13;5(5):454-464. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Hull University Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Hull, UK; Hull York Medical School, Hull, UK.

Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) places a significant burden on health-care systems because of its chronicity and need for expensive therapies and surgery. With increasing use of biological therapies, contemporary data on IBD health-care costs are important for those responsible for allocating resources in Europe. To our knowledge, no prospective long-term analysis of the health-care costs of patients with IBD in the era of biologicals has been done in Europe. We aimed to investigate cost profiles of a pan-European, community-based inception cohort during 5 years of follow-up.

Methods: The Epi-IBD cohort is a community-based, prospective inception cohort of unselected patients with IBD diagnosed in 2010 at centres in 20 European countries plus Israel. Incident patients who were diagnosed with IBD according to the Copenhagen Diagnostic Criteria between Jan 1, and Dec 31, 2010, and were aged 15 years or older the time of diagnosis were prospectively included. Data on clinical characteristics and direct costs (investigations and outpatient visits, blood tests, treatments, hospitalisations, and surgeries) were collected prospectively using electronic case-report forms. Patient-level costs incorporated procedures leading to the initial diagnosis of IBD and costs of IBD management during the 5-year follow-up period. Costs incurred by comorbidities and unrelated to IBD were excluded. We grouped direct costs into the following five categories: investigations (including outpatient visits and blood tests), conventional medical treatment, biological therapy, hospitalisation, and surgery.

Findings: The study population consisted of 1289 patients with IBD, with 1073 (83%) patients from western Europe and 216 (17%) from eastern Europe. 488 (38%) patients had Crohn's disease, 717 (56%) had ulcerative colitis, and 84 (6%) had IBD unclassified. The mean cost per patient-year during follow-up for patients with IBD was €2609 (SD 7389; median €446 [IQR 164-1849]). The mean cost per patient-year during follow-up was €3542 (8058; median €717 [214-3512]) for patients with Crohn's disease, €2088 (7058; median €408 [133-1161]) for patients with ulcerative colitis, and €1609 (5010; median €415 [92-1228]) for patients with IBD unclassified (p<0·0001). Costs were highest in the first year and then decreased significantly during follow-up. Hospitalisations and diagnostic procedures accounted for more than 50% of costs during the first year. However, in subsequent years there was a steady increase in expenditure on biologicals, which accounted for 73% of costs in Crohn's disease and 48% in ulcerative colitis, in year 5. The mean annual cost per patient-year for biologicals was €866 (SD 3056). The mean yearly costs of biological therapy were higher in patients with Crohn's disease (€1782 [SD 4370]) than in patients with ulcerative colitis (€286 [1427]) or IBD unclassified (€521 [2807]; p<0·0001).

Interpretation: Overall direct expenditure on health care decreased over a 5-year follow-up period. This period was characterised by increasing expenditure on biologicals and decreasing expenditure on conventional medical treatments, hospitalisations, and surgeries. In light of the expenditures associated with biological therapy, cost-effective treatment strategies are needed to reduce the economic burden of inflammatory bowel disease.

Funding: Kirsten og Freddy Johansens Fond and Nordsjællands Hospital Forskningsråd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30012-1DOI Listing
May 2020

Disease course of inflammatory bowel disease unclassified in a European population-based inception cohort: An Epi-IBD study.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Jun 21;34(6):996-1003. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.

Background And Aim: A definitive diagnosis of Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) is not always possible, and a proportion of patients will be diagnosed as inflammatory bowel disease unclassified (IBDU). The aim of the study was to investigate the prognosis of patients initially diagnosed with IBDU and the disease course during the following 5 years.

Methods: The Epi-IBD study is a prospective population-based cohort of 1289 IBD patients diagnosed in centers across Europe. Clinical data were captured prospectively throughout the follow-up period.

Results: Overall, 476 (37%) patients were initially diagnosed with CD, 701 (54%) with UC, and 112 (9%) with IBDU. During follow-up, 28 (25%) IBDU patients were changed diagnoses to either UC (n = 20, 71%) or CD (n = 8, 29%) after a median of 6 months (interquartile range: 4-12), while 84 (7% of the total cohort) remained IBDU. A total of 17 (15%) IBDU patients were hospitalized for their IBD during follow-up, while 8 (7%) patients underwent surgery. Most surgeries (n = 6, 75%) were performed on patients whose diagnosis was later changed to UC; three of these colectomies led to a definitive diagnosis of UC. Most patients (n = 107, 96%) received 5-aminosalicylic acid, while 11 (10%) patients received biologicals, of whom five remained classified as IBDU.

