Publications by authors named "Sven Bergmann"

197 Publications

Development and comparative evaluation of real-time PCR and real-time RPA assays for detection of tilapia lake virus.

Mol Cell Probes 2021 Dec 3;60:101776. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Molecular Design and Precise Breeding, School of Life Science and Engineering, Foshan University, Foshan, China. Electronic address:

Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) is a newly emerged pathogen responsible for high mortality and economic losses in the global tilapia industry. Early and accurate diagnosis is an important priority for TiLV disease control. In order to evaluate the methodology in the molecular diagnosis of TiLV, we compared newly developed quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and real-time recombinase polymerase amplification (real-time RPA) assays regarding their sensitivities, specificities and detection effect on clinical samples. Real-time RPA amplified the target pathogen in less than 30 min at 39 °C with a detection limit of 620 copies, while qPCR required about 60 min with a detection limit of 62 copies. Both assays were specific for TiLV and there were no cross-reactions observed with other common fish pathogens. The assays were validated using 35 tissue samples from clinically infected and 60 from artificially infected animals. The sensitivities for the real-time RPA and qPCR assays were 93.33 and 100%, respectively, and the specificity was 100% for both. Both methods have their advantages and can play their roles in different situations. The qPCR is more suitable for quantitative analysis and accurate detection of TiLV in a diagnostic laboratory, whereas real-time RPA is more suitable for the diagnosis of clinical diseases and preliminary screening for TiLV infection in poorly equipped laboratories as well as in fish farms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mcp.2021.101776DOI Listing
December 2021

Untargeted Metabolome- and Transcriptome-Wide Association Study Suggests Causal Genes Modulating Metabolite Concentrations in Urine.

J Proteome Res 2021 Nov 26;20(11):5103-5114. Epub 2021 Oct 26.

Department of Computational Biology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne 1015, Switzerland.

Gene products can affect the concentrations of small molecules (aka "metabolites"), and conversely, some metabolites can modulate the concentrations of gene transcripts. While many specific instances of this interplay have been revealed, a global approach to systematically uncover human gene-metabolite interactions is still lacking. We performed a metabolome- and transcriptome-wide association study to identify genes influencing the human metabolome using untargeted metabolome features, extracted from H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of urine samples, and gene expression levels, quantified from RNA-Seq of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) from 555 healthy individuals. We identified 20 study-wide significant associations corresponding to 15 genes, of which 5 associations (with 2 genes) were confirmed with follow-up NMR data. Using metabomatching, we identified the metabolites corresponding to metabolome features associated with the genes, namely, N-acetylated compounds with and trimethylamine (TMA) with . Finally, Mendelian randomization analysis supported a potential causal link between the expression of genes in both the - and -loci and their associated metabolite concentrations. In the case of , we additionally observed that TMA concentration likely exhibits a reverse causal effect on expression levels, indicating a negative feedback loop. Our study highlights how the integration of metabolomics, gene expression, and genetic data can pinpoint causal genes modulating metabolite concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.1c00585DOI Listing
November 2021

Special Issue "Emerging Viruses in Aquaculture".

Viruses 2021 Sep 6;13(9). Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Institute of Infectology, Friedrich-Loffler-Institut (FLI), Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Greifswald-Insel Riems, 17493 Greifswald, Germany.

According to the 2018 FAO report on aquaculture, there are 598 species of finfish, molluscs, crustaceans, and other organisms used in aquafarming around the world [...].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13091777DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8471660PMC
September 2021

Inosine Substitutions in RNA Activate Latent G-Quadruplexes.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Sep 14;143(37):15120-15130. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland.

It is well-accepted that gene expression is heavily influenced by RNA structure. For instance, stem-loops and G-quadruplexes (rG4s) are dynamic motifs in mRNAs that influence gene expression. Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing is a common chemical modification of RNA which introduces a nucleobase that is -structural with guanine, thereby changing RNA base-pairing properties. Here, we provide biophysical, chemical, and biological evidence that A-to-I exchange can activate latent rG4s by filling incomplete G-quartets with inosine. We demonstrate the formation of inosine-containing rG4s (GI-quadruplexes) and verify their activity in cells. GI-quadruplexes adopt parallel topologies, stabilized by potassium ions. They exhibit moderately reduced thermal stability compared to conventional G-quadruplexes. To study inosine-induced structural changes in a naturally occurring RNA, we use a synthetic approach that enables site-specific inosine incorporation in long RNAs. In summary, RNA GI-quadruplexes are a previously unrecognized structural motif that may contribute to the regulation of gene expression .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c05214DOI Listing
September 2021

Large-scale cis- and trans-eQTL analyses identify thousands of genetic loci and polygenic scores that regulate blood gene expression.

Nat Genet 2021 09 2;53(9):1300-1310. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva Medical School, Geneva, Switzerland.

