Publications by authors named "Suzanne Manning"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Hypermutation In Pancreatic Cancer.

Gastroenterology 2017 01 15;152(1):68-74.e2. Epub 2016 Nov 15.

QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Queensland Centre for Medical Genomics, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Pancreatic cancer is molecularly diverse, with few effective therapies. Increased mutation burden and defective DNA repair are associated with response to immune checkpoint inhibitors in several other cancer types. We interrogated 385 pancreatic cancer genomes to define hypermutation and its causes. Mutational signatures inferring defects in DNA repair were enriched in those with the highest mutation burdens. Mismatch repair deficiency was identified in 1% of tumors harboring different mechanisms of somatic inactivation of MLH1 and MSH2. Defining mutation load in individual pancreatic cancers and the optimal assay for patient selection may inform clinical trial design for immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2016.09.060DOI Listing
January 2017

Genomic analyses identify molecular subtypes of pancreatic cancer.

Nature 2016 Mar 24;531(7592):47-52. Epub 2016 Feb 24.

Queensland Centre for Medical Genomics, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia.

Integrated genomic analysis of 456 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas identified 32 recurrently mutated genes that aggregate into 10 pathways: KRAS, TGF-β, WNT, NOTCH, ROBO/SLIT signalling, G1/S transition, SWI-SNF, chromatin modification, DNA repair and RNA processing. Expression analysis defined 4 subtypes: (1) squamous; (2) pancreatic progenitor; (3) immunogenic; and (4) aberrantly differentiated endocrine exocrine (ADEX) that correlate with histopathological characteristics. Squamous tumours are enriched for TP53 and KDM6A mutations, upregulation of the TP63∆N transcriptional network, hypermethylation of pancreatic endodermal cell-fate determining genes and have a poor prognosis. Pancreatic progenitor tumours preferentially express genes involved in early pancreatic development (FOXA2/3, PDX1 and MNX1). ADEX tumours displayed upregulation of genes that regulate networks involved in KRAS activation, exocrine (NR5A2 and RBPJL), and endocrine differentiation (NEUROD1 and NKX2-2). Immunogenic tumours contained upregulated immune networks including pathways involved in acquired immune suppression. These data infer differences in the molecular evolution of pancreatic cancer subtypes and identify opportunities for therapeutic development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature16965DOI Listing
March 2016

Identification of the CIMP-like subtype and aberrant methylation of members of the chromosomal segregation and spindle assembly pathways in esophageal adenocarcinoma.

Carcinogenesis 2016 Apr 10;37(4):356-65. Epub 2016 Feb 10.

Surgical Oncology Group, School of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Translational Research Institute at the Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Brisbane, Queensland 4102, Australia, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Brisbane, Queensland 4102, Australia and.

The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has risen significantly over recent decades. Although survival has improved, cure rates remain poor, with <20% of patients surviving 5 years. This is the first study to explore methylome, transcriptome and ENCODE data to characterize the role of methylation in EAC. We investigate the genome-wide methylation profile of 250 samples including 125 EAC, 19 Barrett's esophagus (BE), 85 squamous esophagus and 21 normal stomach. Transcriptome data of 70 samples (48 EAC, 4 BE and 18 squamous esophagus) were used to identify changes in methylation associated with gene expression. BE and EAC showed similar methylation profiles, which differed from squamous tissue. Hypermethylated sites in EAC and BE were mainly located in CpG-rich promoters. A total of 18575 CpG sites associated with 5538 genes were differentially methylated, 63% of these genes showed significant correlation between methylation and mRNA expression levels. Pathways involved in tumorigenesis including cell adhesion, TGF and WNT signaling showed enrichment for genes aberrantly methylated. Genes involved in chromosomal segregation and spindle formation were aberrantly methylated. Given the recent evidence that chromothripsis may be a driver mechanism in EAC, the role of epigenetic perturbation of these pathways should be further investigated. The methylation profiles revealed two EAC subtypes, one associated with widespread CpG island hypermethylation overlapping H3K27me3 marks and binding sites of the Polycomb proteins. These subtypes were supported by an independent set of 89 esophageal cancer samples. The most hypermethylated tumors showed worse patient survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgw018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4806711PMC
April 2016

Integrated genomic and transcriptomic analysis of human brain metastases identifies alterations of potential clinical significance.