Conclusions: In a population-based inception cohort, 7% of IBD patients were not given a definitive diagnosis of IBD after 5 years of follow-up. One in four patients with IBDU eventually was classified as CD or UC. Overall, the disease course and medication burden in IBDU patients were mild.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.14563DOI Listing
June 2019

Natural Disease Course of Ulcerative Colitis During the First Five Years of Follow-up in a European Population-based Inception Cohort-An Epi-IBD Study.

J Crohns Colitis 2019 Feb;13(2):198-208

IBD Clinical and Research Centre, ISCARE, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background And Aims: Few population-based cohort studies have assessed the disease course of ulcerative colitis [UC] in the era of biological therapy and widespread use of immunomodulators. The aim of this study was to assess the 5-year outcome and disease course of patients with UC in the Epi-IBD cohort.

Methods: In a prospective, population-based inception cohort of unselected patients with UC, patients were followed up from the time of their diagnosis, which included the collection of their clinical data, demographics, disease activity, medical therapy, and rates of surgery, cancers, and deaths. Associations between outcomes and multiple covariates were analysed by Cox regression analysis.

Results: A total of 717 patients were included in the study. During follow-up, 43 [6%] patients underwent a colectomy and 163 [23%] patients were hospitalised. Of patients with limited colitis [distal to the left flexure], 90 [21%] progressed to extensive colitis. In addition, 92 [27%] patients with extensive colitis experienced a regression in disease extent, which was associated with a reduced risk of hospitalisation (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.5 95% CI: 0.3-0.8]. Overall, patients were treated similarly in both geographical regions; 80 [11%] patients needed biological therapy and 210 [29%] patients received immunomodulators. Treatment with immunomodulators was found to reduce the risk of hospitalisation [HR: 0.5 95% CI: 0.3-0.8].

Conclusions: Although patients in this population-based cohort were treated more aggressively with immunomodulators and biological therapy than in cohorts from the previous two decades, their disease outcomes, including colectomy rates, were no different. However, treatment with immunomodulators was found to reduce the risk of hospitalisation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjy154DOI Listing
February 2019

Natural disease course of Crohn's disease during the first 5 years after diagnosis in a European population-based inception cohort: an Epi-IBD study.

Gut 2019 03 23;68(3):423-433. Epub 2018 Jan 23.

IBD Clinical and Research Centre, ISCARE, Prague, Czech Republic.

Objective: The Epi-IBD cohort is a prospective population-based inception cohort of unselected patients with inflammatory bowel disease from 29 European centres covering a background population of almost 10 million people. The aim of this study was to assess the 5-year outcome and disease course of patients with Crohn's disease (CD).

Design: Patients were followed up prospectively from the time of diagnosis, including collection of their clinical data, demographics, disease activity, medical therapy, surgery, cancers and deaths. Associations between outcomes and multiple covariates were analysed by Cox regression analysis.

Results: In total, 488 patients were included in the study. During follow-up, 107 (22%) patients received surgery, while 176 (36%) patients were hospitalised because of CD. A total of 49 (14%) patients diagnosed with non-stricturing, non-penetrating disease progressed to either stricturing and/or penetrating disease. These rates did not differ between patients from Western and Eastern Europe. However, significant geographic differences were noted regarding treatment: more patients in Western Europe received biological therapy (33%) and immunomodulators (66%) than did those in Eastern Europe (14% and 54%, respectively, P<0.01), while more Eastern European patients received 5-aminosalicylates (90% vs 56%, P<0.05). Treatment with immunomodulators reduced the risk of surgery (HR: 0.4, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.6) and hospitalisation (HR: 0.3, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.5).

Conclusion: Despite patients being treated early and frequently with immunomodulators and biological therapy in Western Europe, 5-year outcomes including surgery and phenotype progression in this cohort were comparable across Western and Eastern Europe. Differences in treatment strategies between Western and Eastern European centres did not affect the disease course. Treatment with immunomodulators reduced the risk of surgery and hospitalisation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2017-315568DOI Listing
March 2019

Occurrence of Anaemia in the First Year of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in a European Population-based Inception Cohort-An ECCO-EpiCom Study.

J Crohns Colitis 2017 Oct;11(10):1213-1222

Institute for Digestive Research, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.

Background And Aims: Anaemia is an important complication of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia and the practice of anaemia screening during the first year following diagnosis, in a European prospective population-based inception cohort.

Methods: Newly diagnosed IBD patients were included and followed prospectively for 1 year in 29 European and one Australian centre. Clinical data including demographics, medical therapy, surgery and blood samples were collected. Anaemia was defined according to the World Health Organization criteria.