Trait-associated genetic variants affect complex phenotypes primarily via regulatory mechanisms on the transcriptome. To investigate the genetics of gene expression, we performed cis- and trans-expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses using blood-derived expression from 31,684 individuals through the eQTLGen Consortium. We detected cis-eQTL for 88% of genes, and these were replicable in numerous tissues. Distal trans-eQTL (detected for 37% of 10,317 trait-associated variants tested) showed lower replication rates, partially due to low replication power and confounding by cell type composition. However, replication analyses in single-cell RNA-seq data prioritized intracellular trans-eQTL. Trans-eQTL exerted their effects via several mechanisms, primarily through regulation by transcription factors. Expression of 13% of the genes correlated with polygenic scores for 1,263 phenotypes, pinpointing potential drivers for those traits. In summary, this work represents a large eQTL resource, and its results serve as a starting point for in-depth interpretation of complex phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00913-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8432599PMC
September 2021

Genetic insights into biological mechanisms governing human ovarian ageing.

Nature 2021 08 4;596(7872):393-397. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Genome Integrity and Instability Group, Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain.

Reproductive longevity is essential for fertility and influences healthy ageing in women, but insights into its underlying biological mechanisms and treatments to preserve it are limited. Here we identify 290 genetic determinants of ovarian ageing, assessed using normal variation in age at natural menopause (ANM) in about 200,000 women of European ancestry. These common alleles were associated with clinical extremes of ANM; women in the top 1% of genetic susceptibility have an equivalent risk of premature ovarian insufficiency to those carrying monogenic FMR1 premutations. The identified loci implicate a broad range of DNA damage response (DDR) processes and include loss-of-function variants in key DDR-associated genes. Integration with experimental models demonstrates that these DDR processes act across the life-course to shape the ovarian reserve and its rate of depletion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that experimental manipulation of DDR pathways highlighted by human genetics increases fertility and extends reproductive life in mice. Causal inference analyses using the identified genetic variants indicate that extending reproductive life in women improves bone health and reduces risk of type 2 diabetes, but increases the risk of hormone-sensitive cancers. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms that govern ovarian ageing, when they act, and how they might be targeted by therapeutic approaches to extend fertility and prevent disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03779-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7611832PMC
August 2021

Establishment of a rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) model for evaluation of experimental vaccines against a disease induced by grass carp reovirus genotype II.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Oct 17;117:53-61. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Key Laboratory of Fishery Drug Development of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Key Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Immune Technology of Guangdong Province, Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong, PR China. Electronic address:

Vaccination is the most effective way to control the grass carp haemorrhagic disease (GCHD) with the primary pathogen grass carp reovirus genotype II (GCRV-II). However, due to the large difference in breeding conditions and unclear genetic background of grass carp, the results of the experiment were not reliable, which further hinders the effective prevention and control of GCHD. The rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) is highly sensitive to GCRV. Its small size, easy feeding, transparent egg membrane, and annual spawning are in line with the necessary conditions for an experimental aquatic animals culture object. In this study, immunogenicity and protective effects of attenuated and inactivated viruses for grass carp and rare minnow were evaluated in parallel. The expression of immune-related genes increased statistically significant after immunization. With the rise of specific serum antibody titers, the results of rare minnow and grass carp were consistent. In addition, there was no significant residue of adjuvant observed in both fish species injected with an adjuvanted and inactivated virus. Challenge of immunized grass carp and rare minnow with the isolate HuNan1307 resulted in protection rates of 95.8% and 92.6% for attenuated virus, 81.4% and 77.7% for inactivated virus, respectively, as well as the viral load changed consistently. The results indicated that rare minnow can be used as a model for evaluation of experimental vaccines against GCHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2021.07.014DOI Listing
October 2021

Koi sleepy disease as a pathophysiological and immunological consequence of a branchial infection of common carp with carp edema virus.

Virulence 2021 12;12(1):1855-1883

Fish Disease Research Unit, Institute for Parasitology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany.

Gills of fish are involved in respiration, excretion and osmoregulation. Due to numerous interactions between these processes, branchial diseases have serious implications on fish health. Here, "koi sleepy disease" (KSD), caused by carp edema virus (CEV) infection was used to study physiological, immunological and metabolic consequences of a gill disease in fish. A metabolome analysis shows that the moderately hypoxic-tolerant carp can compensate the respiratory compromise related to this infection by various adaptations in their metabolism. Instead, the disease is accompanied by a massive disturbance of the osmotic balance with hyponatremia as low as 71.65 mmol L, and an accumulation of ammonia in circulatory blood causing a hyperammonemia as high as 1123.24 µmol L. At water conditions with increased ambient salt, the hydro-mineral balance and the ammonia excretion were restored. Importantly, both hyponatremia and hyperammonemia in KSD-affected carp can be linked to an immunosuppression leading to a four-fold drop in the number of white blood cells, and significant downregulation of and expression in gills, which can be evaded by increasing the ion concentration in water. This shows that the complex host-pathogen interactions within the gills can have immunosuppressive consequences, which have not previously been addressed in fish. Furthermore, it makes the CEV infection of carp a powerful model for studying interdependent pathological and immunological effects of a branchial disease in fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21505594.2021.1948286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8288041PMC
December 2021

It is everywhere-A survey on the presence of carp edema virus in carp populations in Germany.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Fish Disease Research Unit, Institute for Parasitology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, Germany.

