Publications by authors named "Suzanne C Segerstrom"

100 Publications

Mitochondrial phenotypes in purified human immune cell subtypes and cell mixtures.

Elife 2021 Oct 26;10. Epub 2021 Oct 26.

Department of Psychiatry, Division of Behavioral Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, United States.

Using a high-throughput mitochondrial phenotyping platform to quantify multiple mitochondrial features among molecularly defined immune cell subtypes, we quantify the natural variation in mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn), citrate synthase, and respiratory chain enzymatic activities in human neutrophils, monocytes, B cells, and naïve and memory T lymphocyte subtypes. In mixed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from the same individuals, we show to what extent mitochondrial measures are confounded by both cell type distributions and contaminating platelets. Cell subtype-specific measures among women and men spanning four decades of life indicate potential age- and sex-related differences, including an age-related elevation in mtDNAcn, which are masked or blunted in mixed PBMCs. Finally, a proof-of-concept, repeated-measures study in a single individual validates cell type differences and also reveals week-to-week changes in mitochondrial activities. Larger studies are required to validate and mechanistically extend these findings. These mitochondrial phenotyping data build upon established immunometabolic differences among leukocyte subpopulations, and provide foundational quantitative knowledge to develop interpretable blood-based assays of mitochondrial health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.70899DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8612706PMC
October 2021

Daily Stressors, Emotion Dynamics, and Inflammation in the MIDUS Cohort.

Int J Behav Med 2021 Oct 18. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, USA.

Background: The current study (1) examined links between daily stressors and inflammation and (2) tested whether negative emotion dynamics (emotional variability) is one pathway through which stressors are linked to inflammation.

Method: A cross-sectional sample of 986 adults (aged 35-86 years, 57% female) from MIDUS reported daily stressor frequency and severity and negative emotions on 8 consecutive nights. Negative emotion variability (intraindividual standard deviation), controlling for overall mean level (intraindividual mean), was the focus of the current study. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were assayed from blood drawn at a clinic visit. Regression models adjusted for demographics, health factors, and the time between assessments.

Results: More severe daily stressors were associated with higher CRP, but this effect was accounted for by covariates. More frequent daily stressors were associated with lower IL-6 and CRP. In follow-up analyses, significant interactions between stressor severity and frequency suggested that participants with lower stressor severity and higher stressor frequency had the lowest levels of IL-6 and CRP, whereas those with higher stressor severity had the highest levels of IL-6 and CRP, regardless of frequency. Daily stressor frequency and severity were positively associated with negative emotion variability, but variability was not linearly associated with inflammation and did not operate as a mediator.

Conclusion: Among midlife and older adults, daily stressor frequency and severity may interact and synergistically associate with inflammatory markers, potentially due to these adults being advantaged in other ways related to lower inflammation, or in a pattern aligning with hormetic stress, where frequent but manageable stressors may yield physiological benefits, or both. Negative emotion variability does not operate as a mediator. Additional work is needed to reliably measure and test other emotion dynamic metrics that may contribute to inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12529-021-10035-9DOI Listing
October 2021

A Multisite Preregistered Paradigmatic Test of the Ego-Depletion Effect.

Psychol Sci 2021 10 14;32(10):1566-1581. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Marketing, University of Groningen.

We conducted a preregistered multilaboratory project ( = 36; = 3,531) to assess the size and robustness of ego-depletion effects using a novel replication method, termed the . Each laboratory implemented one of two procedures that was intended to manipulate self-control and tested performance on a subsequent measure of self-control. Confirmatory tests found a nonsignificant result ( = 0.06). Confirmatory Bayesian meta-analyses using an informed-prior hypothesis (δ = 0.30, = 0.15) found that the data were 4 times more likely under the null than the alternative hypothesis. Hence, preregistered analyses did not find evidence for a depletion effect. Exploratory analyses on the full sample (i.e., ignoring exclusion criteria) found a statistically significant effect ( = 0.08); Bayesian analyses showed that the data were about equally likely under the null and informed-prior hypotheses. Exploratory moderator tests suggested that the depletion effect was larger for participants who reported more fatigue but was not moderated by trait self-control, willpower beliefs, or action orientation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797621989733DOI Listing
October 2021

Pain, Goal Engagement, and Eudaemonic Well-Being: Moderation by Autonomous Motivation.