Results: A total of 1871 patients (Crohn's disease [CD]: 686, 88%; ulcerative colitis [UC]: 1,021, 87%; IBD unclassified [IBDU] 164. 81%) were included in the study. The prevalence of anaemia was higher in CD than in UC patients and, overall, 49% of CD and 39% of UC patients experienced at least one instance of anaemia during the first 12 months after diagnosis. UC patients with more extensive disease and those from Eastern European countries, and CD patients with penetrating disease or colonic disease location, had higher risks of anaemia. CD and UC patients in need of none or only mild anti-inflammatory treatment had a lower risk of anaemia. In a significant proportion of patients, anaemia was not assessed until several months after diagnosis, and in almost half of all cases of anaemia a thorough work-up was not performed.

Conclusions: Overall, 42% of patients had at least one instance of anaemia during the first year following diagnosis. Most patients were assessed for anaemia regularly; however, a full anaemia work-up was frequently neglected in this community setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjx077DOI Listing
October 2017

Polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genes in Moldavian patients with ulcerative colitis: Genotype-phenotype correlation.

Meta Gene 2016 Feb 10;7:76-82. Epub 2015 Dec 10.

Department of Gastroenterology, State University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Kishinev, Republic of Moldova.

Background: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) are important enzymes for protection against oxidative stress. In addition, MTHFR has an essential role in DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation. Their polymorphisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of selected polymorphisms in these genes in the development of UC in the Moldavian population.

Methods: In a case-control study including 128 UC patients and 136 healthy individuals, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes (polymorphic deletions) were determined using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The GSTP1 rs1695 (Ile105Val), MTHFR rs1801133 (C677T), and MTHFR rs1801131 (A1298C) polymorphisms were studied with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Genotype-phenotype correlations were examined using logistic regression analysis.

Results: None of the genotypes, either alone or in combination, showed a strong association with UC. The case-only sub-phenotypic association analysis showed an association of the MTHFR rs1801133 polymorphism with the extent of UC under co-dominant (p corrected = 0.040) and recessive (p corrected = 0.020; OR = 0.15; CI = 0.04-0.63) genetic models. Also, an association between the MTHFR rs1801131 polymorphism and the severity of UC was reported for the over-dominant model (p corrected = 0.023; coefficient = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.10-0.54).

Conclusion: The GST and MTHFR genotypes do not seem to be a relevant risk factor for UC in our sample. There was, however, evidence that variants in MTHFR may influence the clinical features in UC patients. Additional larger studies investigating the relationship between GST and MTHFR polymorphisms and UC are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mgene.2015.12.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4707243PMC
February 2016

Costs and resource utilization for diagnosis and treatment during the initial year in a European inflammatory bowel disease inception cohort: an ECCO-EpiCom Study.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2015 Jan;21(1):121-31

1Digestive Disease Centre, Medical Section, Herlev University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel; 3Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital Center Zagreb, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia; 4Private Practice, Nicosia, Cyprus; 5IBD Center ISCARE, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; 6Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital České Budějovice, České Budějovice, Czech Republic; 7Department of Medicine, Amager Hospital, Amager, Denmark; 8Department of Medicine, Herning Central Hospital, Herning, Denmark; 9Medical Department, Viborg Regional Hospital, Viborg, Denmark; 10Organ Center, Hospital of Southern Jutland, Aabenraa, Denmark; 11Institute of Regional Health Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark; 12Department of Medicine V (Hepatology and Gastroenterology), Aarhus University Hospital, Arhus, Denmark; 13Department of Medical Gastroenterology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; 14Division of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology, Tartu University Hospital, Tartu, Estonia; 15Medical Department, The National Hospital of the Faroe Islands, Torshavn, Faroe Islands; 16Department of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland; 17First Division of Internal Medicine and Hepato-Gastroenterology Unit, University Hospital, Ioannina, Greece; 18Medical Department, Dronning Ingrids Hospital, Nuuk, Greenland; 19First Department of Medicine, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary; 20Department of Gastroenterology, Adelaide and Meath Hospital, TCD, Dublin, Ireland; 21Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Soroka Medical Center, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel; 22U.O. di Gastroenterologia e Endoscopia Digestiva, Az.Ospedaliera Ospedale Maggiore di Crema, Crema, Italy; 23EpiCom Northern Italy centre based in Crema a

Background: No direct comparison of health care cost in patients with inflammatory bowel disease across the European continent exists. The aim of this study was to assess the costs of investigations and treatment for diagnostics and during the first year after diagnosis in Europe.

Methods: The EpiCom cohort is a prospective population-based inception cohort of unselected inflammatory bowel disease patients from 31 Western and Eastern European centers. Patients were followed every third month from diagnosis, and clinical data regarding treatment and investigations were collected. Costs were calculated in euros (€) using the Danish Health Costs Register.