Carp edema virus (CEV) is the causative agent of koi sleepy disease (KSD), a serious gill disease affecting common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and its ornamental variety, koi. After recent detections of the virus in various countries around the world, KSD has emerged as a new global disease in carp. However, the prevalence of the infection in carp populations in a given geographical region has not been studied thoroughly. The present communication reports an investigation into the presence of CEV in carp and koi populations in Germany. For this purpose, gill samples collected from carp and koi populations suffering from gill diseases or collected for a routine examination of their health status were tested for the presence of CEV by PCR. In total, 651 fish samples from 401 carp or koi cases were examined in 2015 and 2016, additional 118 samples from previous studies were included in the examination. CEV was detected in archive samples from carp dating back to 2007, and in koi samples dating back to 2009. From 2015 to 2016, CEV was detected in 69% of cases from carp populations examined from the main carp-producing areas in Germany, and in 41% of the examined cases from koi populations from all over Germany. Clinical KSD occurred mainly from April to June in carp populations at water temperatures ranging from 8 to 12°C and in koi populations at water temperatures ranging from 18 to 22°C. Most fish from clinically affected carp or koi populations harboured high virus loads of above 10,000 copies of CEV-specific DNA per 250 ng DNA, while gills from fish of other fish species from the ponds, including goldfish, grass carp and European perch were found CEV negative or harboured a low virus load. A phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of multiple CEV variants from genogroup I in carp and genogroup II in koi populations in Germany. Genetically identical genogroup I isolates were detected in carp from different geographical locations in Germany and in other European carp populations. Some German genogroup II variants were identical to variants previously recorded from koi in Asian and other European countries. The data presented here show that CEV is highly prevalent in German common carp and koi populations and implies the spreading of this virus by intense trading of common carp and koi without necessary risk mitigating measures. As infections with this virus may induce serious disease, CEV diagnostic should be included in health surveillance and disease monitoring programmes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.14225DOI Listing
July 2021

The trans-ancestral genomic architecture of glycemic traits.

Nat Genet 2021 06 31;53(6):840-860. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Glycemic traits are used to diagnose and monitor type 2 diabetes and cardiometabolic health. To date, most genetic studies of glycemic traits have focused on individuals of European ancestry. Here we aggregated genome-wide association studies comprising up to 281,416 individuals without diabetes (30% non-European ancestry) for whom fasting glucose, 2-h glucose after an oral glucose challenge, glycated hemoglobin and fasting insulin data were available. Trans-ancestry and single-ancestry meta-analyses identified 242 loci (99 novel; P < 5 × 10), 80% of which had no significant evidence of between-ancestry heterogeneity. Analyses restricted to individuals of European ancestry with equivalent sample size would have led to 24 fewer new loci. Compared with single-ancestry analyses, equivalent-sized trans-ancestry fine-mapping reduced the number of estimated variants in 99% credible sets by a median of 37.5%. Genomic-feature, gene-expression and gene-set analyses revealed distinct biological signatures for each trait, highlighting different underlying biological pathways. Our results increase our understanding of diabetes pathophysiology by using trans-ancestry studies for improved power and resolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00852-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610958PMC
June 2021

Antiviral Actions of 25-Hydroxycholesterol in Fish Vary With the Virus-Host Combination.

Front Immunol 2021 24;12:581786. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Fish Disease Research Unit, Institute for Parasitology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany.

Cholesterol is essential for building and maintaining cell membranes and is critical for several steps in the replication cycle of viruses, especially for enveloped viruses. In mammalian cells virus infections lead to the accumulation of the oxysterol 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC), an antiviral factor, which is produced from cholesterol by the cholesterol 25 hydroxylase (CH25H). Antiviral responses based on CH25H are not well studied in fish. Therefore, in the present study putative genes encoding for CH25H were identified and amplified in common carp and rainbow trout cells and an HPLC-MS method was applied for determination of oxysterol concentrations in these cells under virus infection. Our results give some evidence that the activation of CH25H could be a part of the antiviral response against a broad spectrum of viruses infecting fish, in both common carp and rainbow trout cells . Quantification of oxysterols showed that fibroblastic cells are capable of producing 25HC and its metabolite 7α,25diHC. The oxysterol 25HC showed an antiviral activity by blocking the entry of (CyHV-3) into KFC cells, but not (SVCV) or common carp paramyxovirus (Para) in the same cells, or (VHSV) and (IPNV) into RTG-2 cells. Despite the fact that the CH25H based antiviral response coincides with type I IFN responses, the stimulation of salmonid cells with recombinant type I IFN proteins from rainbow trout could not induce gene expression. This provided further evidence, that the CH25H-response is not type I IFN dependent. Interestingly, the susceptibility of CyHV-3 to 25HC is counteracted by a downregulation of the expression of the gene in carp fibroblasts during CyHV-3 infection. This shows a unique interplay between oxysterol based immune responses and immunomodulatory abilities of certain viruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.581786DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7943847PMC
June 2021

Development of a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) for the detection of KHV.