J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine.

Objectives: Pain may decrease well-being in older adults by limiting social and leisure activities. However, some activities can exacerbate pain. We hypothesized that autonomously motivated goal engagement could ameliorate negative effects of pain on goal engagement and amplify positive effects of goal engagement on eudaemonic well-being (EWB).

Method: Midlife and older women (N=200) were oversampled for chronic pain. Daily diaries (n=10,697) including goal lists and ratings, pain, and EWB were completed for 7 days every 3 months for 2 years.

Results: Pain was not a correlate of goal engagement. More engagement was associated with higher EWB when motivation was autonomous. However, more goal engagement correlated with lower EWB the next day and, when not autonomously motivated, higher pain.

Discussion: Goal engagement can benefit people with or without physical pain, but the motivation behind goal engagement is equally if not more important. Goals motivated by autonomous sources increase EWB and may protect against maladaptive patterns of activity associated with pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbab105DOI Listing
June 2021

Eudaemonic Well-Being in Midlife Women: Change in and Correspondence Between Concurrent and Retrospective Reports.

Collabra Psychol 2021 25;7(1). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical School.

Concurrent and retrospective reports correspond for personality, affect, and coping. The present study described how autonomy, competence, and relatedness components of eudaemonic well-being (EWB) change over days and months and tested correspondences of daily and retrospective reports between and within people. Midlife and older (50-75 years) women (N = 200) completed online diaries daily for 1 week for 9 bursts over 2 years and answered questionnaires at the end of each burst (burst n = 1,529). Multilevel models partialed levels of variance and tested correspondence. Women varied in their daily experiences of EWB but did not vary substantially between bursts. Burst-level diary means and questionnaire responses corresponded between people, but changes within people were less strongly related. The daily, but not monthly, time scale of change is important for capturing within-person changes in EWB. Finding EWB change over months to years may depend on measurement designed to capture medium-term change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/collabra.21433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8104436PMC
March 2021

Meta-Analysis of Cognition in Parkinson's Disease Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia Progression.

Neuropsychol Rev 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Neurology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

Mild cognitive changes, including executive dysfunction, are seen in Parkinson's Disease (PD). Approximately 30% of individuals with PD develop Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been identified as a transitional state between normal cognition and dementia. Although PD-MCI and its cognitive correlates have been increasingly studied as a risk indicator for development of PDD, investigations into the PD-MCI construct have yielded heterogeneous findings. Thus, a typical PD-MCI cognitive profile remains undefined. The present meta-analysis examined published cross-sectional studies of PD-MCI and cognitively normal PD (PD-CN) groups to provide aggregated effect sizes of group test performance by cognitive domain. Subsequently, longitudinal studies examining PD-MCI to PDD progression were meta-analyzed. Ninety-two cross-sectional articles of PD-MCI vs. PD-CN were included; 5 longitudinal studies of PD-MCI conversion to PDD were included. Random effects meta-analytic models were constructed resulting in effect sizes (Hedges' g) for cognitive domains. Overall performance across all measures produced a large effect size (g = 0.83, 95% CI [0.79, 0.86], t = 0.18) in cross-sectional analyses, with cognitive screeners producing the largest effect (g = 1.09, 95% CI [1.00, 1.17], t = 0.19). Longitudinally, overall measures produced a moderate effect (g = 0.47, 95% CI [0.40, 0.53], t = 0.01), with measures of executive functioning exhibiting the largest effect (g = 0.70, 95% CI [0.51, 0.89], t = 0.01). Longitudinal effects were made more robust by low heterogeneity. This report provides the first comprehensive meta-analysis of PD-MCI cognitive outcomes and predictors in PD-MCI conversion to PDD. Limitations include heterogeneity of cross-sectional effect sizes and the potential impact of small-study effects. Areas for continued research include visuospatial skills and visual memory in PD-MCI and longitudinal examination of executive dysfunction in PD-MCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11065-021-09502-7DOI Listing
April 2021

Exposure and reactivity to repetitive thought in the neuroticism-distress relationship.

