Publications by authors named "Svati H Shah"

187 Publications

Proteomic profiling identifies CLEC4C expression as a novel biomarker of primary graft dysfunction after heart transplantation.

J Heart Lung Transplant 2021 Aug 11. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina. Electronic address:

Purpose: Clinical models to identify patients at high risk of primary graft dysfunction (PGD) after heart transplantation (HT) are limited, and the underlying pathophysiology of this common post-transplant complication remains poorly understood. We sought to identify whether pre-transplant levels of circulating proteins reporting on immune activation and inflammation are associated with incident PGD.

Methods: The study population consisted of 219 adult heart transplant recipients identified between 2016 and 2020 at Duke University Medical Center, randomly divided into derivation (n = 131) and validation (n = 88) sets. PGD was defined using modified ISHLT criteria. Proteomic profiling was performed using Olink panels (n = 354 proteins) with serum samples collected immediately prior to transplantation. Association between normalized relative protein expression and PGD was tested using univariate and multivariable (recipient age, creatinine, mechanical circulatory support, and sex; donor age; ischemic time) models. Significant proteins identified in the derivation set (p < 0.05 in univariate models), were then tested in the validation set. Pathway enrichment analysis was used to test candidate biological processes. The predictive performance of proteins was compared to that of the RADIAL score.

Results: Nine proteins were associated with PGD in univariate models in the derivation set. Of these, only CLEC4C remained associated with PGD in the validation set after Bonferroni correction (OR [95% CI] = 3.04 [1.74,5.82], p = 2.8 × 10). Patterns of association were consistent for CLEC4C in analyses stratified by biventricular/left ventricular and isolated right ventricular PGD. Pathway analysis identified interferon-alpha response and C-type lectin signaling as significantly enriched biologic processes. The RADIAL score was a poor predictor of PGD (AUC = 0.55). CLEC4C alone (AUC = 0.66, p = 0.048) and in combination with the clinical covariates from the multivariable model (AUC = 0.69, p = 0.018) improved discrimination for the primary outcome.

Conclusions: Pre-transplantation circulating levels of CLEC4C, a protein marker of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), may identify HT recipients at risk for PGD. Further studies are needed to better understand the potential role pDCs and the innate immune response in PGD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healun.2021.07.024DOI Listing
August 2021

Noninvasive Risk Score to Screen for Pulmonary Hypertension With Elevated Pulmonary Vascular Resistance in Diseases of Chronic Volume Overload.

Am J Cardiol 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina; Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina.

Volume overload promotes pulmonary hypertension (PH) through pulmonary venous hypertension. However, PH with elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (hereafter PH-PVR) may develop in patients with diseases of volume overload, such as heart failure or chronic kidney disease (CKD). In such cases, volume management alone may be insufficient to slow PH progression. An accurate, noninvasive method to screen for PH-PVR in these diseases would facilitate early targeted therapy. We integrated invasive hemodynamic and echocardiography data collected from a single-center clinical cohort and identified patients with CKD or heart failure at the time of assessment. We applied penalized regression to derive a risk score of clinical parameters and echocardiography data associated with PH-PVR and categorized patients into low- (≤5 points), intermediate- (6-10 points), or high-risk (>10 points) groups. Using an internal validation strategy, we evaluated the ability of this risk score to predict PH-PVR and determined the association of this risk classification with 3-year all-cause mortality. Of 2422 patients, 42.4% had PH-PVR. In adjusted analyses, tricuspid regurgitant velocity, right ventricular function, BMI, heart rate, and hemoglobin most strongly associated with PH-PVR. The risk score significantly associated with PH-PVR (age-adjusted odds ratio 11.69 for the highest-risk group, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.54-20.92). The high-risk group also associated with a significantly higher risk of 3-year all-cause mortality in adjusted analyses (hazard ratio 1.85, 95% CI 1.50-2.27). In conclusion, a noninvasive risk score derived from echocardiography and clinical parameters significantly associated with PH-PVR and all-cause mortality in a cohort of patients with CKD and heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2021.08.016DOI Listing
September 2021

Transmethylamine-N-Oxide Is Associated With Diffuse Cardiac Fibrosis in People Living With HIV.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Aug 7;10(16):e020499. Epub 2021 Aug 7.

Division of Cardiology University of California San Francisco CA.

Background People living with HIV are at increased risk of developing diastolic dysfunction, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death, all of which have been characterized by higher levels of myocardial fibrosis. Transmethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a dietary gut metabolite, is linked to the development of myocardial fibrosis in animal models. However, it is unclear whether TMAO plays a role in the development of myocardial fibrosis in people living with HIV. Methods and Results The study population consisted of participants enrolled in the multisite cross-sectional study called CHART-HIV (Characterizing Heart Function on Anti-Retroviral Therapy). Participants underwent echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, biomarker analysis, and targeted assessment of gut-related circulating metabolites; diastolic dysfunction was determined by study-specific criteria. Multivariable linear regression models were performed to examine the relationship of gut-related metabolites with serum and imaging measures of myocardial fibrosis. Models were adjusted for traditional cardiovascular, inflammatory, and HIV-related risk factors. Diastolic dysfunction was present in 94 of 195 individuals (48%) in CHART-HIV; this cohort demonstrated higher prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and chronic kidney disease as well as higher plasma levels of both TMAO and choline. TMAO levels were associated with parameters reflecting increased left ventricular filling pressures and with a marker of the innate immune system. TMAO levels correlated with diffuse myocardial fibrosis (=0.35; <0.05) as characterized by myocardial extracellular volume fraction as well as biomarkers reflective of myocardial fibrosis. Conclusions In this study of people living with HIV, the gut metabolite TMAO was associated with underlying diffuse myocardial fibrosis and found to be a potential marker of early structural heart disease. The mechanistic role of the gut microbiome in HIV-associated cardiovascular disease warrants further investigation. Registration URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02860156.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.020499DOI Listing
August 2021

Circulating long chain acylcarnitines and outcomes in diabetic heart failure: an HF-ACTION clinical trial substudy.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2021 08 3;20(1):161. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 27710, USA.