J Pathol 2015 Nov 19;237(3):363-78. Epub 2015 Aug 19.

QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, Queensland, Australia.

Treatment options for patients with brain metastases (BMs) have limited efficacy and the mortality rate is virtually 100%. Targeted therapy is critically under-utilized, and our understanding of mechanisms underpinning metastatic outgrowth in the brain is limited. To address these deficiencies, we investigated the genomic and transcriptomic landscapes of 36 BMs from breast, lung, melanoma and oesophageal cancers, using DNA copy-number analysis and exome- and RNA-sequencing. The key findings were as follows. (a) Identification of novel candidates with possible roles in BM development, including the significantly mutated genes DSC2, ST7, PIK3R1 and SMC5, and the DNA repair, ERBB-HER signalling, axon guidance and protein kinase-A signalling pathways. (b) Mutational signature analysis was applied to successfully identify the primary cancer type for two BMs with unknown origins. (c) Actionable genomic alterations were identified in 31/36 BMs (86%); in one case we retrospectively identified ERBB2 amplification representing apparent HER2 status conversion, then confirmed progressive enrichment for HER2-positivity across four consecutive metastatic deposits by IHC and SISH, resulting in the deployment of HER2-targeted therapy for the patient. (d) In the ERBB/HER pathway, ERBB2 expression correlated with ERBB3 (r(2)  = 0.496; p < 0.0001) and HER3 and HER4 were frequently activated in an independent cohort of 167 archival BM from seven primary cancer types: 57.6% and 52.6% of cases were phospho-HER3(Y1222) or phospho-HER4(Y1162) membrane-positive, respectively. The HER3 ligands NRG1/2 were barely detectable by RNAseq, with NRG1 (8p12) genomic loss in 63.6% breast cancer-BMs, suggesting a microenvironmental source of ligand. In summary, this is the first study to characterize the genomic landscapes of BM. The data revealed novel candidates, potential clinical applications for genomic profiling of resectable BMs, and highlighted the possibility of therapeutically targeting HER3, which is broadly over-expressed and activated in BMs, independent of primary site and systemic therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/path.4583DOI Listing
November 2015

Whole-genome characterization of chemoresistant ovarian cancer.

Nature 2015 May;521(7553):489-94

Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine, Southbank, Victoria 3006, Australia.

Patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) have experienced little improvement in overall survival, and standard treatment has not advanced beyond platinum-based combination chemotherapy, during the past 30 years. To understand the drivers of clinical phenotypes better, here we use whole-genome sequencing of tumour and germline DNA samples from 92 patients with primary refractory, resistant, sensitive and matched acquired resistant disease. We show that gene breakage commonly inactivates the tumour suppressors RB1, NF1, RAD51B and PTEN in HGSC, and contributes to acquired chemotherapy resistance. CCNE1 amplification was common in primary resistant and refractory disease. We observed several molecular events associated with acquired resistance, including multiple independent reversions of germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations in individual patients, loss of BRCA1 promoter methylation, an alteration in molecular subtype, and recurrent promoter fusion associated with overexpression of the drug efflux pump MDR1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature14410DOI Listing
May 2015

Whole genomes redefine the mutational landscape of pancreatic cancer.

Nature 2015 Feb;518(7540):495-501

Queensland Centre for Medical Genomics, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia.

Pancreatic cancer remains one of the most lethal of malignancies and a major health burden. We performed whole-genome sequencing and copy number variation (CNV) analysis of 100 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs). Chromosomal rearrangements leading to gene disruption were prevalent, affecting genes known to be important in pancreatic cancer (TP53, SMAD4, CDKN2A, ARID1A and ROBO2) and new candidate drivers of pancreatic carcinogenesis (KDM6A and PREX2). Patterns of structural variation (variation in chromosomal structure) classified PDACs into 4 subtypes with potential clinical utility: the subtypes were termed stable, locally rearranged, scattered and unstable. A significant proportion harboured focal amplifications, many of which contained druggable oncogenes (ERBB2, MET, FGFR1, CDK6, PIK3R3 and PIK3CA), but at low individual patient prevalence. Genomic instability co-segregated with inactivation of DNA maintenance genes (BRCA1, BRCA2 or PALB2) and a mutational signature of DNA damage repair deficiency. Of 8 patients who received platinum therapy, 4 of 5 individuals with these measures of defective DNA maintenance responded.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature14169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4523082PMC
February 2015

Genomic catastrophes frequently arise in esophageal adenocarcinoma and drive tumorigenesis.