Cognit Ther Res 2020 Jun 23;44(3):659-667. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Department of Medicine Vanderbilt University Medical Center Nashville, TN.

Introduction: Distress has been assumed to result from exposure to repetitive thought (RT). However, if RT is viewed as internally generated stressors, both exposure and affective reactivity to RT could play roles in generating distress.

Methods: Three studies (young adults, N=99; midlife women, N=111; older adults, N=159) assessed exposure and reactivity to daily RT and tested whether neuroticism was related to individual differences in both exposure and affective reactivity.

Results: Across all 3 studies, reactivity effects on depressive symptoms exceeded those of exposure to RT, and neuroticism was associated with more exposure and greater affective reactivity. Furthermore, RT exposure and reactivity accounted for most when not all of the relationship between neuroticism and depressive symptoms.

Discussion And Conclusions: Further consideration of both exposure and affective reactivity to RT can not only increase the explanatory power of this construct but also suggest effective targets for intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10608-020-10078-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7928268PMC
June 2020

Statistical Guideline #6. Indicate magnitude and precision in your estimation and use "new statistics".

Int J Behav Med 2020 Oct;27(5):487-489

Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, 125 Kastle Hall, Lexington, KY, 40506-0044, USA.

This is one in a series of statistical guidelines designed to highlight common statistical considerations in behavioral medicine research. The goal is to briefly discuss appropriate ways to analyze and present data in the International Journal of Behavioral Medicine (IJBM). Collectively, the series will culminate in a set of basic statistical guidelines to be adopted by IJBM and integrated into the journal's official Instructions for Authors, and also to serve as an independent resource. If you have ideas for a future topic, please email the Statistical Editor, Suzanne Segerstrom at [email protected]
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12529-020-09929-xDOI Listing
October 2020

Mean Levels and Variability in Psychological Well-Being and Associations With Sleep in Midlife and Older Women.

Ann Behav Med 2021 05;55(5):436-445

Department of Psychology, The University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

Background: Disturbed sleep is prevalent in older adulthood and particularly among women. Greater psychological well-being (PWB) is associated with better sleep, but intraindividual variability in PWB has not been examined.

Purpose: The current study examined whether mean levels and variability in PWB were associated with sleep disturbances in midlife and older women.

Methods: Participants (N = 189) completed up to seven daily diaries and an end of the week assessment every 3 months for nine waves. Participants answered questions about their nightly sleep disturbances and reported their PWB using Ryff's six dimensions of PWB.

Results: Regression models indicated that greater variability in one aspect of PWB, positive relations with others, was related to greater sleep disturbance even after adjusting for mean levels of well-being. Greater variability in environmental mastery, purpose in life, and self-acceptance were also associated with sleep disturbance, but these associations were no longer significant after adjusting for mean levels of well-being.

Conclusions: Results suggest that fluctuations in positive relations with others are related to sleep in adult women above and beyond mean levels of well-being. Results highlight the importance of considering variability in addition to mean levels of PWB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/abm/kaaa069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8427537PMC
May 2021

Expected Estimation Errors in Studies of the Cortisol Awakening Response: A Simulation.

Psychosom Med 2020 10;82(8):751-756

From the Department of Psychology (Segerstrom) and Division of Orofacial Pain, College of Dentistry (Boggero), University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY.

Objective: Misestimation as a consequence of small sample sizes, small effect sizes, and noisy measurement may be particularly problematic in biomarker studies, the cost of which can adversely affect design decisions. This simulation study used real study designs reported in a meta-analysis of psychosocial correlates of the cortisol awakening response to investigate the probability that the results of these designs would yield misestimates in a cross-sectional study.

Methods: For each of the 212 designs, 100,000 simulated data sets were produced and the percentages of effects that were in the wrong direction and/or that differed by more than 0.10 from the true effect (b = 0.10) were calculated.