Background: Whether differences in circulating long chain acylcarnitines (LCAC) are seen in heart failure (HF) patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM), and whether these biomarkers report on exercise capacity and clinical outcomes, remains unknown. The objective of the current study was to use metabolomic profiling to identify biomarkers that report on exercise capacity, clinical outcomes, and differential response to exercise in HF patients with and without DM.

Methods: Targeted mass spectrometry was used to quantify metabolites in plasma from participants in the heart failure: a controlled trial investigating outcomes of exercise training (HF-ACTION) trial. Principal components analysis was used to identify 12 uncorrelated factors. The association between metabolite factors, diabetes status, exercise capacity, and time to the primary clinical outcome of all-cause mortality or all-cause hospitalization was assessed.

Results: A total of 664 participants were included: 359 (54%) with DM. LCAC factor levels were associated with baseline exercise capacity as measured by peak oxygen consumption (beta 0.86, p  =  2 × 10, and were differentially associated in participants with and without DM (beta 1.58, p  =  8  ×  10 vs. 0.67, p  =  9  ×  10, respectively; p value for interaction  =  0.012). LCAC levels changed to a lesser extent in participants with DM after exercise (mean ∆ 0.09, p  =  0.24) than in those without DM (mean ∆ 0.16, p  =  0.08). In univariate and multivariate modeling, LCAC factor levels were associated with time to the primary outcome (multivariate HR 0.80, p  =  2.74  ×  10), and were more strongly linked to outcomes in diabetic participants (HR 0.64, p  =  3.21  ×  10 v. HR 0.90, p  =  0.104, p value for interaction  =  0.001). When analysis was performed at the level of individual metabolites, C16, C16:1, C18, and C18:1 had the greatest associations with both exercise capacity and outcomes, with higher levels associated with worse outcomes. Similar associations with time to the primary clinical outcome were not found in a control group of patients without HF from the CATHeterization GENetics (CATHGEN) study.

Conclusions: LCAC biomarkers are associated with exercise status and clinical outcomes differentially in HF patients with and without DM. Impaired fatty acid substrate utilization and mitochondrial dysfunction both at the level of the skeletal muscle and the myocardium may explain the decreased exercise capacity, attenuated response to exercise training, and poor clinical outcomes seen in patients with HF and DM. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00047437.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12933-021-01353-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8336082PMC
August 2021

Molecular Aspects of Lifestyle and Environmental Effects in Patients With Diabetes: JACC Focus Seminar.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Aug;78(5):481-495

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Electronic address:

Diabetes is characterized as an integrated condition of dysregulated metabolism across multiple tissues, with well-established consequences on the cardiovascular system. Recent advances in precision phenotyping in biofluids and tissues in large human observational and interventional studies have afforded a unique opportunity to translate seminal findings in models and cellular systems to patients at risk for diabetes and its complications. Specifically, techniques to assay metabolites, proteins, and transcripts, alongside more recent assessment of the gut microbiome, underscore the complexity of diabetes in patients, suggesting avenues for precision phenotyping of risk, response to intervention, and potentially novel therapies. In addition, the influence of external factors and inputs (eg, activity, diet, medical therapies) on each domain of molecular characterization has gained prominence toward better understanding their role in prevention. Here, the authors provide a broad overview of the role of several of these molecular domains in human translational investigation in diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.02.070DOI Listing
August 2021

Return of individual research results: What do participants prefer and expect?

PLoS One 2021 29;16(7):e0254153. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America.

Newer data platforms offer increased opportunity to share multidimensional health data with research participants, but the preferences of participants for which data to receive and how is evolving. Our objective is to describe the preferences and expectations of participants for the return of individual research results within Project Baseline Health Study (PBHS). The PBHS is an ongoing, multicenter, longitudinal cohort study with data from four initial enrollment sites. PBHS participants are recruited from the general population along with groups enriched for heart disease and cancer disease risk. Cross-sectional data on return of results were collected in 2017-2018 from an (1) in-person enrollment survey (n = 1,890), (2) benchmark online survey (n = 1,059), and (3) participant interviews (n = 21). The main outcomes included (1) preferences for type of information to be added next to returned results, (2) participant plans for sharing returned results with a non-study clinician, and (3) choice to opt-out of receiving genetic results. Results were compared by sociodemographic characteristics. Enrollment and benchmark survey respondents were 57.1% and 53.5% female, and 60.0% and 66.2% white, respectively. Participants preferred the following data types be added to returned results in the future: genetics (29.9%), heart imaging, (16.4%), study watch (15.8%), and microbiome (13.3%). Older adults (OR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.41-0.87) were less likely to want their genetic results returned next. Forty percent of participants reported that they would not share all returned results with their non-study clinicians. Black (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43-0.95) and Asian (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.30-0.73) participants were less likely, and older participants more likely (OR 1.45-1.61), to plan to share all results with their clinician than their counterparts. At enrollment, 5.8% of participants opted out of receiving their genetics results. The study showed that substantial heterogeneity existed in participant's preferences and expectations for return of results, and variations were related to sociodemographic characteristics.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0254153PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8320928PMC
July 2021

Cardiac Arrest in the Setting of Diffuse Coronary Ectasia: Perspectives on a Unique Ischemic Insult.

JACC Case Rep 2020 Sep 15;2(11):1662-1666. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Division of Cardiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina.

A 69-year-old man with a history of coronary artery ectasia, potentially resulting from an underlying heritable connective tissue disorder, presented with ventricular fibrillation. Despite medical management of ischemia, he developed recurrent ventricular tachycardia with poor neurological recovery. We highlight challenges in the management of coronary artery ectasia. ().
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaccas.2020.06.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8312123PMC
September 2020

Sequencing of 640,000 exomes identifies variants associated with protection from obesity.

Science 2021 07;373(6550)

Geisinger Obesity Institute, Geisinger Health System, Danville, PA 17882, USA.