J Fish Dis 2021 Jul 26;44(7):913-921. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Key Laboratory of Fishery Drug Development of Ministry of Agriculture, Key Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Immune Technology of Guangdong Province, Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD) caused by the koi herpesvirus (KHV) is difficult to diagnose in live fish, presenting a challenge to the koi industry. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method cannot be widely used to detect KHV because few commercial anti-KHV antibody exists. Here, we developed an anti-ORF132 polyclonal antibody and confirmed its reactivity via indirect immunofluorescence assay and Western blotting. A double-antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA) was established to detect KHV, monoclonal antibody 1B71B4 against ORF92 was used as the capture antibody, and the detection antibody was the polyclonal antibody against the truncated ORF132. The lowest limit was 1.56 ng/ml KHV. Furthermore, the DAS-ELISA reacted with KHV isolates, while no cross-reactions occurred with carp oedema virus, spring viraemia of carp virus, frog virus 3 and grass carp reovirus. Two hundred koi serum samples from Guangdong, China, were used in the DAS-ELISA test, and the positive rate of the koi sera was 13%. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the DAS-ELISA relative to the traditional PCR method were 66.7% and 97.6%, respectively. Our findings may be useful for diagnosing and preventing KHVD in koi and common carp.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfd.13351DOI Listing
July 2021

Cell Culture-Derived Tilapia Lake Virus-Inactivated Vaccine Containing Montanide Adjuvant Provides High Protection against Viral Challenge for Tilapia.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Jan 25;9(2). Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Key Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Immune Technology, Key Laboratory of Fishery Drug Development, Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Ministry of Agriculture, Guangzhou 510380, China.

Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) is a newly emerging pathogen responsible for high mortality and economic losses in the global tilapia industry. Currently, no antiviral therapy or vaccines are available for the control of this disease. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the immunological effects and protective efficacy of formaldehyde- and β-propiolactone-inactivated vaccines against TiLV in the presence and absence of the Montanide IMS 1312 VG adjuvant in tilapia. We found that β-propiolactone inactivation of viral particles generated a vaccine with a higher protection efficacy against virus challenge than did formaldehyde. The relative percent survivals of vaccinated fish at doses of 10, 10, and 10 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID)/mL were 42.9%, 28.5%, and 14.3% in the absence of the adjuvant and 85.7%, 64.3%, and 32.1% in its presence, respectively. The vaccine generated specific IgM and neutralizing antibodies against TiLV at 3 weeks following immunization that were significantly increased after a second booster immunization. The steady state mRNA levels of the genes tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interferon γ (IFN-γ), cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4), major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-Ia, and MHC-II were all increased and indicated successful immune stimulation against TiLV. The vaccine also significantly lowered the viral loads and resulted in significant increases in survival, indicating that the vaccine may also inhibit viral proliferation as well as stimulate a protective antibody response. The β-propiolactone-inactivated TiLV vaccine coupled with the adjuvant Montanide IMS 1312 VG and booster immunizations can provide a high level of protection from virus challenge in tilapia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9020086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7911875PMC
January 2021

Recombinant Baculovirus-Produced Grass Carp Reovirus Virus-Like Particles as Vaccine Candidate That Provides Protective Immunity against GCRV Genotype II Infection in Grass Carp.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Jan 14;9(1). Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Key Lab of Fishery Drug Creation of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Areas, Key Lab of Aquatic Animal Immune Technology of Guangdong Province, Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Science, Guangzhou 510380, China.

Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) leads to severe hemorrhagic disease in grass carp () and causes economic losses in grass carp aquaculture. Recent epidemiological investigations showed that GCRV genotype II is the dominant subtype in China. Therefore, it is very important to develop a novel vaccine for preventing diseases caused by GCRV genotype II. In this study, we employed a bac-to-bac expression system to generate GCRV-II-based virus-like particles (VLPs). Previous studies have shown that the structural proteins VP3, VP4, and VP38 encoded by the segments S3, S6, and S10 of type II GCRV are immunogenic. Hence, the GCRV-VLPs were produced by co-infection of sf9 cells with recombinant baculoviruses PFBH-VP3, PFBH-VP4, and PFBH-VP38. The expressions of VP3, VP4, and VP38 proteins in GCRV-VLPs were tested by IFA and Western blot analysis. By electron microscopic observations of ultrathin sections, purified VLPs showed that the expressed proteins are similar in shape to GCRV genotype II with a size range from 40 nm to 60 nm. The immunogenicity of GCRV-VLPs was evaluated by the injection immunization of grass carp. The analysis of serum-specific IgM antibody showed that grass carp immunized with GCRV-VLPs produced GCRV-specific antibodies. Furthermore, injection with GCRV-VLPs increased the expressions of immune-related genes (IgM, IFN, TLR3, TLR7) in the spleen and kidney. In addition, grass carp immunized with a GCRV-VLPs-based vaccine showed a relative percent survival rate (RPS) of 83.33% after challenge. The data in this study showed that GCRV-VLPs demonstrated an excellent immunogenicity and represent a promising approach for vaccine development against GCRV genotype II infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7830148PMC
January 2021

Stability of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in various water samples.