Nat Commun 2014 Oct 29;5:5224. Epub 2014 Oct 29.

QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, Brisbane, Queensland 4006, Australia.

Oesophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) incidence is rapidly increasing in Western countries. A better understanding of EAC underpins efforts to improve early detection and treatment outcomes. While large EAC exome sequencing efforts to date have found recurrent loss-of-function mutations, oncogenic driving events have been underrepresented. Here we use a combination of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and single-nucleotide polymorphism-array profiling to show that genomic catastrophes are frequent in EAC, with almost a third (32%, n=40/123) undergoing chromothriptic events. WGS of 22 EAC cases show that catastrophes may lead to oncogene amplification through chromothripsis-derived double-minute chromosome formation (MYC and MDM2) or breakage-fusion-bridge (KRAS, MDM2 and RFC3). Telomere shortening is more prominent in EACs bearing localized complex rearrangements. Mutational signature analysis also confirms that extreme genomic instability in EAC can be driven by somatic BRCA2 mutations. These findings suggest that genomic catastrophes have a significant role in the malignant transformation of EAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms6224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4596003PMC
October 2014

A workflow to increase verification rate of chromosomal structural rearrangements using high-throughput next-generation sequencing.

Biotechniques 2014 Jul 1;57(1):31-8. Epub 2014 Jul 1.

Queensland Centre for Medical Genomics, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; Wolfson Wohl Cancer Research Centre, Institute for Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom.

Somatic rearrangements, which are commonly found in human cancer genomes, contribute to the progression and maintenance of cancers. Conventionally, the verification of somatic rearrangements comprises many manual steps and Sanger sequencing. This is labor intensive when verifying a large number of rearrangements in a large cohort. To increase the verification throughput, we devised a high-throughput workflow that utilizes benchtop next-generation sequencing and in-house bioinformatics tools to link the laboratory processes. In the proposed workflow, primers are automatically designed. PCR and an optional gel electrophoresis step to confirm the somatic nature of the rearrangements are performed. PCR products of somatic events are pooled for Ion Torrent PGM and/or Illumina MiSeq sequencing, the resulting sequence reads are assembled into consensus contigs by a consensus assembler, and an automated BLAT is used to resolve the breakpoints to base level. We compared sequences and breakpoints of verified somatic rearrangements between the conventional and high-throughput workflow. The results showed that next-generation sequencing methods are comparable to conventional Sanger sequencing. The identified breakpoints obtained from next-generation sequencing methods were highly accurate and reproducible. Furthermore, the proposed workflow allows hundreds of events to be processed in a shorter time frame compared with the conventional workflow.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2144/000114189DOI Listing
July 2014

Who needs a friend? Marital status transitions and physical health outcomes in later life.

Health Psychol 2014 Jun;33(6):505-15

Graduate School of Social Service, Fordham University.

Objective: This study assessed the moderating role of 2 types of confidante relationships in mitigating the negative health impact of transitions involving spousal loss in late life (widowhood and divorce/separation).

Method: The sample included 707 respondents who participated in the 1992 and 2004 waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS, 2007) all of whom were married at Time 1 and by Time 2 experienced either an end of the marriage resulting from widowhood or divorce/separation or remained continuously married to the same spouse. The majority of the sample was female (n = 457) and 64.3 years old on average. Three indicators of physical health were examined, including somatic depressive symptomatology, self-rated health, and number of sick days in the preceding year.