Large-scale human exome sequencing can identify rare protein-coding variants with a large impact on complex traits such as body adiposity. We sequenced the exomes of 645,626 individuals from the United Kingdom, the United States, and Mexico and estimated associations of rare coding variants with body mass index (BMI). We identified 16 genes with an exome-wide significant association with BMI, including those encoding five brain-expressed G protein-coupled receptors (, , , , and ). Protein-truncating variants in were observed in ~4/10,000 sequenced individuals and were associated with 1.8 kilograms per square meter lower BMI and 54% lower odds of obesity in the heterozygous state. Knock out of in mice resulted in resistance to weight gain and improved glycemic control in a high-fat diet model. Inhibition of GPR75 may provide a therapeutic strategy for obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abf8683DOI Listing
July 2021

Insulin action, type 2 diabetes, and branched-chain amino acids: A two-way street.

Mol Metab 2021 May 24:101261. Epub 2021 May 24.

Sarah W. Stedman Nutrition and Metabolism Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 27701, USA; Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 27701, USA; Department of Pharmacology & Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 27701, USA; Department of Medicine, Divisions of Endocrinology & Metabolism and Cardiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 27701, USA. Electronic address:

Background: A strong association of obesity and insulin resistance with increased circulating levels of branched-chain and aromatic amino acids and decreased glycine levels has been recognized in human subjects for decades.

Scope Of Review: More recently, human metabolomics and genetic studies have confirmed and expanded upon these observations, accompanied by a surge in preclinical studies that have identified mechanisms involved in the perturbation of amino acid homeostasis- how these events are connected to dysregulated glucose and lipid metabolism, and how elevations in branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) may participate in the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and other cardiometabolic diseases and conditions.

Major Conclusions: In human cohorts, BCAA and related metabolites are now well established as among the strongest biomarkers of obesity, insulin resistance, T2D, and cardiovascular diseases. Lowering of BCAA and branched-chain ketoacid (BCKA) levels by feeding BCAA-restricted diet or by the activation of the rate-limiting enzyme in BCAA catabolism, branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH), in rodent models of obesity have clear salutary effects on glucose and lipid homeostasis, but BCAA restriction has more modest effects in short-term studies in human T2D subjects. Feeding of rats with diets enriched in sucrose or fructose result in the induction of the ChREBP transcription factor in the liver to increase expression of the BCKDH kinase (BDK) and suppress the expression of its phosphatase (PPM1K) resulting in the inactivation of BCKDH and activation of the key lipogenic enzyme ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY). These and other emergent links between BCAA, glucose, and lipid metabolism motivate ongoing studies of possible causal actions of BCAA and related metabolites in the development of cardiometabolic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2021.101261DOI Listing
May 2021

Metabolomic profiling identifies complex lipid species and amino acid analogues associated with response to weight loss interventions.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(5):e0240764. Epub 2021 May 27.

Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America.

Obesity is an epidemic internationally. While weight loss interventions are efficacious, they are compounded by heterogeneity with regards to clinically relevant metabolic responses. Thus, we sought to identify metabolic biomarkers that are associated with beneficial metabolic changes to weight loss and which distinguish individuals with obesity who would most benefit from a given type of intervention. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-based profiling was used to measure 765 metabolites in baseline plasma from three different weight loss studies: WLM (behavioral intervention, N = 443), STRRIDE-PD (exercise intervention, N = 163), and CBD (surgical cohort, N = 125). The primary outcome was percent change in insulin resistance (as measured by the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance [%ΔHOMA-IR]) over the intervention. Overall, 92 individual metabolites were associated with %ΔHOMA-IR after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Concordantly, the most significant metabolites were triacylglycerols (TAGs; p = 2.3e-5) and diacylglycerols (DAGs; p = 1.6e-4), with higher baseline TAG and DAG levels associated with a greater improvement in insulin resistance with weight loss. In tests of heterogeneity, 50 metabolites changed differently between weight loss interventions; we found amino acids, peptides, and their analogues to be most significant (4.7e-3) in this category. Our results highlight novel metabolic pathways associated with heterogeneity in response to weight loss interventions, and related biomarkers which could be used in future studies of personalized approaches to weight loss interventions.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0240764PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8158886PMC
May 2021

Metabolites and diabetes remission after weight loss.

Nutr Diabetes 2021 02 24;11(1):10. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

New York Obesity Research Center, Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA.

There is marked heterogeneity in the response to weight loss interventions with regards to weight loss amount and metabolic improvement. We sought to identify biomarkers predictive of type 2 diabetes remission and amount of weight loss in individuals with severe obesity enrolled in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) and the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) studies. Targeted mass spectrometry-based profiling of 135 metabolites was performed in pre-intervention blood samples using a nested design for diabetes remission over five years (n = 93 LABS, n = 80 Look AHEAD; n = 87 remitters), and for extremes of weight loss at five years (n = 151 LABS; n = 75 with high weight loss). Principal components analysis (PCA) was used for dimensionality reduction, with PCA-derived metabolite factors tested for association with both diabetes remission and weight loss. Metabolic markers were tested for incremental improvement to clinical models, including the DiaRem score. Two metabolite factors were associated with diabetes remission: one primarily composed of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and tyrosine (odds ratio (95% confidence interval) [OR (95% CI)] = 1.4 [1.0-1.9], p = 0.045), and one with betaine and choline (OR [95% CI] = 0.7 [0.5-0.9], p = 0.02).These results were not significant after adjustment for multiple tests. Inclusion of these two factors in clinical models yielded modest improvements in model fit and performance: in a constructed clinical model, the C-statistic improved from 0.87 to 0.90 (p = 0.02), while the net reclassification index showed improvement in prediction compared to the DiaRem score (NRI = 0.26, p = 0.0013). No metabolite factors associated with weight loss at five years. Baseline levels of metabolites in the BCAA and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO)-microbiome-related pathways are independently and incrementally associated with sustained diabetes remission after weight loss interventions in individuals with severe obesity. These metabolites could serve as clinically useful biomarkers to identify individuals who will benefit the most from weight loss interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41387-021-00151-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7904757PMC
February 2021

The Pediatric Obesity Microbiome and Metabolism Study (POMMS): Methods, Baseline Data, and Early Insights.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2021 03;29(3):569-578

Department of Pediatrics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to establish a biorepository of clinical, metabolomic, and microbiome samples from adolescents with obesity as they undergo lifestyle modification.