J Fish Dis 2021 Apr 15;44(4):379-390. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Institute of Bioprocess Engineering, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are the two most common species in traditional fish farming in Germany. Their aquaculture is threatened upon others by viruses that can cause a high mortality. Therefore, this work focuses on three viruses-viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3)-that endanger these species. To prevent their spread and contain further outbreaks, it is essential to know how long they can outlast in environmental waters and what affects their infectivity outside the host. Hence, the stability of the target viruses in various water matrices was examined and compared in this work. In general, all three viruses were quite stable within sterile water samples (showing mostly ≤1 log reduction after 96 hr) but were inactivated faster and to a higher extent (up to five log steps within 96 hr) in unsterile environmental water samples. The inactivation of the viruses correlated well with the increasing bacterial load of the samples, suggesting that bacteria had the greatest effect on their stability in the examined samples. In comparison, CyHV-3 seemed to be the most sensitive and maintained its infectivity for the shortest period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfd.13321DOI Listing
April 2021

Assessment of a natural grass carp reovirus genotype II avirulent strain GD1108 shows great potential as an avirulent live vaccine.

Microb Pathog 2021 Mar 3;152:104602. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Key Lab of Fishery Drug Creation of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Areas; Key Lab of Aquatic Animal Immune Technology of Guangdong Province; Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Science, Guangzhou, 510380, China. Electronic address:

Vaccine immunization is currently the only effective way to prevent and control the grass carp haemorrhagic disease, and the primary pathogen in these infections is grass carp reovirus genotype II (GCRV-II) for which there is no commercial vaccine. In this study, we evaluated the safety of the GCRV-II avirulent strain GD1108 which isolated in the early stage of the laboratory through continuously passed in grass carp. The immunogenicity and protective effects were evaluated after immunization by injection and immersion. The avirulent strain GD1108 could infect and replicate in the fish which did not revert to virulence after continuous passage. No adverse side effects were observed and the vaccine strain did not spread horizontally among fish. Two routes of immunization induced high serum antibody titers of OD value were 0.79 and 0.76 and neutralization titers of 320 and 320 for the injection and immersion routes of inoculation, respectively. The expression of immune-related genes increased after immunization and the levels were statistically significant. Challenge of immunized fish with a virulent GCRV-II strain resulted in protection rates of 93.88% and 76.00% for the injection and immersion routes, respectively. The avirulent strain GD1108 revealed good safety and immunogenicity via two different inoculation routes. Although the injection route provided the best immune effect, two pathways provided protection against infection with virulent GCRV-II strains in various degrees. These results indicated that the avirulent strain GD1108 can be used for the development and application as live vaccine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104602DOI Listing
March 2021

Mechanical forces drive ordered patterning of hair cells in the mammalian inner ear.

Nat Commun 2020 10 12;11(1):5137. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, School of Neurobiology, Biochemistry and Biophysics, Tel Aviv University, 6997801, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Periodic organization of cells is required for the function of many organs and tissues. The development of such periodic patterns is typically associated with mechanisms based on intercellular signaling such as lateral inhibition and Turing patterning. Here we show that the transition from disordered to ordered checkerboard-like pattern of hair cells and supporting cells in the mammalian hearing organ, the organ of Corti, is likely based on mechanical forces rather than signaling events. Using time-lapse imaging of mouse cochlear explants, we show that hair cells rearrange gradually into a checkerboard-like pattern through a tissue-wide shear motion that coordinates intercalation and delamination events. Using mechanical models of the tissue, we show that global shear and local repulsion forces on hair cells are sufficient to drive the transition from disordered to ordered cellular pattern. Our findings suggest that mechanical forces drive ordered hair cell patterning in a process strikingly analogous to the process of shear-induced crystallization in polymer and granular physics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18894-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7550578PMC
October 2020

Detection of White Sturgeon Iridovirus (WSIV) in Wild Sturgeons in Poland.

J Vet Res 2020 Sep 16;64(3):363-368. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

Introduction: White sturgeon iridovirus (WSIV) disease is caused by a virus of the eponymous family and is mostly triggered by stressful environmental conditions, . high rearing density, excessive handling, or temporary loss of water. The aim of this study was to develop the most effective diagnostic method for quick and efficient confirmation or exclusion of the presence of WSIV.

Material And Methods: A total of 42 samples (spleen, gills, intestine, skin, kidney, and brain) were collected from eight sturgeon ( and ) aged ≤5+ farmed or caught between 2010 and 2014 in open waters (Dąbie Lake and Szczecin Lagoon). They were tested for WSIV presence using conventional PCR, qPCR, and hybridisation (ISH).