Results: As expected, small samples (n < 100) and noisy measurement contributed to higher probability of errors. The average probability of an effect being in the wrong direction was around 20%, with some designs reaching 40%; misestimation probabilities were around 40%, with some designs reaching 80%. This was true for all studies as well as those reporting statistically significant effects.

Conclusion: Results call for better study designs, and this article provides suggestions for how to achieve more accurate estimates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000850DOI Listing
October 2020

The Structure of Self-Regulation and Its Psychological and Physical Health Correlates in Older Adults.

Collabra Psychol 2020 15;6(1). Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, US.

Self-regulation refers to effortful control over one's thoughts, emotions, choices, impulses, and behaviors, and has implications for older adults' health. Executive function, physiological, and subjective indices have all been proposed to reflect self-regulation. Pairwise associations among these indices have been previously examined; however, a self-regulation constellation encompassing all of these indices has never been tested in older adults. The present study described the relationships among indices of self-regulation and tested their between- and within-person associations with upstream personality factors (conscientiousness) and downstream psychological and physical health in 149 older adults aged 60-93 years, assessed semi-annually for five years (up to 10 waves). Indices of self-regulation were only modestly correlated with each other but were each associated with health. Better executive function was associated with better psychological and physical health between and within people, whereas higher heart rate variability was associated with psychological health within people. Better subjective self-regulation had the most between- and within-person associations with better psychological and physical health. Conscientiousness was associated with subjective self-regulation and better psychological and physical health. These findings support the non-unitary nature of self-regulation in older adults and the health relevance of each of its indices between and within older adults. The aging process may change how the indices relate to each other, and older adults may draw more on certain self-regulatory components over others, given limited resources. Subjective self-regulation may be an important final common pathway to psychological and physical health in older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/collabra.297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7250393PMC
April 2020

Physiometrics in Salivary Bioscience.

Int J Behav Med 2020 Jun;27(3):262-266

Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, 125 Kastle Hall, Lexington, KY, 40506-0044, USA.

Background: Accurate estimation in statistical models depends on sample size but also, critically, reliability of the measure. Physiometrics is the equivalent of psychometrics for measures such as sex hormones, catabolic hormones, and products of the immune system.

Method: There are multiple ways to measure physiometrics, from simple correlation to complex generalizability theory designs. Depending on the design, these estimates can provide information about equivalency (e.g., the correlation between two measurements taken close together in time) or stability (e.g., the correlation between two measurements taken farther apart in time).

Results: The physiometrics of salivary measures including cortisol, α-amylase, testosterone, and cytokines range from highly stable, requiring only a single sample, to highly unstable, requiring multiple samples to achieve generalizability to longer periods of time. However, generalizability is relative to the study design, and only some designs call for stable and generalizable measures.

Conclusion: Both dedicated physiometric studies and more reporting of physiometrics in psychoneuroendocrinology and psychoneuroimmunology will improve the quality of salivary bioscience study designs in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12529-020-09899-0DOI Listing
June 2020

Emotional approach coping in older adults as predictor of physical and mental health.

Psychol Aging 2020 Jun 9;35(4):591-603. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Department of Psychology.

Emotional approach coping involves active attempts at emotional expression and processing in response to stressful circumstances. This study tested whether dispositional emotional approach coping processes predict changes in physical and mental health in community-dwelling older adults, particularly within the context of higher perceived stress. To test this, older adults ( = 150) completed assessments of emotional expression and emotional processing at study entry. They also completed measures of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and ill-health (a composite of subjective and objective physical health indicators, which included blood draw for collection of biomarkers), every 6 months over 4.5 years. Emotional processing and emotional expression were not related significantly to ill-health at study entry. However, emotional processing (but not emotional expression) significantly predicted changes in ill-health. At higher levels of emotional processing, ill-health remained low and stable; at lower levels of emotional processing, ill-health increased over time. However, when perceived stress was high, higher emotional processing and emotional expression were related to lower depressive symptoms at study entry, but higher emotional processing was associated with increasing depressive symptoms over time. Emotional approach coping processes evidence prospective relations with health outcomes, which are partially conditioned by stress perceptions. Emotional processing appears to have a protective impact against declining physical health. Predictive relationships for depressive symptoms are more complex. Older adults with chronically high perceived stress might benefit from interventions that target emotion-regulating coping processes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000463DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8199838PMC
June 2020

A new era for Health Psychology Review.