Methods: A total of 223 adolescents aged 10 to 18 years with BMI ≥95th percentile were enrolled, along with 71 healthy weight participants. Clinical data, fasting serum, and fecal samples were collected at repeated intervals over 6 months. Herein, the study design, data collection methods, and interim analysis-including targeted serum metabolite measurements and fecal 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing among adolescents with obesity (n = 27) and healthy weight controls (n = 27)-are presented.

Results: Adolescents with obesity have higher serum alanine aminotransferase, C-reactive protein, and glycated hemoglobin, and they have lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol when compared with healthy weight controls. Metabolomics revealed differences in branched-chain amino acid-related metabolites. Also observed was a differential abundance of specific microbial taxa and lower species diversity among adolescents with obesity when compared with the healthy weight group.

Conclusions: The Pediatric Metabolism and Microbiome Study (POMMS) biorepository is available as a shared resource. Early findings suggest evidence of a metabolic signature of obesity unique to adolescents, along with confirmation of previously reported findings that describe metabolic and microbiome markers of obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.23081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7927749PMC
March 2021

Associations of Maternal Cardiovascular Health in Pregnancy With Offspring Cardiovascular Health in Early Adolescence.

JAMA 2021 02;325(7):658-668

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.

Importance: Pregnancy may be a key window to optimize cardiovascular health (CVH) for the mother and influence lifelong CVH for her child.

Objective: To examine associations between maternal gestational CVH and offspring CVH.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cohort study used data from the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study (examinations: July 2000-April 2006) and HAPO Follow-Up Study (examinations: February 2013-December 2016). The analyses included 2302 mother-child dyads, comprising 48% of HAPO Follow-Up Study participants, in an ancillary CVH study. Participants were from 9 field centers across the United States, Barbados, United Kingdom, China, Thailand, and Canada.

Exposures: Maternal gestational CVH at a target of 28 weeks' gestation, based on 5 metrics: body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol level, glucose level, and smoking. Each metric was categorized as ideal, intermediate, or poor using pregnancy guidelines. Total CVH was categorized as follows: all ideal metrics, 1 or more intermediate (but 0 poor) metrics, 1 poor metric, or 2 or more poor metrics.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Offspring CVH at ages 10 to 14 years, based on 4 metrics: body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol level, and glucose level. Total CVH was categorized as for mothers.

Results: Among 2302 dyads, the mean (SD) ages were 29.6 (2.7) years for pregnant mothers and 11.3 (1.1) years for children. During pregnancy, the mean (SD) maternal CVH score was 8.6 (1.4) out of 10. Among pregnant mothers, the prevalence of all ideal metrics was 32.8% (95% CI, 30.6%-35.1%), 31.7% (95% CI, 29.4%-34.0%) for 1 or more intermediate metrics, 29.5% (95% CI, 27.2%-31.7%) for 1 poor metric, and 6.0% (95% CI, 3.8%-8.3%) for 2 or more poor metrics. Among children of mothers with all ideal metrics, the prevalence of all ideal metrics was 42.2% (95% CI, 38.4%-46.2%), 36.7% (95% CI, 32.9%-40.7%) for 1 or more intermediate metrics, 18.4% (95% CI, 14.6%-22.4%) for 1 poor metric, and 2.6% (95% CI, 0%-6.6%) for 2 or more poor metrics. Among children of mothers with 2 or more poor metrics, the prevalence of all ideal metrics was 30.7% (95% CI, 22.0%-40.4%), 28.3% (95% CI, 19.7%-38.1%) for 1 or more intermediate metrics, 30.7% (95% CI, 22.0%-40.4%) for 1 poor metric, and 10.2% (95% CI, 1.6%-20.0%) for 2 or more poor metrics. The adjusted relative risks associated with 1 or more intermediate, 1 poor, and 2 or more poor (vs all ideal) metrics, respectively, in mothers during pregnancy were 1.17 (95% CI, 0.96-1.42), 1.66 (95% CI, 1.39-1.99), and 2.02 (95% CI, 1.55-2.64) for offspring to have 1 poor (vs all ideal) metrics, and the relative risks were 2.15 (95% CI, 1.23-3.75), 3.32 (95% CI,1.96-5.62), and 7.82 (95% CI, 4.12-14.85) for offspring to have 2 or more poor (vs all ideal) metrics. Additional adjustment for categorical birth factors (eg, preeclampsia) did not fully explain these significant associations (eg, relative risk for association between 2 or more poor metrics among mothers during pregnancy and 2 or more poor metrics among offspring after adjustment for an extended set of birth factors, 6.23 [95% CI, 3.03-12.82]).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this multinational cohort, better maternal CVH at 28 weeks' gestation was significantly associated with better offspring CVH at ages 10 to 14 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2021.0247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7887661PMC
February 2021

Association of Metabolic Phenotypes With Coronary Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Stable Chest Pain.

Diabetes Care 2021 04 8;44(4):1038-1045. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC.

Objective: Obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). However, whether distinct metabolic phenotypes differ in risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) and MACE is unknown. We sought to determine the association of distinct metabolic phenotypes with CAD and MACE.

Research Design And Methods: We included patients from the Prospective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain (PROMISE) who underwent coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography. Obesity was defined as a BMI ≥30 kg/m and metabolically healthy as less than or equal to one metabolic syndrome component except diabetes, distinguishing four metabolic phenotypes: metabolically healthy/unhealthy and nonobese/obese (MHN, MHO, MUN, and MUO). Differences in severe calcification (coronary artery calcification [CAC] ≥400), severe CAD (≥70% stenosis), high-risk plaque (HRP), and MACE were assessed using adjusted logistic and Cox regression models.