Results: In gross examination, all fish appeared to be healthy. Neither species showed clinical signs typical of WSIV infection. In the majority of cases, fragments of iridoviral DNA were found using molecular methods in the kidneys, and also in the liver, gills, and skin. The detection rate using ISH was 47.37% and most commonly the brain and kidney tissues were positive. The most efficient of the methods used was real-time PCR, with 100% effectiveness in detection of WSIV DNA.

Conclusion: The study demonstrates the capabilities for WSIV diagnosis available to sturgeon farmers and water administrators, indicating useful methods of adequate sensitivity as well as organs to sample in order to achieve the highest probability of viral detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jvetres-2020-0055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7497756PMC
September 2020

Detection of Koi Herpesvirus (KHV) and Carp Oedema Virus (CEV) in Invasive Round Goby, Pallas, 1814, from Poland and Germany.

J Vet Res 2020 Jun 27;64(2):247-251. Epub 2020 May 27.

Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

Introduction: The aim of the study was to determine the transmission potential of carp edema virus (CEV) and koi herpesvirus (KHV) introduced to Europe by the invasive round goby ().

Material And Methods: A total of 70 round goby specimens were collected from the Szczecin Lagoon, Poland, and locations in Germany in the third and fourth quarters of 2018. The fish were analysed to detect KHV and CEV by PCR.

Results: Six fish specimens were positive for the presence of KHV, while none of the gobies examined showed the presence of CEV.

Conclusion: The CEV genome was detected in the goby specimens from Germany and from Poland. Considering the high pace of the spread of the round goby and its effectiveness in acquisition of new ecological niches, it should be kept out during refilling of carp ponds. Further studies should focus on experimental cohabitation of CEV-infected round gobies and specific-pathogen-free (SPF) carp to investigate the potential for active virus transfer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jvetres-2020-0037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7305641PMC
June 2020

Gene-educational attainment interactions in a multi-ancestry genome-wide meta-analysis identify novel blood pressure loci.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 06 5;26(6):2111-2125. Epub 2020 May 5.

Health Disparities Research Section, Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA.

Educational attainment is widely used as a surrogate for socioeconomic status (SES). Low SES is a risk factor for hypertension and high blood pressure (BP). To identify novel BP loci, we performed multi-ancestry meta-analyses accounting for gene-educational attainment interactions using two variables, "Some College" (yes/no) and "Graduated College" (yes/no). Interactions were evaluated using both a 1 degree of freedom (DF) interaction term and a 2DF joint test of genetic and interaction effects. Analyses were performed for systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure. We pursued genome-wide interrogation in Stage 1 studies (N = 117 438) and follow-up on promising variants in Stage 2 studies (N = 293 787) in five ancestry groups. Through combined meta-analyses of Stages 1 and 2, we identified 84 known and 18 novel BP loci at genome-wide significance level (P < 5 × 10). Two novel loci were identified based on the 1DF test of interaction with educational attainment, while the remaining 16 loci were identified through the 2DF joint test of genetic and interaction effects. Ten novel loci were identified in individuals of African ancestry. Several novel loci show strong biological plausibility since they involve physiologic systems implicated in BP regulation. They include genes involved in the central nervous system-adrenal signaling axis (ZDHHC17, CADPS, PIK3C2G), vascular structure and function (GNB3, CDON), and renal function (HAS2 and HAS2-AS1, SLIT3). Collectively, these findings suggest a role of educational attainment or SES in further dissection of the genetic architecture of BP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0719-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7641978PMC
June 2021

Elucidation of putative binding partners for the protein encoded by ORF149 of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

J Fish Dis 2020 Jun 22;43(6):707-710. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Clinical Division of Fish Medicine, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfd.13171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318325PMC
June 2020

MONET: a toolbox integrating top-performing methods for network modularization.

Bioinformatics 2020 06;36(12):3920-3921

Department of Computational Biology, University of Lausanne.

Summary: We define a disease module as a partition of a molecular network whose components are jointly associated with one or several diseases or risk factors thereof. Identification of such modules, across different types of networks, has great potential for elucidating disease mechanisms and establishing new powerful biomarkers. To this end, we launched the 'Disease Module Identification (DMI) DREAM Challenge', a community effort to build and evaluate unsupervised molecular network modularization algorithms. Here, we present MONET, a toolbox providing easy and unified access to the three top-performing methods from the DMI DREAM Challenge for the bioinformatics community.

Availability And Implementation: MONET is a command line tool for Linux, based on Docker and Singularity containers; the core algorithms were written in R, Python, Ada and C++. It is freely available for download at https://github.com/BergmannLab/MONET.git.

Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btaa236DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320625PMC
June 2020

Integrated analysis of mRNA-miRNA expression in Tilapia infected with Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) and identifies primarily immuneresponse genes.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2020 Apr 27;99:208-226. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Molecular Design and Precise Breeding, School of Life Science and Engineering, Foshan University, Foshan, 528231, China. Electronic address:

We investigated differential gene expression in Tilapia infected with the Tilapia Lake virus (TiLV).We used high-throughput sequencing to identify mRNAs and miRNAs involved in TiLV infection progression We identified 25,359 differentially expressed genes that included 863 new genes. We identified 1770, 4142 and 4947 differently expressed genes comparing non-infected controls with 24 and 120 h infections and between the infected groups, respectively. These genes were enriched to 291 GO terms and 62 KEGG pathways and included immune system progress and virion genes. High-throughput miRNA sequencing identified 316 conserved miRNAs, 525 known miRNAs and 592 novel miRNAs. Furthermore, 138, 198 and 153 differently expressed miRNAs were found between the 3 groups listed above, respectively. Target prediction revealed numerous genes including erythropoietin isoform X2, double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase isoform X1, bone morphogenetic protein 4 and tapasin-related protein that are involved in immune responsiveness. Moreover, these target genes overlapped with differentially expressed mRNAs obtained from RNA-seq. These target genes were significantly enriched to GO terms and KEGG pathways including immune system progress, virion and Wnt signaling pathways. Expression patterns of differentially expressed mRNA and miRNAs were validated in 20 mRNA and 19 miRNAs by qRT-PCR. We also were able to construct a miRNA-mRNA target network that can further understand the molecular mechanisms on the pathogenesis of TiLV and guide future research in developing effective agents and strategies to combat TiLV infections in Tilapia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2020.01.041DOI Listing
April 2020

Virucidal effects of various agents-including protease-against koi herpesvirus and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.

J Fish Dis 2020 Feb 24;43(2):185-195. Epub 2019 Nov 24.

Institute of Bioprocess Engineering, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

In a search for alternative, environmentally friendly and effective disinfecting agents, a commercially available protease-Neutrase -was tested in this work for inactivation of koi herpesvirus (KHV) and of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). For comparison, the stability of these viral pathogens in similar configurations at various pH values and concentrations of peracetic acid or quicklime, typically used for disinfection, was tested. Therefore, virus suspensions were incubated with various concentrations of different agents for 24 hr and the titre of the remaining infectious particles was determined by virus titration. Furthermore, the treatment of both viruses, with the agents at concentrations that were previously appointed as effective, was also examined in the presence of solid material (quartz sand). All procedures investigated in this study, including the protease treatment, were able to reduce the titre of KHV and VHSV below the detection limit of the titration. Although further studies are necessary, this is the first report of the application of a protease for the inactivation of the selected fish pathogens, demonstrating the great potential of the latter for disinfection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfd.13106DOI Listing
February 2020

Carbon nanotube-based DNA vaccine against koi herpesvirus given by intramuscular injection.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2020 Mar 16;98:810-818. Epub 2019 Nov 16.

Key Laboratory of Fishery Drug Development of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Key Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Immune Technology of Guangdong Province, Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong, PR China.

Koi herpesvirus (KHV) also named Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is one of the most threatening pathogens affecting common carp production as well as the valued ornamental koi carp. The current commercial vaccines available are costly and potentially cause severe stress caused by live virus. KHV ORF149 gene has been proved encoding one of the main immunogenic proteins for KHV. In this study, we coupled a plasmid expression vector for ORF149 to single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) for an anti-KHV vaccine. The vaccine conferred an 81.9% protection against intraperitoneal challenge with KHV. Importantly, SWCNTs as a promising vehicle can enhanced the protective effects 33.9% over that of the naked DNA vaccine at the same dose. The protection was longer and serum antibody production, enzyme activities and immune-related gene expression were all induced in fish vaccinated with the nanotube-DNA vaccine compared with the DNA alone. Thereby, this study demonstrates that the ORF149 DNA vaccine loaded onto SWCNTs as a novel vaccine might provide an effective method of coping with KHV disease using intra-muscular vaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2019.11.035DOI Listing
March 2020

Comparison of the blood parameters and histopathology between grass carp infected with a virulent and avirulent isolates of genotype II grass carp reovirus.

Microb Pathog 2020 Feb 7;139:103859. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Key Laboratory of Fishery Drug Development of Ministry of Agriculture, Key Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Immune Technology of Guangdong Province, Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China; College of Fisheries, Tianjin Agriculural University, Tianjin, People's Republic of China.

Grass carp hemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is the most important disease for grass carp aquaculture. Its typical clinical symptom is haemorrhaging, although the mechanism was remained unclear. In this study, we investigated the differences in blood parameters and histopathological features between grass carp infected with a virulent and avirulent isolates of genotype II GCRV. Infection with the virulent isolate resulted in increases in 8 routine blood and 2 serum biochemical parameters (P < 0.05); while 9 routine blood and 5 biochemical parameters were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) compared with fish infected with the avirulent isolate. The majority of these alterations were related to hemorrhage, inflammatory reactions and organic damage. The histopathologic changes were primarily vasodilation and hyperaemia in multiple organs, lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration as well as severe vacuolar degeneration in spleen, kidney and liver. The histopathology changes in fish infected with the avirulent isolate were minimal. These results indicated that the pathogenicity of GCRV was primarily reflected in destruction of the blood circulatory system and parenchymatous organs. This study lays the foundation for further research on the pathogenesis of bleeding caused by GCRV infection and the use of blood parameters and histopathology as tools for disease diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103859DOI Listing
February 2020

Establishment of a brain cell line obtained from hybrids of Channa argus ×Channa maculata for the detection of tilapia lake virus.