Health Psychol Rev 2020 Jun;14(2):213-214

Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17437199.2020.1748302DOI Listing
June 2020

Statistical Guideline No. 5. Include Results of a Power Analysis; if a Power Analysis Was Not Performed, Describe the Stopping Rule for Recruitment.

Int J Behav Med 2020 Apr;27(2):140-141

Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, 125 Kastle Hall, Lexington, KY, 40506-0044, USA.

This is one in a series of statistical guidelines designed to highlight common statistical considerations in behavioral medicine research. The goal is to briefly discuss appropriate ways to analyze and present data in the International Journal of Behavioral Medicine (IJBM). Collectively the series will culminate in a set of basic statistical guidelines to be adopted by IJBM and integrated into the journal's official Instructions for Authors, and also to serve as an independent resource. If you have ideas for a future topic, please email the Statistical Editor, Suzanne Segerstrom at [email protected]
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12529-020-09868-7DOI Listing
April 2020

Statistical Guideline #4. Describe the Nature and Extent of Missing Data and Impute Where Possible and Prudent.

Int J Behav Med 2020 Feb;27(1):1-2

Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, 125 Kastle Hall, Lexington, KY, 40506-0044, USA.

From the Editors: This is one in a series of statistical guidelines designed to highlight common statistical considerations in behavioral medicine research. The goal is to briefly discuss appropriate ways to analyze and present data in the International Journal of Behavioral Medicine (IJBM). Collectively the series will culminate in a set of basic statistical guidelines to be adopted by IJBM and integrated into the journal's official Instructions for Authors, but also to serve as an independent resource. If you have ideas for a future topic, please email the Statistical Editor Suzanne Segerstrom at [email protected]
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12529-019-09834-yDOI Listing
February 2020

Optimism and Pain Interference in Aging Women.

Ann Behav Med 2020 02;54(3):202-212

Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

Background: Pain interferes with people's daily lives and often limits the extent to which they can pursue goals and engage in activities that promote well-being. However, people vary in how much interference they experience at a given level of pain.

Purpose: The present study tested how optimism affects and is affected by pain interference and goal-directed activity among older women.

Methods: Every 3 months for 2 years, community-dwelling middle- and older-age women (N = 199) completed online daily diaries at home for a 7 day period, in which they reported their daily pain, pain interference, and goal-directed activity. Optimism was measured at the start and end of the study. Multilevel models tested the between- and within-person relationships among pain, optimism, and pain interference or goal-directed activity. Linear regression predicted change in optimism over 2 years from pain interference and goal-directed activity.

Results: Pain best predicted pain interference and optimism best predicted goal-directed activity. There were subtle interactions between optimism and pain-predicting interference and goal-directed activity. Accumulated goal-directed activity and pain interference across the study predicted longitudinal changes in optimism, with higher activity and lower pain interference predicting increased optimism over 2 years.

Conclusions: Optimism may play a protective role in disruptions caused by pain on a day-to-day basis, leading to increased goal-directed activity and possibly decreased pain interference. In turn, less interference and more goal-directed activity feed forward into increased optimism, resulting in a virtuous cycle that enhances optimism and well-being among older women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/abm/kaz040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7309584PMC
February 2020

Statistical Guideline #3: Designate and Justify Covariates A Priori, and Report Results With and Without Covariates.

Int J Behav Med 2019 Dec;26(6):577-579

Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, 125 Kastle Hall, Lexington, KY, 40506-0044, USA.

From the Editors: This is one in a series of statistical guidelines designed to highlight common statistical considerations in behavioral medicine research. The goal was to briefly discuss appropriate ways to analyze and present data in the International Journal of Behavioral Medicine (IJBM). Collectively, the series will culminate in a set of basic statistical guidelines to be adopted by IJBM and integrated into the journal's official Instructions for Authors and also to serve as an independent resource. If you have ideas for a future topic, please email the Statistical Editor, Suzanne Segerstrom at [email protected]
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12529-019-09811-5DOI Listing
December 2019

Statistical Guideline #2: Report Appropriate Reliability for your Sample, Measure, and Design.