Results: Of 4,381 patients (48.4% male, 60.5 ± 8.1 years of age), 49.4% were metabolically healthy (30.7% MHN and 18.7% MHO) and 50.6% unhealthy (22.3% MUN and 28.4% MUO). MHO had similar coronary CT findings as compared with MHN (severe CAC/CAD and HRP; > 0.36 for all). Among metabolically unhealthy patients, those with obesity had similar CT findings as compared with nonobese ( > 0.10 for all). However, both MUN and MUO had unfavorable CAD characteristics as compared with MHN ( ≤ 0.017 for all). A total of 130 events occurred during follow-up (median 26 months). Compared with MHN, MUN (hazard ratio [HR] 1.61 [95% CI 1.02-2.53]) but not MHO (HR 1.06 [0.62-1.82]) or MUO (HR 1.06 [0.66-1.72]) had higher risk for MACE.

Conclusions: In patients with stable chest pain, four metabolic phenotypes exhibit distinctly different CAD characteristics and risk for MACE. Individuals who are metabolically unhealthy despite not being obese were at highest risk in our cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-1760DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7985425PMC
April 2021

Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2021 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association.

Circulation 2021 Feb 27;143(8):e254-e743. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Background: The American Heart Association, in conjunction with the National Institutes of Health, annually reports the most up-to-date statistics related to heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular risk factors, including core health behaviors (smoking, physical activity, diet, and weight) and health factors (cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose control) that contribute to cardiovascular health. The Statistical Update presents the latest data on a range of major clinical heart and circulatory disease conditions (including stroke, congenital heart disease, rhythm disorders, subclinical atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, heart failure, valvular disease, venous disease, and peripheral artery disease) and the associated outcomes (including quality of care, procedures, and economic costs).

Methods: The American Heart Association, through its Statistics Committee, continuously monitors and evaluates sources of data on heart disease and stroke in the United States to provide the most current information available in the annual Statistical Update. The 2021 Statistical Update is the product of a full year's worth of effort by dedicated volunteer clinicians and scientists, committed government professionals, and American Heart Association staff members. This year's edition includes data on the monitoring and benefits of cardiovascular health in the population, an enhanced focus on social determinants of health, adverse pregnancy outcomes, vascular contributions to brain health, the global burden of cardiovascular disease, and further evidence-based approaches to changing behaviors related to cardiovascular disease.

Results: Each of the 27 chapters in the Statistical Update focuses on a different topic related to heart disease and stroke statistics.

Conclusions: The Statistical Update represents a critical resource for the lay public, policy makers, media professionals, clinicians, health care administrators, researchers, health advocates, and others seeking the best available data on these factors and conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000950DOI Listing
February 2021

Genetic Predisposition to Coronary Artery Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2020 12 13;13(6):e002769. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

The Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences & Informatics (A.D.M.), University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, U.K.

Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is accelerated in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D).

Methods: To test whether this reflects differential genetic influences on CAD risk in subjects with T2D, we performed a systematic assessment of genetic overlap between CAD and T2D in 66 643 subjects (27 708 with CAD and 24 259 with T2D). Variants showing apparent association with CAD in stratified analyses or evidence of interaction were evaluated in a further 117 787 subjects (16 694 with CAD and 11 537 with T2D).

Results: None of the previously characterized CAD loci was found to have specific effects on CAD in T2D individuals, and a genome-wide interaction analysis found no new variants for CAD that could be considered T2D specific. When we considered the overall genetic correlations between CAD and its risk factors, we found no substantial differences in these relationships by T2D background.

Conclusions: This study found no evidence that the genetic architecture of CAD differs in those with T2D compared with those without T2D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.119.002769DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7748049PMC
December 2020

Accelerated epigenetic age as a biomarker of cardiovascular sensitivity to traffic-related air pollution.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 12 7;12(23):24141-24155. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

Background: Accelerated epigenetic age has been proposed as a biomarker of increased aging, which may indicate disruptions in cellular and organ system homeostasis and thus contribute to sensitivity to environmental exposures.

Methods: Using 497 participants from the CATHGEN cohort, we evaluated whether accelerated epigenetic aging increases cardiovascular sensitivity to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure. We used residential proximity to major roadways and source apportioned air pollution models as measures of TRAP exposure, and chose peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and blood pressure as outcomes based on previous associations with TRAP. We used Horvath epigenetic age acceleration (AAD) and phenotypic age acceleration (PhenoAAD) as measures of age acceleration, and adjusted all models for chronological age, race, sex, smoking, and socioeconomic status.

Results: We observed significant interactions between TRAP and both AAD and PhenoAAD. Interactions indicated that increased epigenetic age acceleration elevated associations between proximity to roadways and PAD. Interactions were also observed between AAD and gasoline and diesel source apportioned PM.

Conclusion: Epigenetic age acceleration may be a biomarker of sensitivity to air pollution, particularly for TRAP in urban cohorts. This presents a novel means by which to understand sensitivity to air pollution and provides a molecular measure of environmental sensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7762491PMC
December 2020

Novel plasma biomarkers improve discrimination of metabolic health independent of weight.

Sci Rep 2020 12 7;10(1):21365. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, 300 North Duke St, Durham, NC, 27701, USA.

We sought to determine if novel plasma biomarkers improve traditionally defined metabolic health (MH) in predicting risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events irrespective of weight. Poor MH was defined in CATHGEN biorepository participants (n > 9300), a follow-up cohort (> 5600 days) comprising participants undergoing evaluation for possible ischemic heart disease. Lipoprotein subparticles, lipoprotein-insulin resistance (LP-IR), and GlycA were measured using NMR spectroscopy (n = 8385), while acylcarnitines and amino acids were measured using flow-injection, tandem mass spectrometry (n = 3592). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models determined association of poor MH and plasma biomarkers with time-to-all-cause mortality or incident myocardial infarction. Low-density lipoprotein particle size and high-density lipoprotein, small and medium particle size (HMSP), GlycA, LP-IR, short-chain dicarboxylacylcarnitines (SCDA), and branched-chain amino acid plasma biomarkers were independently associated with CVD events after adjustment for traditionally defined MH in the overall cohort (p = 3.3 × 10-3.6 × 10), as well as within most of the individual BMI categories (p = 8.1 × 10-1.4 × 10). LP-IR, GlycA, HMSP, and SCDA improved metrics of model fit analyses beyond that of traditionally defined MH. We found that LP-IR, GlycA, HMSP, and SCDA improve traditionally defined MH models in prediction of adverse CVD events irrespective of BMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78478-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721699PMC
December 2020

Risk Factor Burden and Long-Term Prognosis of Patients With Premature Coronary Artery Disease.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 12 8;9(24):e017712. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Duke Clinical Research Institute Duke University School of Medicine Durham NC.

Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) is increasing among young adults. We aimed to describe the cardiovascular risk factors and long-term prognosis of premature CAD. Methods and Results Using the Duke Databank for Cardiovascular Disease, we evaluated 3655 patients admitted between 1995 and 2013 with a first diagnosis of obstructive CAD before the age of 50 years. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), defined as the composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or revascularization, were ascertained for up to 10 years. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to assess associations with the rate of first recurrent event, and negative binomial log-linear regression was used for rate of multiple event recurrences. Past or current smoking was the most frequent cardiovascular factor (60.8%), followed by hypertension (52.8%) and family history of CAD (39.8%). Within a 10-year follow-up, 52.9% of patients had at least 1 MACE, 18.6% had at least 2 recurrent MACEs, and 7.9% had at least 3 recurrent MACEs, with death occurring in 20.9% of patients. Across follow-up, 31.7% to 37.2% of patients continued smoking, 81.7% to 89.3% had low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels beyond the goal of 70 mg/dL, and 16% had new-onset diabetes mellitus. Female sex, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, multivessel disease, and chronic inflammatory disease were factors associated with recurrent MACEs. Conclusions Premature CAD is an aggressive disease with frequent ischemic recurrences and premature death. Individuals with premature CAD have a high proportion of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, but failure to control them is frequently observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.017712DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955368PMC
December 2020

Muscle-Liver Trafficking of BCAA-Derived Nitrogen Underlies Obesity-Related Glycine Depletion.

Cell Rep 2020 11;33(6):108375

Sarah W. Stedman Nutrition and Metabolism Center, Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; Departments of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Glycine levels are inversely associated with branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and cardiometabolic disease phenotypes, but biochemical mechanisms that explain these relationships remain uncharted. Metabolites and genes related to BCAA metabolism and nitrogen handling were strongly associated with glycine in correlation analyses. Stable isotope labeling in Zucker fatty rats (ZFRs) shows that glycine acts as a carbon donor for the pyruvate-alanine cycle in a BCAA-regulated manner. Inhibition of the BCAA transaminase (BCAT) enzymes depletes plasma pools of alanine and raises glycine levels. In high-fat-fed ZFRs, dietary glycine supplementation raises urinary acyl-glycine content and lowers circulating triglycerides but also results in accumulation of long-chain acyl-coenzyme As (acyl-CoAs), lower 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in muscle, and no improvement in glucose tolerance. Collectively, these studies frame a mechanism for explaining obesity-related glycine depletion and also provide insight into the impact of glycine supplementation on systemic glucose, lipid, and amino acid metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108375DOI Listing
November 2020

Evaluating the precision of EBF1 SNP x stress interaction association: sex, race, and age differences in a big harmonized data set of 28,026 participants.

Transl Psychiatry 2020 10 20;10(1):351. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Behavioral Medicine Research Center, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA.

In prior work, we identified a novel gene-by-stress association of EBF1's common variation (SNP rs4704963) with obesity (i.e., hip, waist) in Whites, which was further strengthened through multiple replications using our synthetic stress measure. We now extend this prior work in a precision medicine framework to find the risk group using harmonized data from 28,026 participants by evaluating the following: (a) EBF1 SNPxSTRESS interaction in Blacks; (b) 3-way interaction of EBF1 SNPxSTRESS with sex, race, and age; and (c) a race and sex-specific path linking EBF1 and stress to obesity to fasting glucose to the development of cardiometabolic disease risk. Our findings provided additional confirmation that genetic variation in EBF1 may contribute to stress-induced human obesity, including in Blacks (P = 0.022) that mainly resulted from race-specific stress due to "racism/discrimination" (P = 0.036) and "not meeting basic needs" (P = 0.053). The EBF1 gene-by-stress interaction differed significantly (P = 1.01e-03) depending on the sex of participants in Whites. Race and age also showed tentative associations (Ps = 0.103, 0.093, respectively) with this interaction. There was a significant and substantially larger path linking EBF1 and stress to obesity to fasting glucose to type 2 diabetes for the EBF1 minor allele group (coefficient = 0.28, P = 0.009, 95% CI = 0.07-0.49) compared with the same path for the EBF1 major allele homozygotes in White females and also a similar pattern of the path in Black females. Underscoring the race-specific key life-stress indicators (e.g., racism/discrimination) and also the utility of our synthetic stress, we identified the potential risk group of EBF1 and stress-induced human obesity and cardiometabolic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-01028-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7572375PMC
October 2020

Obesity Genomics and Metabolomics: a Nexus of Cardiometabolic Risk.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2020 10 10;22(12):174. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Obesity is a significant international public health epidemic with major downstream consequences on morbidity and mortality. While lifestyle factors contribute, there is an evolving understanding of genomic and metabolomic pathways involved with obesity and its relationship with cardiometabolic risk. This review will provide an overview of some of these important findings from both a biologic and clinical perspective.

Recent Findings: Recent studies have identified polygenic risk scores and metabolomic biomarkers of obesity and related outcomes, which have also highlighted biological pathways, such as the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) pathway that is dysregulated in this disease. These biomarkers may help in personalizing obesity interventions and for mitigation of future cardiometabolic risk. A multifaceted approach is necessary to impact the growing epidemic of obesity and related diseases. This will likely include incorporating precision medicine approaches with genomic and metabolomic biomarkers to personalize interventions and improve risk prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-020-01422-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8133795PMC
October 2020

Heterozygous Gene Deficiency and Risk of Coronary Artery Disease.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2020 10 30;13(5):417-423. Epub 2020 Aug 30.