Results: Moderated regression analyses showed that the availability of a friend as confidante at Time 2 played a significant moderating role in the link between marital transitions and health outcomes, buffering the health impact of widowhood. Specifically, among those who became widowed between the 2 waves, those who had available a friend as confidante at Time 2 reported significantly lower somatic depressive symptoms, better self-rated health, and fewer sick days in bed during the preceding year than those who reported not having a friend as confidante. No support was obtained for the moderating role of having a family member as confidante at Time 2 in the link from marital transitions to health.

Conclusions: These results highlight the need to develop means to maintain and enhance confiding friendships among widowed older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/hea0000049DOI Listing
June 2014

Genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma reveal epigenetic deregulation of SLIT-ROBO, ITGA2 and MET signaling.

Int J Cancer 2014 Sep 9;135(5):1110-8. Epub 2014 May 9.

Queensland Centre for Medical Genomics, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

The importance of epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation in tumorigenesis is increasingly being appreciated. To define the genome-wide pattern of DNA methylation in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC), we captured the methylation profiles of 167 untreated resected PDACs and compared them to a panel of 29 adjacent nontransformed pancreata using high-density arrays. A total of 11,634 CpG sites associated with 3,522 genes were significantly differentially methylated (DM) in PDAC and were capable of segregating PDAC from non-malignant pancreas, regardless of tumor cellularity. As expected, PDAC hypermethylation was most prevalent in the 5' region of genes (including the proximal promoter, 5'UTR and CpG islands). Approximately 33% DM genes showed significant inverse correlation with mRNA expression levels. Pathway analysis revealed an enrichment of aberrantly methylated genes involved in key molecular mechanisms important to PDAC: TGF-β, WNT, integrin signaling, cell adhesion, stellate cell activation and axon guidance. Given the recent discovery that SLIT-ROBO mutations play a clinically important role in PDAC, the role of epigenetic perturbation of axon guidance was pursued in more detail. Bisulfite amplicon deep sequencing and qRT-PCR expression analyses confirmed recurrent perturbation of axon guidance pathway genes SLIT2, SLIT3, ROBO1, ROBO3, ITGA2 and MET and suggests epigenetic suppression of SLIT-ROBO signaling and up-regulation of MET and ITGA2 expression. Hypomethylation of MET and ITGA2 correlated with high gene expression, which was associated with poor survival. These data suggest that aberrant methylation plays an important role in pancreatic carcinogenesis affecting core signaling pathways with potential implications for the disease pathophysiology and therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.28765DOI Listing
September 2014

Somatic point mutation calling in low cellularity tumors.

PLoS One 2013 8;8(11):e74380. Epub 2013 Nov 8.

Queensland Centre for Medical Genomics, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Somatic mutation calling from next-generation sequencing data remains a challenge due to the difficulties of distinguishing true somatic events from artifacts arising from PCR, sequencing errors or mis-mapping. Tumor cellularity or purity, sub-clonality and copy number changes also confound the identification of true somatic events against a background of germline variants. We have developed a heuristic strategy and software (http://www.qcmg.org/bioinformatics/qsnp/) for somatic mutation calling in samples with low tumor content and we show the superior sensitivity and precision of our approach using a previously sequenced cell line, a series of tumor/normal admixtures, and 3,253 putative somatic SNVs verified on an orthogonal platform.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0074380PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3826759PMC
March 2015

Pancreatic cancer genomes reveal aberrations in axon guidance pathway genes.

Nature 2012 Nov 24;491(7424):399-405. Epub 2012 Oct 24.

The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, 370 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales 2010, Australia.

Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy with few effective therapies. We performed exome sequencing and copy number analysis to define genomic aberrations in a prospectively accrued clinical cohort (n = 142) of early (stage I and II) sporadic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Detailed analysis of 99 informative tumours identified substantial heterogeneity with 2,016 non-silent mutations and 1,628 copy-number variations. We define 16 significantly mutated genes, reaffirming known mutations (KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, SMAD4, MLL3, TGFBR2, ARID1A and SF3B1), and uncover novel mutated genes including additional genes involved in chromatin modification (EPC1 and ARID2), DNA damage repair (ATM) and other mechanisms (ZIM2, MAP2K4, NALCN, SLC16A4 and MAGEA6). Integrative analysis with in vitro functional data and animal models provided supportive evidence for potential roles for these genetic aberrations in carcinogenesis. Pathway-based analysis of recurrently mutated genes recapitulated clustering in core signalling pathways in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and identified new mutated genes in each pathway. We also identified frequent and diverse somatic aberrations in genes described traditionally as embryonic regulators of axon guidance, particularly SLIT/ROBO signalling, which was also evident in murine Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated somatic mutagenesis models of pancreatic cancer, providing further supportive evidence for the potential involvement of axon guidance genes in pancreatic carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature11547DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3530898PMC
November 2012