Int J Behav Med 2019 Oct;26(5):455-456

Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, 125 Kastle Hall, Lexington, KY, 40506-0044, USA.

From the Editors: This is the second column from the Statistics Guru. The Statistics Guru will appear in every issue. In these columns, we briefly discuss appropriate ways to analyze and present data in the journal. As such, the Statistics Guru can be seen both as an editorial amuse bouche and a set of guidelines for reporting data in the International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. If you have ideas for a column, please email the Statistical Editor, Suzanne Segerstrom at [email protected]
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12529-019-09803-5DOI Listing
October 2019

Longitudinal Associations Among Older Adults' Neurocognitive Performance, Psychological Distress, and Self-Reported Cognitive Function.

Psychol Neurosci 2019 Jun 1;12(2):224-235. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

University of Kentucky.

Subjective cognitive complaints increase with age. Although subjective cognitive difficulties have been linked to cognitive impairment and psychological distress, some studies have failed to establish a link between subjective cognitive complaints and present or future cognitive impairment. The present study examined the interactive, longitudinal effects of age, psychological distress, and objective cognitive performance on subjective cognitive function. Older adults (=147, = 74.17) were assessed biannually for up to six years. Subjective cognitive function, psychological distress, and neuropsychological testing were obtained at each assessment. In multilevel models with single predictors, age, poorer average task-switching and poorer memory predicted worse subjective cognitive functioning. Both average levels and within-person deviations in distress predicted worse subjective cognitive function. There were two significant interactions: one between average distress and chronological age, and the other between average memory and within-person distress. Task switching performance and distress had an additive effect on subjective cognitive function. Both individual differences (i.e., between-person differences) and fluctuations over time (i.e., within-person changes) contributed to worse subjective cognitive function. Psychological distress may help explain the relationship between objective cognitive performance and subjective cognitive function and should be assessed when patient concerns about cognitive functioning arise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pne0000155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6548514PMC
June 2019

Statistical Guideline #1. Avoid Creating Categorical Variables from Continuous Variables.

Int J Behav Med 2019 08;26(4):329-330

Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, 125 Kastle Hall, Lexington, KY, 40506-0044, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12529-019-09790-7DOI Listing
August 2019

Self-regulatory ability, fatigue, and the experience of pain: Mechanistic insights from pain-free undergraduates.

Psychophysiology 2019 09 3;56(9):e13388. Epub 2019 May 3.

Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.

Self-regulatory (SR) ability is an important resource for managing pain, but chronic pain patients experience chronic self-regulatory fatigue even when they are not in pain. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) and pain inhibition are two mechanisms that differentiate people with and without chronic pain. It was hypothesized that trait SR ability would be associated with higher PPT and better pain inhibition and that PPT and pain inhibition would be lower following high versus low SR fatigue. Three studies tested these hypotheses. Study 1 had 240 pain-free undergraduates complete measures of trait SR ability and PPT; 122 also provided data on pain inhibition. Study 2 had 38 of Study 1's participants return for two additional sessions in which they underwent PPT testing under conditions of high or low SR fatigue (within-person, counterbalanced). Study 3 repeated these procedures with pain inhibition as the outcome (n = 39). Results revealed that individual differences in SR ability were not associated with PPT or pain inhibition (all ps > 0.05). Within people, neither PPT (F(1, 36) = 1.57, p = 0.22) nor pain inhibition (F(1, 37) = 1.79, p = 0.19) were significantly different under conditions of low versus high SR fatigue. Results do not support the hypotheses that PPT or pain inhibition associate with individual differences in trait SR ability or transient changes in state SR fatigue in the absence of pain. Instead, the SR deficits in chronic pain patients may arise from the experience of chronic pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyp.13388DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6699908PMC
September 2019

Between the Error Bars: How Modern Theory, Design, and Methodology Enrich the Personality-Health Tradition.

Psychosom Med 2019 06;81(5):408-414

From the Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington.