Center for Genomic Medicine (C.A.E., P.N., N.G., S.G., A.V.K., S.K.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.

Background: Familial sitosterolemia is a rare Mendelian disorder characterized by hyperabsorption and decreased biliary excretion of dietary sterols. Affected individuals typically have complete genetic deficiency-homozygous loss-of-function (LoF) variants-in the or genes and have substantially elevated plasma sitosterol and LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. The impact of partial genetic deficiency of or -as occurs in heterozygous carriers of LoF variants-on LDL-C and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) has remained uncertain.

Methods: We first recruited 9 sitosterolemia families, identified causative LoF variants in or , and evaluated the associations of these or LoF variants with plasma phytosterols and lipid levels. We next assessed for LoF variants in or in CAD cases (n=29 321) versus controls (n=357 326). We tested the association of rare LoF variants in or with blood lipids and risk for CAD. Rare LoF variants were defined as protein-truncating variants with minor allele frequency <0.1% in or .

Results: In sitosterolemia families, 7 pedigrees harbored causative LoF variants in and 2 pedigrees in . Homozygous LoF variants in either or led to marked elevations in sitosterol and LDL-C. Of those sitosterolemia families, heterozygous carriers of LoF variants exhibited increased sitosterol and LDL-C levels compared with noncarriers. Within large-scale CAD case-control cohorts, prevalence of rare LoF variants in and in was ≈0.1% each. heterozygous LoF variant carriers had significantly elevated LDL-C levels (25 mg/dL [95% CI, 14-35]; =1.1×10) and were at 2-fold increased risk of CAD (odds ratio, 2.06 [95% CI, 1.27-3.35]; =0.004). By contrast, heterozygous LoF carrier status was not associated with increased LDL-C or risk of CAD.

Conclusions: Although familial sitosterolemia is traditionally considered as a recessive disorder, we observed that heterozygous carriers of an LoF variant in had significantly increased sitosterol and LDL-C levels and a 2-fold increase in risk of CAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.119.002871DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7983048PMC
October 2020

Identification of Undetected Monogenic Cardiovascular Disorders.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 08;76(7):797-808

Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina; Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina. Electronic address:

Background: Monogenic diseases are individually rare but collectively common, and are likely underdiagnosed.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of monogenic cardiovascular diseases (MCVDs) and potentially missed diagnoses in a cardiovascular cohort.

Methods: Exomes from 8,574 individuals referred for cardiac catheterization were analyzed. Pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants associated with MCVD (cardiomyopathies, arrhythmias, connective tissue disorders, and familial hypercholesterolemia were identified. Electronic health records (EHRs) were reviewed for individuals harboring P/LP variants who were predicted to develop disease (G+). G+ individuals who did not have a documented relevant diagnosis were classified into groups of whether they may represent missed diagnoses (unknown, unlikely, possible, probable, or definite) based on relevant diagnostic criteria/features for that disease.

Results: In total, 159 P/LP variants were identified; 2,361 individuals harbored at least 1 P/LP variant, of whom 389 G+ individuals (4.5% of total cohort) were predicted to have at least 1 MCVD. EHR review of 342 G+ individuals predicted to have 1 MCVD with sufficient EHR data revealed that 52 had been given the relevant clinical diagnosis. The remaining 290 individuals were classified as potentially having an MCVD as follows: 193 unlikely (66.6%), 50 possible (17.2%), 30 probable (10.3%), and 17 definite (5.9%). Grouping possible, probable, definite, and known diagnoses, 149 were considered to have an MCVD. Novel MCVD pathogenic variants were identified in 16 individuals.

Conclusions: Overall, 149 individuals (1.7% of cohort) had MCVDs, but only 35% were diagnosed. These patients represents a "missed opportunity," which could be addressed by greater use of genetic testing of patients seen by cardiologists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.06.037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7428466PMC
August 2020

Associations of gestational cardiovascular health with pregnancy outcomes: the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome study.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 02 5;224(2):210.e1-210.e17. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL.

Background: The American Heart Association's formal characterization of cardiovascular health combines several metrics in a health-oriented, rather than disease-oriented, framework. Although cardiovascular health assessment during pregnancy has been recommended, its significance for pregnancy outcomes is unknown.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of gestational cardiovascular health-formally characterized by a combination of 5 metrics-with adverse maternal and newborn outcomes.

Study Design: We analyzed data from the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome study, including 2304 mother-newborn dyads from 6 countries. Maternal cardiovascular health was defined by the combination of the following 5 metrics measured at a mean of 28 (24-32) weeks' gestation: body mass index, blood pressure, lipids, glucose, and smoking. Levels of each metric were categorized using pregnancy guidelines, and the total cardiovascular health was scored (0-10 points, where 10 was the most favorable). Cord blood was collected at delivery, newborn anthropometrics were measured within 72 hours, and medical records were abstracted for obstetrical outcomes. Modified Poisson and multinomial logistic regression were used to test the associations of gestational cardiovascular health with pregnancy outcomes, adjusted for center and maternal and newborn characteristics.

Results: The average age of women at study exam was 29.6 years old, and they delivered at a mean gestational age of 39.8 weeks. The mean total gestational cardiovascular health score was 8.6 (of 10); 36.3% had all ideal metrics and 7.5% had 2+ poor metrics. In fully adjusted models, each 1 point higher (more favorable) cardiovascular health score was associated with lower risks for preeclampsia (relative risk, 0.67 [95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.73]), unplanned primary cesarean delivery (0.88 [0.82-0.95]), newborn birthweight >90th percentile (0.81 [0.75-0.87]), sum of skinfolds >90th percentile (0.84 [0.77-0.92]), and insulin sensitivity <10th percentile (0.83 [0.77-0.90]). Cardiovascular health categories demonstrated graded associations with outcomes; for example, relative risks (95% confidence intervals) for preeclampsia were 3.13 (1.39-7.06), 5.34 (2.44-11.70), and 9.30 (3.95-21.86) for women with ≥1 intermediate, 1 poor, or ≥2 poor (vs all ideal) metrics, respectively.