The educational ladder model for ethics committees: confidence and change flourishing through core competency development.

HEC Forum 2006 Dec;18(4):305-18

Bloorview Kids Rehab, Toronto Rehabilitation Institute & Joint Centre For Bioethics, 88 College St., Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1L4, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10730-006-9021-2DOI Listing
December 2006

Finding a direction for pediatric assent.

Authors:
Suzanne Manning

J Pediatr 2007 Apr;150(4):e38

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2006.12.035DOI Listing
April 2007

Bone morphogenetic protein 4 promotes pulmonary vascular remodeling in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.

Circ Res 2005 Sep 11;97(5):496-504. Epub 2005 Aug 11.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA.

We show that 1 of the type II bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor ligands, BMP4, is widely expressed in the adult mouse lung and is upregulated in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH). Furthermore, heterozygous null Bmp4(lacZ/+) mice are protected from the development of hypoxia-induced PH, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, and vascular remodeling. This is associated with a reduction in hypoxia-induced Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and Id1 expression in the pulmonary vasculature. In addition, pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells secrete BMP4 in response to hypoxia and promote proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells in a BMP4-dependent fashion. These findings indicate that BMP4 plays a dominant role in regulating BMP signaling in the hypoxic pulmonary vasculature and suggest that endothelium-derived BMP4 plays a direct, paracrine role in promoting smooth muscle proliferation and remodeling in hypoxic PH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.RES.0000181152.65534.07DOI Listing
September 2005

Elevated expression of 12/15-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2 in a transgenic mouse model of prostate carcinoma.

Cancer Res 2003 May;63(9):2256-67

Department of Pathology, Vanderbilt Prostate Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-2561, USA.

Changes in expression of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolizing enzymes are implicated in the development and progression of human prostate carcinoma (Pca). Transgenic mouse models of Pca that progress from high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) to invasive and metastatic carcinoma could facilitate study of the regulation and function of these genes in Pca progression. Herein we characterize the AA-metabolizing enzymes in transgenic mice established with a prostate epithelial-specific long probasin promoter and the SV40 large T antigen (LPB-Tag mice) that develop extensive HGPIN and invasive and metastatic carcinoma with neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation. Murine 8-lipoxygenase (8-LOX), homologue of the 15-LOX-2 enzyme that is expressed in benign human prostatic epithelium and reduced in Pca, was not detected in wild-type or LPB-Tag prostates as determined by enzyme assay, reverse transcription-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. The most prominent AA metabolite in mouse prostate was 12-HETE. Wild-type prostate (dorsolateral lobe) converted 1.6 +/- 0.5% [(14)C]AA to 12-HETE (n = 7), and this increased to 8.0 +/- 4.4% conversion in LPB-Tag mice with HGPIN (n = 13). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR and immunostaining correlated the increased 12-HETE synthesis with increased neoplastic epithelial expression of 12/15-LOX, the leukocyte-type (L) of 12-LOX and the murine homologue of human 15-LOX-1. Immunostaining showed increased L12-LOX in invasive carcinoma and approximately one-half of metastatic foci. COX-2 mRNA was detectable in neoplastic prostates with HGPIN but not in wild-type prostate. By immunostaining, COX-2 was increased in the neoplastic epithelium of HGPIN but was absent in foci of invasion and metastases. We conclude that (a) AA metabolism in wild-type mouse prostate differs from humans in the basal expression of LOXs (15-LOX-2 in human, absence of its 8-LOX homologue in mouse prostate); (b) increased expression of 12/15-LOX in HGPIN and invasive carcinoma of the LPB-Tag model is similar to the increased 15-LOX-1 in high-grade human Pca; and (c) the LPB-Tag model shows increased COX-2 in HGPIN, and therefore, it may allow additional definition of the role of this enzyme in the subset of human HGPINs or other precursor lesions that are COX-2 positive, as well as investigation of its contribution to neoplastic cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis in Pca.
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May 2003