The study of relationships between personality traits and health has a long history in psychosomatic research. However, personality science has evolved from an understanding of personality as fixed traits to one that acknowledges that personality is dynamic. Dynamic approaches to conceptualizing and measuring personality and individual differences can enrich personality-health research. In this Presidential Address (American Psychosomatic Society, 2018), I consider how different formulations of personality-stable traits, stable signals in a noisy or variable measure, within-person changes, and intraindividual variability-can be implemented to better understand how personality is related to health and particularly to immune function. These approaches recognize and, in some cases, capitalize on the fact that personality factors can display variability as well as stability over time. They also require repeated measurement and therefore greater methodological sophistication that considers reliability and generalizability, Simpson's paradox, and the difference between variability and flexibility. Dynamic qualities of personality and individual differences potentially influence health, and designs and methodology that incorporate them can illuminate the important processes that occur inside the error bars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000701DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6544503PMC
June 2019

Socioemotional selectivity and psychological health in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and caregivers: a longitudinal, dyadic analysis.

Psychol Health 2019 10 23;34(10):1179-1195. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

Department of Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of Kentucky , Lexington , KY , USA.

: Socioemotional selectivity theory predicts that as the end of life approaches, goals and resources that provide immediate, hedonic reward become more important than those that provide delayed rewards. This study tested whether these goal domains differentially affected psychological health in the context of marital dyads in which one partner had been diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a life-limiting disease. : ALS patients ( = 102) being treated in three multidisciplinary clinics and their spouses ( = 100) reported their loneliness, financial worry and psychological health every 3 months for up to 18 months. : Psychological health composite. : In multilevel dyadic models, patients and spouses had similar levels of financial worry and loneliness. Both patients and spouses had worse psychological health with higher loneliness, but only spouses had worse psychological health with higher financial worry. Significant interactions with age and disease severity indicated that older spouses were more affected by loneliness than were younger spouses, and patients with less severe disease were more affected by financial worry than patients with more severe disease. : The results provide good support for socioemotional selectivity theory's implications for psychological health in a strong test of the theory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2019.1587441DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7138517PMC
October 2019

Perceived stress, cytomegalovirus titers, and late-differentiated T and NK cells: Between-, within-person associations in a longitudinal study of older adults.

Brain Behav Immun 2019 08 15;80:266-274. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Psychology, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, United States.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and psychological stress are implicated as drivers of immunological aging. It is unknown, however, whether associations among CMV titers, stress, and immune aging are more stable or dynamic over time. The present investigation tested the between-person (stable differences) and within-person (dynamic fluctuations) associations of CMV titers and perceived stress on late-differentiated T and natural killer (NK) peripheral blood cells in a longitudinal study of older adults aged 64-92 years (N = 149). Participants reported stress levels and provided blood biannually for 2.5 years (up to 5 waves per person) to assess CMV IgG titers and composites of late-differentiated CD8 T cells (CD28- and CD57 + subsets) and CD56 NK cells (CD57+, NKG2C+, and FcεRIγ- subsets). In multilevel models that controlled for demographic variables, higher CMV titers were associated with higher proportions and counts of aged T and NK cells between people and lower counts of aged T cells within people. Perceived stress was associated with higher counts of aged T cells between people, but was not associated with aged NK cells. A significant interaction between stress and CMV titers on T cells between people indicated that older adults with lower stress levels and lower CMV titers had the lowest proportions of late-differentiated T cells, whereas those with higher stress levels had high proportions, regardless of CMV control. Our results provide evidence for longer-term, between-person associations among CMV titers, stress, and immunological aging, rather than dynamic within-person associations. We propose that targeting factors that promote low, stable perceived stress in older adults may retard T cell differentiation and ultimately support healthy aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2019.03.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6660394PMC
August 2019

A longitudinal study of the stability, variability, and interdependencies among late-differentiated T and NK cell subsets in older adults.