Microb Pathog 2020 Jan 22;138:103810. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Key Laboratory of Fishery Drug Development of Ministry of Agriculture, Pearl River Fishery Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Liwan District, 510380, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

A brain cell line (CAMB) derived from hybrid snakehead (Channa argus (♂) × Channa maculata (♀)) was established by trypsin and collagenase combined digestion. The culturing conditions and cell biological characteristics were systematically studied. For growth of the cells, M199 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum was used and at 27 °C incubated. Based on morphological analysis, CAMB cells were confirmed to be epithelial. The cell line has been subcultured more than 80 times since its initial primary culture. Chromosome analysis revealed that CAMB cells had an abnormal chromosome number 2n = 64, whereas the chromosome number in the hybrid snakehead was 45. The suitability of CAMB for tilapia lake virus (TiLV) was demonstrated. A CPE was observed after infection with TiLV-2017A. The highest TiLV titer was observed after 12 days post infection (dpi) and reached 107.2 TCID50/mL. The virus replication was confirmed by electron microscopic observations. Additionally, immunofluorescence assay confirmed the presence of TiLV-2017A after infection of CAMB. Therefore, CAMB cells can be a useful tool for the investigation of the pathogenesis of the TiLV induced disease in tilapia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103810DOI Listing
January 2020

Target genes, variants, tissues and transcriptional pathways influencing human serum urate levels.

Nat Genet 2019 10 2;51(10):1459-1474. Epub 2019 Oct 2.

Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Family Medicine and Primary Care, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Elevated serum urate levels cause gout and correlate with cardiometabolic diseases via poorly understood mechanisms. We performed a trans-ancestry genome-wide association study of serum urate in 457,690 individuals, identifying 183 loci (147 previously unknown) that improve the prediction of gout in an independent cohort of 334,880 individuals. Serum urate showed significant genetic correlations with many cardiometabolic traits, with genetic causality analyses supporting a substantial role for pleiotropy. Enrichment analysis, fine-mapping of urate-associated loci and colocalization with gene expression in 47 tissues implicated the kidney and liver as the main target organs and prioritized potentially causal genes and variants, including the transcriptional master regulators in the liver and kidney, HNF1A and HNF4A. Experimental validation showed that HNF4A transactivated the promoter of ABCG2, encoding a major urate transporter, in kidney cells, and that HNF4A p.Thr139Ile is a functional variant. Transcriptional coregulation within and across organs may be a general mechanism underlying the observed pleiotropy between urate and cardiometabolic traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-019-0504-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6858555PMC
October 2019

Establishment of a cell line from egg of rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus for propagation of grass carp reovirus genotype II.

Microb Pathog 2019 Nov 3;136:103715. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

College of Fisheries and Life Science, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, 201306, China.

The rare minnow, Gobiocypris rarus, is small experimental fish proven to be sensitive to Grass Carp Reovirus (GCRV) infection. In present study we established a new cell (GrE) from eggs of G. rarus. GrE cells grew well at 28 °C in M199 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum, and has been subcultured for over 70 passages. Chromosome analysis indicated that 40% of the cells were diploid 2n = 66 while the chromosome number of the fish is 2n = 50. Viral replication in GrE cells was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence assays and virus titration experiments. GrE cells and Cyenopharyngodon idellus kidney cells were infected with two GCRV genotypes while the virus copies of GCRV II in GrE peaked at 2.25 × 10 on 12th dpi. In vivo challenge experiments using GCRV I and II isolates at generations 1 and 20 indicated that GCRV II reproduce similar symptoms and histopathological changes of the disease in the rare minnow. These results indicated that GrE is permissive for GCRV genotype II propagation and can be used for pathogenesis studies and vaccine development of the predominant genotype of GCRV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103715DOI Listing
November 2019

Assessment of network module identification across complex diseases.

Nat Methods 2019 09 30;16(9):843-852. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Department of Computational Biology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Many bioinformatics methods have been proposed for reducing the complexity of large gene or protein networks into relevant subnetworks or modules. Yet, how such methods compare to each other in terms of their ability to identify disease-relevant modules in different types of network remains poorly understood. We launched the 'Disease Module Identification DREAM Challenge', an open competition to comprehensively assess module identification methods across diverse protein-protein interaction, signaling, gene co-expression, homology and cancer-gene networks. Predicted network modules were tested for association with complex traits and diseases using a unique collection of 180 genome-wide association studies. Our robust assessment of 75 module identification methods reveals top-performing algorithms, which recover complementary trait-associated modules. We find that most of these modules correspond to core disease-relevant pathways, which often comprise therapeutic targets. This community challenge establishes biologically interpretable benchmarks, tools and guidelines for molecular network analysis to study human disease biology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41592-019-0509-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6719725PMC
September 2019
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