ET-1 receptor gene expression and distribution in L1 and L2 cells from hypertensive sheep pulmonary artery.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2002 Jul;283(1):L42-51

Department of Medicine and Center for Lung Research, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-2650, USA.

We examined gene and surface expression and activity of the endothelin (ET)-1 receptors (ETA and ETB) in subendothelial (L1) and inner medial (L2) cells from the main pulmonary artery of sheep with continuous air embolization (CAE)-induced chronic pulmonary hypertension (CPH). According to quantitative real-time RT-PCR, basal gene expression of both receptors was significantly higher in L2 than L1 cells, and hypertensive L2 cells showed significantly higher gene expression of ETB than controls. Expression of both genes in hypertensive L1 cells was similar to controls. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis confirmed the increased distribution of ET(B) in hypertensive L2 cells. Although only the ETA receptors in control L2 cells showed significant binding of [125I]-labeled ET-1 at 1 h, both receptors bound ET-1 to hypertensive cells. Exposure to exogenous ET-1 for 18 h revealed that only the L2 cells internalized ET-1, and internalization by hypertensive L2 cells was significantly reduced when compared with controls. Treatment with ETA (BQ-610) and ETB (BQ-788) receptor antagonists demonstrated that both receptors contributed to internalization of ET-1 in control L2 cells, whereas in hypertensive cells only when both receptor antagonists were used in combination was significant suppression of ET-1 internalization found. We conclude that in sheep receiving CAE, alterations in ETB receptors in cells of the L2 layer may contribute to the maintenance of CPH via alterations in their expression, distribution, and activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00337.2001DOI Listing
July 2002

Mutational analysis of the hexose transporter of Plasmodium falciparum and development of a three-dimensional model.

J Biol Chem 2002 Aug 31;277(34):30942-9. Epub 2002 May 31.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa.

Plasmodium falciparum infection kills more than 1 million children annually. Novel drug targets are urgently being sought as multidrug resistance limits the range of treatment options for this protozoan pathogen. PfHT1, the major hexose transporter of P. falciparum is a promising new target. We report detailed structure-function studies on PfHT1 using site-directed mutagenesis approaches on residues located in helix V (Q169N) and helix VII ((302)SGL --> AGT). Studies with hexose analogues in these mutants have established that hexose recognition and permeation are intimately linked to these helices. A "fructose filter" effect results from the Q169N mutation (abolishing fructose uptake but preserving affinity and transport of glucose, as reported in Woodrow, C. J., Burchmore, R. J. S., and Krishna, S. (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 97, 9931-9936). Associated changes in competition for glucose uptake by C-2, C-3, and C-6 glucose analogues compared with native PfHT1 indicate subtle alterations in substrate interaction in this mutant. The K(m) values for glucose uptake in helix VII mutants are also similar to native PfHT1. Hydrogen bonding to positions C-5 and C-6 in glucose analogues becomes relatively more important in these mutants compared with native PfHT1. To increase understanding of hexose permeation pathways in PfHT1, we have developed the first three-dimensional model for PfHT1. As predicted for GLUT1, the principal mammalian glucose transporter, PfHT1 contains a main and an auxiliary channel. After modeling, the Q169N mutation leads predominantly to local structural changes, including displacement of neighboring helix IV. The (302)SGL position in helix VII lies in the same plane as Gln-169 in helix V but is also adjacent to the main hexose permeation pathway, consistent with results from experiments mutating this triplet motif. Furthermore, there are obvious structural and functional differences between GLUT1 and PfHT1 that can now be explored in detail using the approaches presented here. The development of specific inhibitors for PfHT1 will also be aided by these insights.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M204337200DOI Listing
August 2002
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