Exp Gerontol 2019 07 15;121:46-54. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Psychology, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, United States of America. Electronic address:

The stability and variability of older adults' late-differentiated peripheral blood T and natural killer (NK) cells over time remains incompletely quantified or understood. We examined the variability and change over time in T and NK cell subsets in a longitudinal sample of older adults; the effects of sex, cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus, and chronic disease severity on immune levels and trajectories; and interdependencies among T and NK cell subsets. Older adults (N = 149, age 64-94 years, 42% male) provided blood every 6 months for 2.5 years (up to 5 waves) to evaluate late-differentiated CD8 T cells (CD28-, CD57+) and CD56NK cells (CD57+, NKG2C+, FcɛRIγ-). In multilevel models, most of the variance in immune subsets reflected stable differences between people. However, CD56NK cell subsets (CD57+ and FcɛRIγ-) also increased with age, whereas T cell subsets did not. Independent of age, all subsets examined were higher in CMV-positive older adults. Men had higher levels of CD56 CD57+ than women. Chronic disease was not associated with any immune subset investigated. T and NK cell subsets correlated within each cell type, but interdependencies differed by CMV serostatus. Our results suggest the accumulation of these stable cell populations may be driven less by chronological aging, even less by chronic disease severity, and more by CMV, which may differentially skew T and NK cell differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2019.03.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6482456PMC
July 2019

What's the meaning of this? Childhood socioeconomic status, inflammation, and meta-analysis.

Brain Behav Immun 2019 07 13;79:12-13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, United States. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2019.03.013DOI Listing
July 2019

Associations of Pain Intensity and Frequency With Loneliness, Hostility, and Social Functioning: Cross-Sectional, Longitudinal, and Within-Person Relationships.

Int J Behav Med 2019 Apr;26(2):217-229

Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

Background: The current studies investigated associations between pain intensity and pain frequency with loneliness, hostility, and social functioning using cross-sectional, longitudinal, and within-person data from community-dwelling adults with varying levels of pain.

Method: Secondary analysis of preexisting data was conducted. Study 1 investigated cross-sectional (baseline data: n = 741) and longitudinal (follow-up data: n = 549, observed range between baseline and follow-up: 6-53 months) associations. Study 2 tested within-person associations using daily diaries across 30 days from a subset of the participants in Study 1 (n = 69).

Results: Cross-sectionally, pain intensity and frequency were associated with higher loneliness (β = 0.16, β = 0.17) and worse social functioning (β = - 0.40, β = - 0.34). Intensity was also associated with higher hostility (β = 0.11). Longitudinally, pain intensity at baseline predicted hostility (β = 0.19) and social functioning (β = - 0.20) at follow-up, whereas pain frequency only predicted social functioning (β = - 0.21). Within people, participants reported higher hostility (γ = 0.002) and worse social functioning (γ = - 0.013) on days with higher pain, and a significant average pain by daily pain interaction was found for loneliness. Pain intensity did not predict social well-being variables on the following day.

Conclusion: Pain intensity and frequency were associated with social well-being, although the effects were dependent on the social well-being outcome and the time course being examined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12529-019-09776-5DOI Listing
April 2019

Maintenance of affective wellbeing following acute pain in healthy older and younger adults.

J Behav Med 2019 Oct 21;42(5):934-946. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, 111-B Kastle Hall, 171 Funkhouser Dr., Lexington, KY, 40506, USA.

Over 70% of older adults report chronic or acute pain, and pain threatens affective wellbeing. The strategies older adults use to maintain affective wellbeing following acute pain remain unknown. Specific strategies that can be used to manage pain include recalling, recognizing, and responding to positive stimuli and prioritizing close over knowledgeable social partners. The study tested whether older adults used positivity-enhancing strategies and maintained affective wellbeing following acute pain better than younger adults. Fifty older (ages 65-85) and 50 younger (ages 18-30) pain-free adults experienced a control and a pain condition and were given the chance to employ positivity-enhancing strategies. Older and younger adults similarly used positivity-enhancing strategies following pain. Younger adults demonstrated reduced preference for knowledgeable social partners after experiencing pain. Pain-related affective changes were similar between age groups. Older and younger adults may cope with acute pain similarly, highlighting future directions for exploring age differences in pain coping.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10865-019-00019-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6703978PMC
October 2019
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