Results: One thousand three hundred sixty-seven patients were followed, 710 with ulcerative colitis, 509 with Crohn's disease, and 148 with inflammatory bowel disease unclassified. Total expenditure for the cohort was €5,408,174 (investigations: €2,042,990 [38%], surgery: €1,427,648 [26%], biologicals: €781,089 [14%], and standard treatment: €1,156,520 [22%)]). Mean crude expenditure per patient in Western Europe (Eastern Europe) with Crohn's disease: investigations €1803 (€2160) (P = 0.44), surgery €11,489 (€13,973) (P = 0.14), standard treatment €1027 (€824) (P = 0.51), and biologicals €7376 (€8307) (P = 0.31). Mean crude expenditure per patient in Western Europe (Eastern Europe) with ulcerative colitis: investigations €1189 ( €1518) (P < 0.01), surgery €18,414 ( €12,395) (P = 0.18), standard treatment €896 ( €798) (P < 0.05), and biologicals €5681 ( €72) (P = 0.51).

Conclusions: In this population-based unselected cohort, costs during the first year of disease were mainly incurred by investigative procedures and surgeries. However, biologicals accounted for >15% of costs. Long-term follow-up of the cohort is needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of biological agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MIB.0000000000000250DOI Listing
January 2015

Initial disease course and treatment in an inflammatory bowel disease inception cohort in Europe: the ECCO-EpiCom cohort.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2014 Jan;20(1):36-46

1Medical Section, Digestive Disease Centre, Medical Section, Herlev University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital Center Zagreb, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia; 3Nicosia Private Practice, Nicosia, Cyprus; 4IBD Center ISCARE, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; 5Gastroenterology Department, Hospital České Budějovice, České Budějovice, Czech Republic; 6Department of Medicine, Amager Hospital, Amager, Denmark; 7Department of Medicine, Herning Central Hospital, Herning, Denmark; 8Medical Department, Viborg Regional Hospital, Viborg, Denmark; 9Medical Department, Hospital of Southern Jutland, Aabenraa, Denmark; 10Institute of Regional Health Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark; 11Department of Medicine V (Hepatology and Gastroenterology), Aarhus University Hospital, Arhus, Denmark; 12Department of Medical Gastroenterology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; 13Division of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology, Tartu University Hospital, Tartu, Estonia; 14Medical Department, The National Hospital of the Faroe Islands, Torshavn, Faroe Islands; 15Department of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland; 161st Division of Internal Medicine and Hepato-Gastroenterology Unit, University Hospital, Ioannina, Greece; 17Medical Department, Dronning Ingrids Hospital, Nuuk, Greenland; 18Department of Medicine, Csolnoky F. Province Hospital, Veszprem, Hungary; 19Department of Gastroenterology, Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Trinity College of Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 20Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Soroka Medical Center and Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel; 21U.O. Gastroenterologia, Azienda Ospedaliera, Università di Padova, Padova, Italy; 22EpiCom Northern Italy Centre based in Crema & Cremona, Padova and Reggio Emilia, Italy; 23UO Medicina 3° e Gastroenterologia, Azie

Background: The EpiCom cohort is a prospective, population-based, inception cohort of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients from 31 European centers covering a background population of 10.1 million. The aim of this study was to assess the 1-year outcome in the EpiCom cohort.

Methods: Patients were followed-up every third month during the first 12 (±3) months, and clinical data, demographics, disease activity, medical therapy, surgery, cancers, and deaths were collected and entered in a Web-based database (www.epicom-ecco.eu).

Results: In total, 1367 patients were included in the 1-year follow-up. In western Europe, 65 Crohn's disease (CD) (16%), 20 ulcerative colitis (UC) (4%), and 4 IBD unclassified (4%) patients underwent surgery, and in eastern Europe, 12 CD (12%) and 2 UC (1%) patients underwent surgery. Eighty-one CD (20%), 80 UC (14%), and 13 (9%) IBD unclassified patients were hospitalized in western Europe compared with 17 CD (16%) and 12 UC (8%) patients in eastern Europe. The cumulative probability of receiving immunomodulators was 57% for CD in western (median time to treatment 2 months) and 44% (1 month) in eastern Europe, and 21% (5 months) and 5% (6 months) for biological therapy, respectively. For UC patients, the cumulative probability was 22% (4 months) and 15% (3 months) for immunomodulators and 6% (3 months) and 1% (12 months) for biological therapy, respectively in the western and eastern Europe.

Discussion: In this cohort, immunological therapy was initiated within the first months of disease. Surgery and hospitalization rates did not differ between patients from eastern and western Europe, although more western European patients received biological agents and were comparable to previous population-based inception cohorts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.MIB.0000436277.13917.c4DOI Listing
January 2014