Conclusion: More favorable cardiovascular health at 24 to 32 weeks' gestation was associated with lower risks for several adverse pregnancy outcomes in a multinational cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2020.07.053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7855033PMC
February 2021

Rare Things Being Common: Implications for Common Genetic Variants in Rare Diseases Like Long-QT Syndrome.

Circulation 2020 07 27;142(4):339-341. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of Medicine (S.H.S.), Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.048339DOI Listing
July 2020

Rationale and design of "Hearts & Parks": study protocol for a pragmatic randomized clinical trial of an integrated clinic-community intervention to treat pediatric obesity.

BMC Pediatr 2020 06 26;20(1):308. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, 27710, USA.

Background: The prevalence of child and adolescent obesity and severe obesity continues to increase despite decades of policy and research aimed at prevention. Obesity strongly predicts cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk; both begin in childhood. Children who receive intensive behavioral interventions can reduce body mass index (BMI) and reverse disease risk. However, delivering these interventions with fidelity at scale remains a challenge. Clinic-community partnerships offer a promising strategy to provide high-quality clinical care and deliver behavioral treatment in local park and recreation settings. The Hearts & Parks study has three broad objectives: (1) evaluate the effectiveness of the clinic-community model for the treatment of child obesity, (2) define microbiome and metabolomic signatures of obesity and response to lifestyle change, and (3) inform the implementation of similar models in clinical systems.

Methods: Methods are designed for a pragmatic randomized, controlled clinical trial (n = 270) to test the effectiveness of an integrated clinic-community child obesity intervention as compared with usual care. We are powered to detect a difference in body mass index (BMI) between groups at 6 months, with follow up to 12 months. Secondary outcomes include changes in biomarkers for cardiovascular disease, psychosocial risk, and quality of life. Through collection of biospecimens (serum and stool), additional exploratory outcomes include microbiome and metabolomics biomarkers of response to lifestyle modification.

Discussion: We present the study design, enrollment strategy, and intervention details for a randomized clinical trial to measure the effectiveness of a clinic-community child obesity treatment intervention. This study will inform a critical area in child obesity and cardiovascular risk research-defining outcomes, implementation feasibility, and identifying potential molecular mechanisms of treatment response.

Clinical Trial Registration: NCT03339440 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-020-02190-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318397PMC
June 2020

Preliminary evidence of effects of potassium chloride on a metabolomic path to diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

Metabolomics 2020 06 18;16(7):75. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Medicine, Duke University, 200 Morris Street, 3rd Floor, Durham, NC, 27701, USA.

Introduction: Low potassium intake can affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and cardiometabolic risk factors.

Objective: We hypothesize that potassium chloride (KCl) supplementation can improve cardiovascular risk metabolomic profile.

Methods: In this secondary analysis of a pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) of 26 participants with prediabetes randomized to KCl or placebo, we performed targeted mass-spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling on baseline and 12-week (end-of-study) plasma samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the many correlated metabolites into fewer, independent factors that retain most of the information in the original data.

Results: Those taking KCl had significant reductions (corresponding to lower cardiovascular risk) in the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) factor (P = 0.004) and in valine levels (P = 0.02); and non-significant reductions in short-chain acylcarnitines (SCA) factor (P = 0.11).

Conclusions: KCl supplementation may improve circulating BCAA levels, which may reflect improvements in overall cardiometabolic risk profile.

Clinical Trials Registry: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02236598; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02236598.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11306-020-01696-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8053254PMC
June 2020

Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) Coding Variants Are Associated With Creatinine Rise After Cardiac Surgery.

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2020 Dec 11;34(12):3314-3320. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Objective: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complication of cardiac surgery that is considerably more common in African Americans (1.5-fold). Although homozygous status for apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) risk alleles is associated with chronic kidney disease in individuals of African ancestry, whether these coding variants confer AKI risk is unknown. The present study examined whether APOL1 homozygous risk allele status was associated with AKI in African Americans after cardiac surgery.

Design: Retrospective analysis of a cohort.

Setting: Single-center university hospital.

Participants: African American patients from the CATHeterization GENetics study cohort who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.

Interventions: Genotyping of APOL1 alleles.

Measurements And Main Results: Data from 125 African American patients included 12 APOL1 risk (ie, homozygous for risk alleles) patients and 113 APOL1 control (ie, wildtype or heterozygous for risk alleles) patients. The primary outcome to reflect AKI was peak serum creatinine rise after surgery relative to the preoperative creatinine (%ΔCr). The secondary outcome was Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) AKI criteria. In the primary analysis, peak creatinine rise was higher in risk compared with control patients in both univariate (%ΔCr 69.1 v 29.6%; p = 0.005) and multivariate regression (%ΔCr 88.5 v 43.7%; p = 0.006) analyses. For the secondary outcome, a trend toward KDIGO AKI development was noted in APOL1 risk patients, but this was not statistically significant.

Conclusions: African American cardiac surgery patients homozygous for APOL1 chronic kidney disease risk variants averaged a more than 2-fold higher postoperative creatinine rise even after adjustment for other risk factors, suggesting these alleles also are independent risk factors for AKI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2020.04.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7655610PMC
December 2020

Lipoprotein (a): An Update on a Marker of Residual Risk and Associated Clinical Manifestations.

Am J Cardiol 2020 07 7;126:94-102. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina; Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina.

Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is a low-density, cholesterol-containing lipoprotein that differs from other low-density lipoproteins due to the presence of apolipoprotein(a) bound to its surface apolipoprotein B100. Multiple epidemiologic studies, including Mendelian Randomization studies, have demonstrated that increasing Lp(a) levels are associated with increased risk of heart disease, including atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and calcific aortic stenosis. The risk associated with elevations in Lp(a) appears to be independent of other lipid markers. While the current treatment options for elevated Lp(a) are limited, promising new therapies are under development, leading to renewed interest in Lp(a). This review provides an overview of the biology and epidemiology of Lp(a), available outcome studies, and insights into future therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2020.03.043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7376542PMC
July 2020
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